Glossary

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Al-Haram

The Holy City of Makkah.

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Al-Mashar

The Valley between Muzdalifa and Mina, where pilgrims should make a Du’a after they have slept in Muzdalifah while they are goingto Makkah to throw Jamrat al-Aqabah on the morning of the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah.

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Allahu Akbar

God is great.

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Arafah (Arafat)

The area that surrounds Mount Rahmah, Southeast of Makkah.

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Ashwat

Plural of Shawt - See Shawt.

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Asr

Afternoon. The Asr prayer is the prescribed prayer to be performed between afternoon and sunset.

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Black Stone

The stone in the Southeast corner of the Ka’bah from which Muslims begin the Tawaf.

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Circumambulating

To walk around (something), especially as part of a ritual. See also: Tawaf.

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Du’a

Supplication for Allah.

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Dhul-Hijjah

See Thul-Hijjah.

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Eidul Adha

One of 2 Islamic holidays. It represents the celebration of sacrifice.

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Fajr

Dawn. The Fajr prayer is the prescribed prayer to be performed between dawn and sunrise.

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Ghusul

Complete bathing.

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Ghurub

Sunset. Maghrib prayer is the prescribed sunset prayer.

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Hajar

Wife of prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) and mother of prophet Ismail.

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Hajj

The 5th pillar of Islam, to be performed at least once in a lifetime.

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Ifadah

Refers to the Tawaf that is done by a Muslim when she/he comes from Muzdalifah.

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Ihram

The state in which one starts Umrah or Hajj, and during which certain acts are prohibited. These acts are mainly: cutting hair, shaving any parts of the body, clipping nails, putting perfumes or colognes, killing or hunting animals, sexual intercourse, making marriage proposals, or marriage contracts.

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Isha

Isha. The Isha prayer is the prescribed prayer to be performed between once the night settles until dawn.

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Jam’ Prayers

Combining prayers. Under certain circumstances, Zuhur and Asr prayers can be combined, and Maghrib and Isha prayers can be combined. When this is done, the two prayers are offered at the same time, with one adhan and two separate Iqamahs, one for each prayer.

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Jamrah

The pillar at which the pilgrim throws pebbles. There are three Jamrahs pillars at which pilgrims throw pebbles. Jamrah al-Aqabah The closest stone pillar to Makkah, also known as al-Jamrah al-Kubrah.

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Ka’bah

The square stone building in al-Haraam mosque in Makkah and towards which all Muslim face in every prayer.

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Labbaika

A call meaning "Here I Come". It is the Muslim's expression of answering the invitation of God to perform pilgrimage.

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Madinah

The city which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) migrated, about 450 km northeast of Makkah.

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Maghrib

Sunset. The Maghrib prayer is the prescribed prayer to be performed between sunset and the time when all day light is gone.

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Makkah

The holiest city for Muslims, located in Western Saudi Arabia.

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Maqam Ibrahim

Abraham’s station, a small glass station 30 meters from the Ka’bah door. It is the place where prophet Abraham used to stand when he was building the Ka’bah.

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Marwah

The hill on which a pilgrim ends his/her Sa’ee. It is about 250 meters Northeast of the Ka’bah.

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Mina

An area close to Makkah on the road to Arafah.

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Miqat

The place where Muslims declare their intention to make Hajj or Umrah and begin the state of Ihram. The Miqat boundary is anchored by different townships and locations in different directions around the Kaabah. They are 1-Thul-Halaifa in the North, 2-Yalamlam in the South-East, 3-That ' Irq in the North-East, 4-al- Juhfah in the North-West, 5-Qarn al-Manazil in the East.

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Muzdalifah

The place between Arafah and Mina where pilgrims stay the night on the 10th of Thul-Hijjah.

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Nafl

A Nafl (supererogatory) act is an act of worship done because it has been suggested to us by the Prophet and practiced by him on at least one or two occasions. It earns a reward for the person performing it and its omission does not incur any punishment.

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Niyyah

Intention. When a person is performing pilgrimage, he/she has to set the intention.

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Odhiya

See Udhia

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Pilgrimage

The English word for Hajj. One of the 5 pillars of Islam.

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Qiran

The type of Hajj where a pilgrim makes Umrah in the same state of Ihram.

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Rak’ah

A position in the prayer where the Muslim leans forward and puts his/her hands on the knees.

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Safa

The hill on which a pilgrim begins his/her Sa’ee (walking). It is about 200 m Southeast of the Ka’bah.

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Sa’ee

The act of walking between the two hills – Safa and Marwah.

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Shawt

Each complete round (circuit) around the Ka’bah constitutes a Shawt. Plural of Shawt is Ashwat. The pilgrim performs 7 Ashwat in a Tawaf.

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Takbeer

Saying Allahu Akbar.

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Talbiyah

The response to Allah’s call for Hajj.

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Tamattu

The type of Hajj where a pilgrim starts with Umrah then makes Hajj later on but in the same year.

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Tarwiyah

The 8th day of Thul-Hijjah.

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Tashreeq

The 11th, 12th, and 13th days of Thul-Hijjah.

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Tawaf

Circumambulating the Ka’bah. There are many types of Tawaf, such as Tawaf al-Qudum (upon arriving to Makkah), Tawaf al-Ifadah (when coming to Makkah from Mina after the day of Arafah), and Tawaf al-Wada' (Farewell Tawaf) before departing from Makkah.

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Thul-Hijjah

The twelfth month of the lunar year.

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Udhia

It is the animal sacrifice that a Muslim offers to God.

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Umrah

An Islamic ritual that is performed at Makkah anytime of the year. It includes Tawaf 7 times between the hills of Safa and Marwah. It also requires some obligations from the pilgrim until the state of Ihram is ended.

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Vudu

See Wudu'.

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Wadah

Tawaf al-Wadah is the last (farewell) circuit around the Ka’bah.

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Wudu'

The act of performing ablution.

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Yawm

Literally means Day. There are many meaningful days in the Hajj proceedings such as Yawm at-Tarwiyah (first day of Hajj), Yawm Arafah (day of standing on Arafah), etc.

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ZamZam

The name of a well of water that sprang up beneath Prophet Ismail when he was an infant. It is about 150 m Southeast of the Ka’abah.

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Zuhur

Noon. The Zuhur prayer is the prescribed prayer to be performed between mid-day and afternoon.

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