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The Public Dhikr (Hadra)

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Topic: The Public Dhikr (Hadra)
Posted By: rami
Subject: The Public Dhikr (Hadra)
Date Posted: 26 May 2005 at 3:08am
Bi ismillahir rahamnir raheem
asaalamu alaikum.


The Public Dhikr (Hadra)


Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1996.

A person coming to the Middle East to learn something about the tariqa is likely, at some point in his visit, to see the brethren in the hadra or public dhikr as it has been traditionally practiced by generations of Shadhilis in North Africa under such sheikhs as al-Arabi al-Darqawi, Muhammad al-Buzidi, and Ahmad al-Alawi before being brought to Damascus from Algeria by Muhammad ibn Yallis and Muhammad al-Hashimi at the beginning of this century.
Upon entering the mosque, one will see circles of men making dhikr (women participants are screened from view upstairs) standing and holding hands, now slightly bowing in unison, now moving up and down with their knees in unison, the rows rising and falling, breathing in unison, while certain of them alternate at pacing around their midst, conducting the tempo of the groups motion and breathing with their arms and step. Singers near the sheikh, in solo or chorus, deliver mystical odes to the rhythm of the group; high, spiritual poetry from masters like Ibn al-Farid, Sheikh Ahmad al-Alawi, Abd al-Qadir al-Himsi, and our own sheikh.
Though a very stirring experience, it is meticulously timed and controlled, and as with all group dhikrs, the main adab or proper behaviour is harmony. No one should stand out in any way, but rather all subordinate their movement, breathing, and dhikr to that of the group. The purpose is to forget ones individuality in the collective sea of spirits making dhikr in unison. Individual motives, thoughts, and preoccupations are momentarily put aside by means of the Sacred Dance, of moving together as one, sublimating and transcending the limitary and personal through the timelessness of rhythm, conjoined with the melody of voices singing spiritual meanings.
It is an experience that joins those travelling towards Allah spiritually, socially, and emotionally. Few forget it, and visitors from the West to whom it is unfamiliar sometimes wonder if it is a bida or reprehensible innovation, as it was not done in the time of the earliest Muslims, or whether it is unlawful (haram) or offensive (makruh); and why they see the ulama and righteous attending it in Damascus, Jerusalem, Aden, Cairo, Tripoli, Tunis, Fez, and wherever there are people of the path.
I was one of those who asked our sheikh about the relation of the hadra to the sharia or Sacred Law which is the guiding light of our tariqa. As Muslims, our submission to the law is total, and there are no thoughts or opinions after legally answering the question Does the hadra agree with orthodox Islam?
Because it comprises a number of various elements, such as gathering together for the remembrance of Allah (dhikr), singing, and dancing, we should reflect for a moment on some general considerations about the Islamic sharia before discussing each of these separately.
First, the Islamic sharia furnishes a comprehensive criterion for all possible human actions, whether done before or never done before. It classifies actions into five categories, the obligatory (wajib), whose performance is rewarded by Allah in the next life and whose nonperformance is punished; the recommended (mandub), whose performance is rewarded but whose nonperformance is not punished; the permissible (mubah), whose performance is not rewarded and whose nonperformance is not punished; the offensive (makruh), whose nonperformance is rewarded but whose performance is not punished; and the unlawful (haram), whose nonperformance is rewarded and whose performance is punished.
Now, Allah in His wisdom has made the vast majority of human actions permissible. He says in surat al-Baqara, It is He who has created everything on earth for you (Koran 2:29), which establishes the sharia principle that all things are mubah or permissible for us until Allah indicates to us that they are otherwise. Because of this, the fact that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not do this or that particular practice does not prove that it is offensive or unlawful, but only that it is not obligatory.
This is the reason that when sharia scholars speak of bida, they do not merely mean an innovation or something that was never done before, which is the lexical sense of the word, but rather a blameworthy innovation or something new that no legal evidence in Sacred Law attests to the validity of, which is the sharia sense of the word. The latter is the bida of misguidance mentioned in the hadith The worst of matters are those that are new, and every innovation (bida) is misguidance (Sahih Muslim. 5 vols. Cairo 1376/1956. Reprint. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1403/1983, 2.592: 867), which, although general in wording, scholars say refers specifically to new matters that entail something offensive or unlawful. Imam Shafii explains:
New matters are of two kinds: something newly begun that contravenes the Koran, sunna, the position of early Muslims, or consensus of scholars (ijma): this innovation is misguidance. And something newly inaugurated of the good in which there is no contravention of any of these, and is therefore something which although new (muhdatha), is not blameworthy. For when Umar (Allah be well pleased with him) saw the [tarawih] prayer being performed [in a group by Muslims at the mosque] in Ramadan, he said, What a good innovation (bida) this is, meaning something newly begun that had not been done before. And although in fact it had, this does not negate the legal considerations just advanced [n: i.e. that it furnishes an example of something that Umar, who was a scholar of the Sahaba, praised as a good innovation despite his belief that it had not been done before, because it did not contravene the broad principles of the Koran or sunna] (Dhahabi: Siyar alam al-nubala. 23 vols. Beirut: Muassassa al-Risala, 1401/1981, 10.70).
As for the practice of Muslims gathering together for group dhikr or the invocation of Allah, there is much evidence of its praiseworthiness in the sunna-aside from the many Koranic verses and the hadiths establishing the general merit of dhikr in every state-such as the hadith related by Bukhari:
Truly, Allah has angels going about the ways, looking for people of dhikr, and when they find a group of men invoking Allah, they call to one another, Come to what you have been looking for! and they circle around them with their wings up to the sky of this world.
Then their Lord asks them, though He knows better than they, What do My servants say? And they reply, They say, Subhan Allah (I glorify Allahs absolute perfection), Allahu Akbar (Allah is ever greatest), and al-Hamdu li Llah (All praise be to Allah), and they extoll Your glory.
He says, Have they seen Me? And they answer, No, by Allah, they have not seen You. And He says, How would it be, had they seen Me? And they say, If they had seen You, they would have worshipped You even more, glorified You more, and said Subhan Allah the more.
He asks them, What do they ask of Me? And one answers, They ask You paradise. He says, Have they seen it? And they say, No, by Allah, My Lord, they have not seen it. And He says, How would it be, had they seen it? And they say, If they had seen it, they would have been more avid for it, sought it more, and been more desirous of it.
Then He asks them, From what do they seek refuge? And they answer, From hell. He says, Have they seen it? And they say, No, by Allah, they have not seen it. And He says, How would it be, had they seen it? And they say, If they had seen it, they would have fled from it even more, and been more fearful of it.
He says, I charge all of you to bear witness that I have forgiven them. Then one of the angels says, So-and-so is among them, though he is not one of them but only came for something he needed. And Allah says, They are companions through whom no one who keeps their company shall meet perdition (Sahih al-Bukhari. 9 vols. Cairo 1313/1895. Reprint (9 vols. in 3). Beirut: Dar al-Jil, n.d., 8.107-8: 6408).
The last line of the hadith shows the highest approval for gatherings of dhikr in the religion of Allah. Some other accounts transmit the condemnation of Ibn Masud (Allah be well please with him) for gathering together to say Subhan Allah (perhaps out of fear of ostentation), but even if we were to grant their authenticity, the above hadith of Bukhari, containing the explicit approval of such gatherings by Allah and His messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) suffices us from needing the permission of Ibn Masud or any other human being. Further, the explicit mention of the various forms of dhikr in the hadith suffice in reply to certain contemporary re-formers of Islam, who attempt to reduce sessions of dhikr to educational gatherings alone by quoting the words of Ata' (ibn Abi Rabah, Mufti of Mecca, d. 114/732), who reportedly said,
Sessions of dhikr are the sessions of [teaching people] the lawful and unlawful, how you buy, sell, pray, fast, wed, divorce, make the pilgrimage, and the like (Nawawi: al-Majmu: Sharh al-Muhadhdhab. 20 vols. Cairo n.d. Reprint. Medina: al-Maktaba al-Salafiyya, n.d., 1.21).
Perhaps Ata' intended to inform people that teaching and learning sharia are also a form of dhikr, but in any case it is clear from the Prophets explicit words (Allah bless him and give him peace) in the above hadith that sessions of dhikr cannot be limited to teaching and learning Sacred Law alone, but primarily mean gatherings of Muslims to invoke Allah in dhikr.
As for dancing, Imam Ahmad relates from Anas (Allah be well pleased with him), with a chain of transmission all of whose narrators are those of Bukhari except Hammad ibn Salama, who is one of the narrators of Muslim, that
the Ethiopians danced in front of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace); dancing and saying [in their language], Muhammad is a righteous servant. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, What are they saying? And they said, Muhammad is a righteous servant (Musnad al-Imam Ahmad. 6 vols. Cairo 1313/1895. Reprint. Beirut: Dar Sadir, n.d.., 3.152).
Other versions of the hadith clarify that this took place in the mosque in Medina, though in any case, the fact that dancing was done before the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) establishes that it is mubah or permissible in the sharia, for if it had been otherwise, he would have been obliged to condemn it. For this reason, Imam Nawawi says:
Dancing is not unlawful, unless it is languid, like the movements of the effeminate. And it is permissible to speak and to sing poetry, unless it satirizes someone, is obscene, or alludes to a particular woman (Minhaj al-talibin wa umdat al-muttaqin. Cairo 1338/1920. Reprint. Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, n.d., 152).
This is a legal text for the permissibility of both dancing and singing poetry from the Minhaj al-talibin, the central legal work of the entire late Shafii school. Islamic scholars point out that if something which is permissible, such as singing poetry or dancing, is conjoined with something that is recommended, such as dhikr or gatherings to make dhikr, the result of this conjoining will not be offensive (makruh) or unlawful (haram). Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti was asked for a fatwa or formal legal opinion concerning a group of Sufis who had gathered for a session of dhikr, and he replied:
How can one condemn making dhikr while standing, or standing while making dhikr, when Allah Most High says, . . . those who invoke Allah standing, sitting, and upon their sides (Koran 3:191). And A'isha (Allah be well pleased with her) said, The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to invoke Allah at all of his times [Sahih Muslim, 1.282: 373]. And if dancing is added to this standing, it may not be condemned, as it is of the joy of spiritual vision and ecstasy, and the hadith exists [in many sources, such as Musnad al-Imam Ahmad, 1.108, with a sound (hasan) chain of transmission] that Jafar ibn Abi Talib danced in front of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) when the Prophet told him, You resemble me in looks and in character, dancing from the happiness he felt from being thus addressed, and the Prophet did not condemn him for doing so, this being a basis for the legal acceptability of the Sufis dancing from the joys of the ecstasies they experience (al-Hawi li al-fatawi. 2 vols. Cairo 1352/1933-34. Reprint. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, 1403/1983, 2.234).
Now, Suyuti was a hadith master (hafiz, someone with over 100,000 hadiths by memory) and a recognized mujtahid Imam who authored hundreds of works in the sharia sciences, and his formal opinion, together with the previously cited ruling of Imam Nawawi in the Minhaj al-talibin, constitutes an authoritative legal text (nass) in the Shafii school establishing that circles of dhikr which comprise the singing of spiritual poetry and dancing are neither offensive (makruh) nor unlawful (haram)-unless associated with other unlawful factors such as listening to musical instruments or the mixing of men and women-but rather are permissible.
To summarize, the hadra of our tariqa, consisting of circles of invocation of Allah (dhikr) conjoined with the singing of permissible poetry and dancing, is compatible with the Sacred Law of orthodox Islam; and when the latter elements facilitate presence of heart with Allah (as they do with most people who possess hearts), they deserve a reward from Allah by those who intend them as such. And this is the aim and importance of the hadra in the tariqa.

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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.



Replies:
Posted By: abuayisha
Date Posted: 27 May 2005 at 7:10am

Firstly, we should know what "bid'ah" means according to Islamic teaching

It is defined as: any invented way in religion that is aimed at worshipping or drawing closer to Allaah. This means anything that is not referred to specifically in Sharee'ah, and for which there is no evidence (daleel) in the Qur'aan or Sunnah, and which was not known at the time of the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his Companions. At the same time, it is quite obvious that this definition of religious inventions or innovations, which are condemned, does not include worldly inventions
[such as cars and washing machines, etc. - Translator].

If your confusion has to do with an apparent contradiction between the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah and the hadeeth narrated by Jareer ibn 'Abdullaah, then let us examine these two reports and find out what they mean:

Jareer ibn 'Abdullaah al-Bajali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Whoever starts a good thing and is followed by others, will have his own reward and a reward equal to that of those who follow him, without it detracting from their reward in any way. Whoever starts a bad thing and is followed by others, will bear the burden of his own sin and a burden equal to that of those who follow him, without it detracting from their burden in any way.'"
(Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2675. He said, This is a saheeh hasan hadeeth)

There is a story behind this hadeeth, which will explain what "whoever starts a good thing" means. Imaam Muslim reported this story from Jareer ibn 'Abdullaah, who also narrated the hadeeth itself. He said: "Some people from the Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), wearing woollen garments. He saw that they were in bad shape and in desperate need, so he urged the people to give them charity. They people were very slow to respond, and it could be seen in his face (that he was upset). Then a man of the Ansaar brought a package of silver, then another came, and another and another, and his face was filled with joy. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Whoever starts a good thing in Islam, and others do likewise after him, there will be written for him a reward like that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their reward. Whoever starts a bad thing in Islam, and others do likewise after him, there will be written for him a burden of sin like that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their burden.'"
(Reported by Muslim, no. 1017)

Further explanation may be found in a report recorded by al-Nisaa'i, also from Jareer ibn 'Abdullah, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: "We were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) early one day, when some people who were almost naked (not dressed properly) and barefoot, with their swords by their sides, came to him. Most, if not all of them, were of (the tribe of) Mudar. The Messenger's face changed when he saw how poor they were (i.e., he became upset). He went into (his house), then he came out and ordered Bilaal to give the call to prayer. He led the people in prayer, then he addressed them, saying: 'O people, "be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his wife, and from them both he created many men and women, and fear Allaah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship)" [al-Nisaa' 4:1].

"Fear Allaah, and keep your duty to Him. And let every person look to what he has sent forth for the morrow" [al-Hashr 59:18].

Let a man give charity from his dinars, his dirhams, his clothing, his wheat or his dates - even if it is only half a date.' A man from the Ansaar brought a package which he could hardly carry in his hand, then another and another came, until there were two piles, of food and clothing, and I saw the face of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) beaming with joy. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Whoever starts a good thing in Islam will have his own reward and a reward equal to that of those who follow him, without it detracting in the least from their reward, and whoever starts a bad thing in Islam will have to bear the burden of his own sin and a burden equal to that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their burden. (Reported by al-Nisaa'i in al-Mujtaba: Kitaab al-Zakaat, Bab al-Tahreed 'ala al-Sadaqah).

From the context of the story, it is clear that what is meant by the words "whoever starts a good thing (sunnah hasanah) in Islam" means: Whoever revives a part of the Sunnah of the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or teaches it to others, or commands others to follow it, or acts according to it so that others see him or hear about it and follow his example. This is also indicated by the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: "A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he urged the people to give him charity. A man said: 'I have such-and-such,' and there was no person left in the gathering who did not give something in charity to him, whether it was a large amount or a little. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Whoever starts something good, and others follow his lead, will have a complete reward and a reward like that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their reward. Whoever starts something bad, and others follow his lead, will bear a complete burden of sin, and a burden like that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their burden.
(Reported by Ibn Maaajah in al-Sunan, no. 204)

It should be clear from the above, with no room for doubt, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not allowing innovation in matters of deen (religion), nor was he opening the door to what some people call "bid'ah hasanah," for the following reasons:

1.  The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated repeatedly that: "Every newly-invented thing is a bid'ah (innovation), every bid'ah is a going astray, and every going astray will be in the Fire." (Reported by al-Nisaa'i in al-Sunan, Salaat al-'Eedayn, Baab kayfa al-Khutbah). Reports with the same meaning were narrated via Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) by Ahmad, via al-'Irbaad ibn Saariyah by Abu Dawud and via Ibn Mas'ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) by Ibn Maajah.

The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say, when beginning a khutbah (sermon): " The best of speech is the Book of Allaah and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst of things are those which are newly-invented, and every innovation is a going astray"
(reported by Muslim, no. 867)

If every bid'ah is a going astray, how can some people then say that there is such a thing in Islam as "bid'ah hasanah"? By Allaah, this is an obvious contradiction of the statement and warning of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

2.  The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated that whoever innovates something new in the deen (religion) will have his deed rejected, and Allaah will not accept it, as is stated in the hadeeth narrated by 'Aa'ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), who said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours that is not a part of it will have it rejected.'" (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath al-Baari, no. 2697). How can anybody then say that bid'ah is acceptable and it is permitted to follow it?

3.  When a person innovates something and adds to the deen something that does not belong to it, he is implying a number of bad things, each worse than the last, for example:

     That the religion is lacking, that Allaah did not complete and perfect it, and that there is room for improvement. This clearly contradicts the statement in the Qur'aan (interpretation of the meaning): " This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" [al-Maa'idah 5:3]

     That the religion remained imperfect from the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) until the time when this innovator came along and completed it with his own ideas.

     That the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was "guilty" of either of two things: either he was ignorant of this "good innovation," or he knew about it but concealed it, thus letting his ummah down by not conveying it.

     That the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), his Companions and the righteous salaf (early generations) missed out on the reward of this "good innovation" - until this innovator came along and earned it for himself, despite the fact that he should say to himself, "If it was truly good, they would have been the first to do it."

     Opening the door to bid'ah leads to changing the deen (religion) and opens the way for personal whims and opinions, because every innovator implies that what he is introducing is something good, so whose opinion are we supposed to follow, and which of them should we take as a leader?

     Following bid'ah leads to the cancelling out of sunnah practices and the ways of the salaf. Real life bears witness that whenever a bid'ah is followed, a sunnah practice dies out; the reverse is also true.

We ask Allaah to save us from the misguidance of personal whims and from all trials whether they are open or secret. And Allaah knows best.

 

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid (www.islam-qa.com)

 

 



Posted By: Suleyman
Date Posted: 27 May 2005 at 11:16am
Amin!,brother Abuaisha;Jazak Allah Khair...

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Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 28 May 2005 at 7:23am
Bi ismillahir rahmanir raheem

assalamu alaikum

Firstly, we should know what "bid'ah" means according to Islamic teaching


The defanition of Bidah you gave above is that of our salafi brothers not that held by traditional scholars.

The Sunni Definition of Bid`a
As Either Good or Bad

GF Haddad - Qasyoun/at/ziplip.com - Shawwl 1423

This article is in two parts:

I. Al-Shfi`'s definition of bid`a as either good or bad;
II. The division of bid`a into good and bad among Ahl al-Sunna and others.

I.
Al-Shfi`'s Definition of Bid`a
as Either Good or Bad

A major contribution of Imm al-Shfi` (ra) in the Foundations of Jurisprudence (us.l al-fiqh) is his division of innovation (al-bid`a) and innovated matters (al-muh.datht) into good and bad depending whether they conformed or not to the guidelines of the Religion. This is authentically narrated from al-Shfi` from two of his most prestigious students in the latter period of his life, the Egyptian h.adth Masters H.armala ibn Yah.y al-Tujayb and al-Rab` ibn Sulaymn al-Murd:

H.armala said, I heard al-Shfi` (ra) say:

He used as his proof the statement of `Umar ibn al-Khat.t.b (ra) about the [congregational] supererogatory night prayers in the month of Ramad.n: What a fine innovation this is![1] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-1">

Al-Rab` said, Al-Shfi` said to us:
'Innovated matters are of two kinds (al-muh.dathtu min al-umri d.arbn):
one is an innovation that contravenes (m uh.ditha yukhlifu) something in the Qur'n or the Sunna or a Companion-report (athar) or the Consensus (ijm`): that innovation is misguidance (fahdhihi al-bid`atu d.alla).
The other kind is the innovation of any and all good things (m uh.ditha min al-khayr) contravening none of the above, and this is a blameless innovation (wahdhihi muh.dathatun ghayru madhmma).
`Umar (ra) said, concerning the prayers of Ramad.n: What a fine bid`a this is! meaning that it was innovated without having existed before and, even so, there was nothing in it that contradicted the above.'[2] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-2">

Thus al-Shfi` set forth the essential, indispensable criterion for the determination of true bid`a, as defined, among others, by Imm al-Haytam, Qd. Ab Bakr Ibn al-`Arab, and Imm al-Lacknaw respectively:

Bid`a in terms of the Law is everything innovated in contravention of the Lawgiver's command and the latter's specific and general proof.[3] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-3">

Only the bid`a that contradicts the Sunna is blameworthy.[4] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-4">

Bid`a is all that did not exist in the first three centuries and for which there is no basis among the four sources of Islm i.e. Qur'n, Sunna, Ijm`, and Qiys.[5] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-5">

Consequently, it is not enough for something merely to be novel to be a bid`a; it must also contradict the Religion.

Similarly, debating with the people of innovations - when they make public their innovations or bring up their insinuations - to refute them and expose their fallacies: even if this is an innovation, nevertheless, it is a praiseworthy one because it consists in refuting what we just mentioned. The Prophet was asked about Divine foreordainment (al-qadar) and so were some of the Companions, and they replied with the answers that were narrated to us from them. At that time, they contented themselves with the words of the Prophet and, thereafter, with the reports to that effect. However, in our time, the innovators do not content themselves with such reports nor do they accept them. Therefore, it is necessary to refute their insinuations - when they make them public - with what they themselves consider proofs. And success is through Allh.[6] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-6">

This is a clear-cut defense of the necessity and Sunna character of kalm in the defense against innovators on the part of Imm al-Bayhaq. Something similar is reported from Ibn `Askir, Ibn al-S.alh., al-Nawaw, Ibn al-Subk, Ibn `bidn, and others of the great Imms.

II.
Division of Bid`a
into Good and Bad

among Ahl al-Sunna and Others

H.ujjat al-Islm al-Ghazzl said in his discussion of the adding of dots to the Qur'anic script:

The fact that this is innovated (muh.dath) forms no impediment to this. How many innovated matters are excellent! As it was said concerning the establishing of congregations in Tarwh. that it was among the innovations of `Umar (ra) and that it was an excellent innovation (bid`a h.asana). The blameworthy bid`a is only what opposes the ancient Sunna or might lead to changing it.[7] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-7">

The Qd. Ab Bakr Ibn al-`Arab said in his discussion of bid`a:

Know - May Allh grant you knowledge! - that innovated matters are two kinds (al-muh.dathtu d.arbn).
1.) An innovated matter that has no basis other than lust and arbitrary practice. Such is categorically invalid. And
2.) An innovated matter understood to correspond to something [established]. Such is the Sunna of the Caliphs and that of the eminent Imms. Innovated matters and innovations are not blameworthy merely for being called muh.dath and bid`a nor because of their meaning! Allh Most High has said, (Never comes there unto them a new (muh.dath) reminder from their Lord) (21:2) and `Umar (ra) said: What a fine bid`a this is! Rather, only the bid`a that contradicts the Sunna is blameworthy and only the innovated matters that invite to misguidance are blameworthy.[8] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-8">

Ibn H.azm al-Z.hir said:

Bid`a in the Religion is everything that did not come to us in the Qur'n nor from the Messenger of Allh , except that one is rewarded for some of it and those who do this are excused if they have good intentions. Of it is the rewardable and excellent (h.asan), namely, what is originally permitted (m kna as.luhu al-ibh.a) as was narrated from `Umar (ra): What a fine bid`a this is! Such refers to all good deeds which the texts stipulated in general terms of desirability even if its practice was not fixed in the text. And of it is the blameworthy for which there is no excuse such as what has proofs against its invalidity.[9] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-9">

Ibn al-Jawz speaks in similar terms in the beginning of his Talbs Ibls: Certain innovated matters (muh.datht) have taken place which do not oppose the Sacred Law nor contradict it, so they [the Salaf] saw no harm in practicing them, such as the convening of the people by `Umar (ra) for the night prayer in Ramad.n, after which he saw them and said: `What a fine bid`a this is!'

The lexicographer Ibn al-Athr said in his masterpiece, al-Nihya f Gharb al-H.dth wal-Athar:

Bid`a is two kinds: the bid`a of guidance and the bid`a of misguidance (bid`atu hud wa-bid`atu d.alla). Whatever contravenes the command of Allh and His Messenger : that is within the sphere of blame and condemnation. And whatever enters into the generality of what Allh or His Prophet commended or stressed: that is within the sphere of praise. Whatever has no precedent such as extreme generosity or goodness - such are among the praiseworthy acts. It is impermissible that such be deemed to contravene the Law because the Prophet has stipulated that such would carry reward when he said: Whoever institutes a good practice in Islm (man sanna fl-islmi sunnatan h.asana) has its reward and the reward of all those who practice it. And he said, conversely, whoever institutes a bad practice in Islm (waman sanna fl-islmi sunnatan sayyi'atan) bears its onus and the onus of all those who practice it. [10] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-10"> Such is when the act goes against what Allh and His Messenger commanded.... It is in this sense that the h.adth every innovation is misguidance[11] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-11"> is understood: he means, whatever contravenes the bases of the Law and does not concur with the Sunna.[12] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-12">

Shaykh al-Islm, Sult.n al-`Ulm' Imm al-`Izz Ibn `Abd al-Salm similarly said:

There are different types of innovations (bida`). The first type is whatever the Law indicated as praiseworthy or obligatory and the like of which was not done in the first period of Islm. The second type is whatever the Law indicated as forbidden or disliked, and which was not done in the first period of Islm. The third type is whatever the Law indicated as indifferently permitted and which was not done in the first period of Islm.[13] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-13">

Elsewhere he states that the categories of bid`a are five, identical to the jurists' classification of deeds: obligatory (wjib), forbidden (h.arm), recommended (mandb), disliked (makrh), and permitted (mubh.).[14] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-14">

Shaykh al-Islm, Imm al-Nawaw said:

Al-Bid`a in the Law is the innovating of what did not exist in the time of the Messenger of Allh and is divided into excellent and bad (wahya munqasimatun il h.asana wa qabh.a). The Shaykh, the Imm on whose foremost leadership, greatness, standing, and brilliance in all kinds of Islamic sciences there is consensus, Ab Muh.ammad `Abd al-`Azz ibn `Abd al-Salm - Allh have mercy on him and be well-pleased with him! - said toward the end of his book, al-Qaw`id [al-Kubr]:

Innovation is divided into 'obligatory' (wjiba), 'forbidden's (muh.arrama), 'recommended's (mandba), 'offensive's (makrha), and 'indifferent's (mubh.a).
The way [to discriminate] in this is that the innovation be examined in the light of the regulations of the Law (qaw`id al-shar`a). If it falls under the regulations of obligatoriness (jb) then it is obligatory; under the regulations of prohibitiveness (tah.rm) then it is prohibited; recommendability, then recommended; offensiveness, then offensive; indifference, then indifferent.[15] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-15">

The H.fiz. Ibn H.ajar said:

The root meaning of innovation is what is produced without precedent. It is applied in the law in opposition to the Sunna and is therefore blameworthy. Strictly speaking, if it is part of what is classified as commendable by the law then it is a good innovation (h.asana), while if it is part of what is classified as blameworthy by the law then it is blameworthy (mustaqbah.a), otherwise it falls in the category of what is permitted indifferently (mubh.). It can be divided into the known five categories.[16] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-16">

Agreement formed in the Four Schools around the fivefold classification of bid`a as illustrated by the endorsement of the major later authorities in each School.

(1) Among the H.anafs: al-Kirmn, Ibn `bidn, al-Turkmn, al-`Ayn, and al-Tahnaw.[17] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-17">

(2) Among the Mliks: al-T.urt.sh, Ibn al-H.jj, al-Qarf, and al-Zurqn, while al-Sht.ib attempts a refutation and claims that the fivefold classification is an invented matter without proof in the Law![18] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-18">

(3) Consensus among the Shfi`s.[19] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-19">

(4) Reluctant acceptance among later H.anbals, who altered al-Shfi` and Ibn `Abd al-Salm's terminology to read lexical innovation (bid`a lughawiyya) and legal innovation (bid`a shar`iyya), respectively - although inaccurately - matching al-Shfi`'s approved and abominable.[20] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-20"> This manner of splitting hairs has become the shibboleth of Wahhbism in every micro-debate on bid`a although the correct way - as usual - is patently that of the Jumhr.

Shaykh Muh.ammad Bakht al-Mut.` concluded that The legal bid`a is the one that is misguidance and condemned; as for the bid`a that the Ulema divided into obligatory and forbidden and so forth, such is the lexical bid`a which is more inclusive than the legal because the legal is only part of it.[21] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-21">

Al-Shawkn concluded in Nayl al-Awt.r that the foundational division of innovations into good and bad is the soundest and most correct position.[22] http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#fn-22">

It is enough that a major Mujtahid Imm of the Salaf said so on the basis of the Qur'n and Sunna regardless of the argumentations of later centuries - whether from a would-be murajjih. like al-Shawkn or a would-be censor like al-Sht.ib - in light of the concurrence of the Jumhr around al-Shfi`'s explanation and the Divine and Prophetic injunctions to follow the path of the Believers and to stay with their greatest mass.
He is not an Imm in `Ilm who follows aberrant (shdhdh) positions (`Abd al-Rah.mn ibn Mahd).

And Allh knows best.

[1] Narrated from H.armala by Ab Nu`aym with his chain through Ab Bakr al-jurr in H.ilyat al-Awliy' (9:121 #13315=1985 ed. 9:113) and cited by Ab Shma in al-B`ith `al Inkr al-Bida` wal-H.awdith (Ryadh 1990 ed. p. 93), Ibn Rajab in Jmi` al-`Ulm wal-H.ikam (p. 267=Zuh.ayl ed. 2:52= Arna't. ed. 2:131 s.ah.h.), Ibn H.ajar in Fath. al-Br (1959 ed. 13:253), al-Turt.sh in al-H.awdith wa al-Bida` (p. 158-159), and al-Shawkn, al-Qawl al-Mufd f Adillat al-Ijtihd wa al-Taqld (1347/1929 ed. p. 36). `Umar's report is narrated by Mlik in al-Muwat.t.a' and al-Bukhr in his S.ah.h.. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#I.">

[2] Narrated from al-Rab` by al-Bayhaq in his Madkhal and Manqib al-Shfi` (1:469) with a sound chain as stated by Ibn Taymiyya in his Dr' Ta`rud. al-`Aql wa al-Naql (p. 171) and through al-Bayhaq by Ibn `Askir in Tabyn Kadhib al-Muftar (Kawthar ed. p. 97). Cited by al-Dhahab in the Siyar (8:408), Ibn Rajab in Jmi` al-`Ulm wal-H.ikam (p. 267=Zuh.ayl ed. 2:52-53=Arna't. ed. 2:131 s.ah.h.), and Ibn H.ajar in Fath. al-Br (1959 ed. 13:253). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-1">

[3] Al-Haytam, al-Tabyn f Sharh. al-Arba`n (p. 32). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-1">

[4] Ibn al-`Arab, `rid.at al-Ah.wadh (10:147). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-1">

[5] Cf. al-Lacknaw, Iqmat al-H.ujja (p. 12). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-2">

[6] Al-Bayhaq, Manqib al-Shfi` (1:469). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-2">

[7] Al-Ghazzl, Ih.y' `Ulm al-Dn (1:276). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#II.">

[8] Ibn al-`Arab, `rid.at al-Ah.wadh (10:146-147). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-3">

[9] Ibn H.azm, al-Ih.km f Us.l al-Ah.km (1:47). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-4">

[10] Narrated from Jarr ibn `Abd Allh al-Bajal by Muslim, al-Tirmidh, al-Nas', Ibn Mjah, Ah.mad, and al-Drim. Also narrated with a similar wording from Ab Hurayra by Ibn Mjah and Ah.mad; from Ab Juh.ayfa by Ibn Mjah; and from Hudhayfa by Ah.mad. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-5">

[11] Narrated from al-`Irbd. ibn Sriya by al-Tirmidh (h.asan s.ah.h.), Ab Dwd, Ibn Mjah, Ah.mad, al-Drim, Ibn H.ibbn (1:178-179 #5 s.ah.h.), al-H.kim (1:95-97=1990 ed. 1:174-177) - declaring it s.ah.h. while al-Dhahab confirmed it - and in al-Madkhal il al-S.ah.h. (p. 80-81), al-jurr in al-Shar`a (p. 54-55 #79-82=p. 46 s.ah.h.), Ibn Ab `s.im in al-Sunna (p. 29 #54 s.ah.h.), al-T.ah.w in Mushkil al-thr (2:69=3:221-224 #1185-1187 s.ah.h.), Muh.ammad ibn Nas.r al-Marwaz in al-Sunna (p. 26-27 #69-72 s.ah.h.), al-H.rith ibn Ab Usma in his Musnad (1:197-198), al-Ryn in his Musnad (1:439), Ab Nu`aym in H.ilyat al-Awliy' (1985 ed. 5:220-221, 10:115), al-T.abarn in Musnad al-Shmiyyn (1:254, 1:402, 1:446, 2:197, 2:298) and al-Kabr (18:245-257), al-Bayhaq in al-Sunan al-Kubr (10:114), al-Madkhal (p. 115-116), al-I`tiqd (p. 229), and Shu`ab al-mn (6:67), al-Baghaw who declared it h.asan in Sharh. al-Sunna (1:205 #102 isnd s.ah.h.), Ibn al-Athr in Jmi` al-Us.l (1:187, 1:279), Ibn `Askir in al-Arba`n al-Buldniyya (p. 121), Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhd (21:278-279) and Jmi` Bayn al-`Ilm (2:924 #1758) where he declared it s.ah.h., and others. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-5">

[12] Ibn al-Athr, al-Nihya (1:79 entry b-d-`). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-5">

[13] Ibn `Abd al-Salm, al-Fatw al-Maws.iliyya (p. 129). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-6">

[14] Ibn `Abd al-Salm, al-Qaw`id al-Kubr (2:337-339) cf. al-Nawaw in al-Adhkr (Thaqfiyya ed. p. 237) and Tahdhb al-Asma' wal-Lught (3:20-22), al-Sht.ib in al-I`tis.m (Beirut ed. 1:188), al-Kirmn in al-Kawkib al-Darr (9:54), Ibn H.ajar in Fath. al-Br (13:253-254), al-Suyt., introduction to H.usn al-Maqs.id in al-H.w lil-Fatw; al-Haytam, Fatw H.adthiyya (p. 150), Ibn `bidn, Radd al-Muh.tr (1:376) etc. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-6">

[15] Al-Nawaw, Tahdhb al-Asm' wal-Lught (3:20-22). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-7">

[16] Ibn Hajar, Fath. al-Br (1959 ed. 5:156-157=1989 ed. 4:318). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-8">

[17] Al-Kirmn, al-Kawkib al-Darr Sharh. S.ah.h. al-Bukhr (9:54), Ibn `bidn, H.shiya (1:376, 1:560); al-Turkmn, al-Luma` fl-H.awdith wal-Bida` (Stuttgart, 1986, 1:37); al-Tahnaw, Kashshf Ist.ilh.at al-Funn (Beirut, 1966, 1:133-135); al-`Ayn, `Umdat al-Qr in al-H.imyar, al-Bid`at al-H.asana (p. 152-153). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#ch-8">

[18] Al-T.urt.sh, Kitb al-H.awdith wa al-Bida` (p. 15, p. 158-159); Ibn al-H.ajj, Madkhal al-Shar` al-Sharf (Cairo, 1336/1918 2:115); al-Qarf, al-Furq (4:219) cf. al-Sht.ib, al-I`tis.m (1:188-191); al-Zurqn, Sharh. al-Muwat.t.a' (1:238). Al-Sht.ib's I`tis.m was recirculated by two Wahhbs: Rashd Rid. then Salm Hill. A third Wahhb, Muh.ammad `Abd al-Salm Khad.ir al-Shuqayr - Rid.'s student - authored al-Sunan wal-Mubtada`t al-Muta`alliqa bil-Adhkr wal-S.alawt which he filled with unverifiable tales which he proceeds to denounce with much ado. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-4">

[19] Ab Shma, al-B`ith `al Inkr al-Bida` wa al-H.awdith (Riyad: Dr al-Raya, 1990 p. 93, Cairo ed. p. 12-13) as well as those already mentioned. Note: consensus (ijm`) is more inclusive than agreement (ittifq), and binding. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-4">

[20] Ibn Rajab, al-Jmi` fl-`Ulm wal-H.ikam (2:50-53), and Ibn Taymiyya's section on bid`a in his Iqtid.' al-S.irt. al-Mustaqm Mukhlafat As.h.b al-Jah.m. This is also the position of Ibn Kathr: see his commentary of the verse: (The Originator of the heavens and the earth!) (2:117) in his Tafsr. He followed in this his teacher Ibn Taymiyya. http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-4">

[21] Bakht, Fatw H.adthiyya (p. 205). http://www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_e.html#up-4">

[22] Al-Shawkn, Nayl al-Awt.r (4:60).




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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.


Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 28 May 2005 at 7:43am
Bi ismillahir rahmanir raheem

What part of the Hadrah is Bidah, the Dhikr or that it is in a group, the singing or the Dancing?

http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00005368.aspx - Is the group dhikr with singing of spiritual poetry and rhythmic swaying-the hadra-permitted?   

http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/QA00002094.aspx - - An Analysis of the evidence supporting the permissibility of Majalis (gatherings) of Zikr in the Masajid

http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/QA00000783.aspx - Gatherings of Dhikr  

http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00003072.aspx - - What is the ruling regarding the Sufi hadra in the Shafi'i school?


The hadra is a form of group dhikr where the attendees most often stand in a circle. Depending on the particular Sufi order, it can contain elements such as singing, dancing, and music.

The ruling on an issue derives from its conceptualization.[1] Whatever has been decisively proven as impermissible is not permitted, and whatever has been decisively proven as permissible is permitted. If the hadra contains something impermissible, like the free-mixing of marriageable men and women in way that is conducive to temptation or unrestrained looking at the unlawful, then attending it is forbidden. Similarly, if [m: the hadra] includes the playing of musical instruments like the kubah (a drum that is wide at each end and narrow in the middle), mizmar ([m: a wood wind instrument similar to the flute]), lute (Ar. 'ud), and similar musical instruments, then attending it is forbidden. As for the duff ([m: a shallow drum, like a tambourine but without the metal jingles]) and drum that is wide at both ends and the middle, they are permissible in our school for men and women, during weddings and at other times. If the hadra is free from forbidden elements and combines the remembrance of Allah Most High, praising Him as He deserves, and lauding the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then all of this is fundamentally recommended in Islamic law according to the consensus of Muslims, as is clear. If movement is added to this, as some Sufis do, there is no harm in it, because dancing is permissible for men and women in our school as long it doesn't contain effeminate or licentious movements as wicked and shameless people do. Otherwise, [m: if it contains such prohibited movements], it is forbidden. Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, the last muharrir [2] imam of our school, was asked about Sufis dancing during their ecstasy and he upheld their practice. In part, he says, "it is permissible to stand and dance during gatherings of remembrance [m: of Allah] and audition according to a group of great scholars, among them being Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Abdussalam." (Fatawa Hadithiyya, p. 298)

Al-Jalal As-Suyuti, the imam and hadith master, was asked about the Sufi dance: is it permissible to repudiate those who do it? He replied that it was not permissible to repudiate them and that the one who repudiates is mistaken. He narrated this from a group of scholars (al-Hawi lil-Fatawi).

The upshot is that if one wishes to do this [m: (i.e., attend a hadra)] while observing the above-mentioned rules, it is not permissible to repudiate him because, at worst, this matter is differed upon. It is not permissible to repudiate one who does [m: an act that is differed upon], as Imam Al-Ghazali (Ihya), An-Nawawi (Sharh Sahih Muslim), Al-'Izz Ibn Abdussalam (Shajarah Al-Ahwal Wa Al-Ma'arif), other others point out [m: in the parenthesized texts].

Notes

[m: [1] The ruling on an issue derives from its conceptualization is a maxim of classical logic. It means that before one can pass judgment on an issue, one has to properly understand it.

[2] A muharrir imam is one who authoritatively identifies the strong and weak positions within the school. ]

Amjad Rasheed

Amman, Jordan

Sunnipath.com



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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.


Posted By: abuayisha
Date Posted: 28 May 2005 at 2:28pm

With regard to dhikr recited in unison, the Standing Committee was asked about duaa and dhikr recited in unison, and they answered: 

The basic principle concerning dhikr and acts of worship is that there is no room for adding or subtracting anything. Allaah should only be worshipped in the ways that He has prescribed; this applies whether it is something that can be done at any time or something that is limited to a specific time and how it is to be done and how many times it is to be done. With regard to dhikrs and duaas that Allaah has prescribed and all kinds of worship that are not limited with regard to time and numbers, location or a particular way in which they are to be done, it is not permissible for us to adhere to a particular way, time or number; rather we are to do these acts of worship without restrictions as it was prescribed.  

In matters where it isproven in the words or deeds of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that an action is to be done at a certain time or a certain number of times or in a certain place or in a certain manner, then we should worship Allaah in accordance with what has been prescribed. It has not been proven from the words or deeds or approval of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that he recited duaa in unison with others following the prayers, or after reading Quraan, or following each lesson, whether that took the form of the imaam reciting duaa and the congregation saying Ameen to his duaa, or whether they all recited duaa together in unison. That was not known at the time of the Rightly-Guided Khaleefahs or any of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). Whoever adheres to the practice of reciting duaa in unison following the prayers or after reading Quraan or after every lesson has innovated something and introduced into the religion something which is not a part of it. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected. And he said: Whoever does something that is not in accordance with this matter of ours (Islam) will have it rejected. 

If it were prescribed to adhere to a certain way of doing it, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his successors (khulafa) after him would have adhered to that. We have stated above that no such thing was proven from him or from his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them). All goodness is to be found in following the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the guidance of the Rightly-Guided Khulafa (may Allaah be pleased with them); all evil is to be found in going against their guidance and following the innovated matters against which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) warned us by saying, Beware of newly-innovated matters, for every innovation is misguidance. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and grant them peace. 

Fataawa Islamiyyah, 4/178


Islam Q&A (www.islam-qa.com)


Posted By: Suleyman
Date Posted: 28 May 2005 at 3:01pm

Es_Selam'un Aleykum ve Rahmetullahi ve Berakatuh,

Brother Rami,do you read ur posts before posting?...they seem like talking from the truth;but slipping the truth...it is called mustaqbir as an concept in the science of shariat...i know that you are an wised brother,you should know the differences,wa salaam...



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Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 3:09am
Bi ismillahir rahmanir raheem

assalamu alaikum

Brother with all respect you are welcome to follow the rulings of islam-qa.com but it does not represent the rullings of the Madhhabs but those of the salafi Ideology.

Whoever adheres to the practice of reciting duaa in unison following the prayers or after reading Quraan or after every lesson has innovated something and introduced into the religion something which is not a part of it. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected. And he said: Whoever does something that is not in accordance with this matter of ours (Islam) will have it rejected.


Firstly Dhikr is not Salat, what is said above in relation to bidah is only aplicable to salat since the actions of salat have been specificaly described and changing them or ading to them is certainly a reprihensable Bidah.

A basic rule of Usul al Fiqh is that "Everything is permisable unless sharia evidence exists otherwise", for Ibadah (salat) it is oposite.

What has been done today by modern shaykhs is to reverse this principle which has been a foundation for rullings by the entire Ummah. Simply becouse Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) did not practice something specificaly does not give a person permission to say this is halal and haram on behalf of the Prophet.

The idea that using that hadith to say Group Dhikr is Biddah is the interpretation of the shaykh. The Hadith of bidah is very general and does not mention anything specific, as soon as a person says it aplies to this or that matter he is interpreting it from himself.

Fataawa Islamiyyah is by Shaykhs Ibn Baz Al-Uthaymein, Al-Jibreen & The Fiqh Council, which are salafi scholars and institution. There rulings are only accepted by those who follow them.

The shaykhs and the institution are not recognised as an authority by any of the Madhhabs and there views and Ijtihad do not represent the views of the majority of this Ummah. The door to Ijtihad has been closed for the past few hundred years these matters have been clearly legislated upon and all the madhhabs aprove of the permisability of Group Dhikr.

as i said earlier br you are welcome to follow whom ever you like, prefering not to be involved in group dhikr is not blamworthy or reprehensible it is only a voluntary act.

Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates from Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) that there is a group of angels who patrol the earth and wherever they find any gathering of Zikr they call out to each other and form a circle around this gathering that reaches to the sky. When this gathering disperses, they return to the sky where they are questioned by Allah Taala, although He is All-knowing: Where have you come from? They reply: We come from a gathering of Your servants who are engaged in Tasbeeh, Takbeer and Tahmeed. Allah Taala asks them: Have they seen Me? The angels reply: No. Allah Taala asks: And what if they had seen Me? They reply: Then they would have engaged even more excessively in Your Ibadah and in Tasbeeh (glorifying of) You. Allah Taala says: What are they asking for? They reply: They ask of You Jannah. Allah Taala then asks: Have they seen Jannah? The angels reply: No. Allah Taala asks: And what if they had seen Jannah? They reply: Then they would have been even more desirous, eager and keen for it. Allah Taala says: What are they seeking refuge from? They reply: They ask refuge from the Fire (of Hell). Allah Taala asks: Have they seen the Fire? The angels reply: No. Allah Taala asks: And what if they had seen it? They reply: Then they would have tried harder to escape from it and they would have been more fearful of it. Allah Taala says: I make you witness that I have pardoned them. One angel exclaims: A certain person was not from them. He came (coincidentally) for some work. Allah Taala says: They are such a people that even those who sit with them (for other work) will not be deprived.

Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Baihaqi

Shaikh Zakariyyas (R) commentary on this Hadith:

This subject has also been narrated in numerous other traditions that the angels look for, listen to and sit with the gatherings of Zikr.

Muawiyah (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) once came forth to meet a group of the Sahabah (RA). He said: What has caused you to congregate here? They replied: We have congregated here to remember Allah Taala and to praise Him for guiding us to Islam and blessing us with it. He said: By Allah! Is this the only reason for your gathering? They replied: By Allah! This is the only reason for our gathering. He said: I had not made you swear an oath because I disbelieved you but Jibraeel came to me and informed me that Allah Taala is boasting about you before the angels.

- Narrated by Muslim, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn-Abi-Shaibah, Ahmad

Shaikh Zakariyyas (R) commentary:

Mulla Ali Qari (R) explains that Allah boasts about these people because despite having worldly engagements, natural desires, temptations and the shaitaan trying to mislead them, they do not neglect and turn away from My remembrance; then the Zikr of the angels who are faced with none of these obstacles is no comparison to their Zikr.

Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said that Allah Taala says: I treat my servant according to his opinion of Me and I am with him when he remembers Me; if he remembers Me privately, I remember him privately and if he remembers Me in public, I remember him in a gathering (of the angels which is) better than his gathering

- Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn-Majah, Ahmad

Imam Abu Daud records from Abu Hurairah (RA) that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said: Never do a people gather in a house of Allah (Masjid) to recite the Book of Allah (Quran) and to learn and teach each other but that peace of heart, special mercies and Angels envelop them and Allah Taala speaks of them before the angels.

Abu Hurairah and Hazrat Abu Saeed (RA) testify (upon oath) that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said:

Any group of people who engage in the Zikr of Allah, the angels envelop them and mercy cascades upon them, tranquillity descends upon them and Allah remembers them in the presence of those who are by Him.

- Narrated by Muslim, Tirmizi, Ibn-Abi-Shaibah

Anas (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said: When you pass the gardens of paradise then graze well. They asked: What are the gardens of paradise? He replied: The gatherings of Zikr

Abdur Rahman bin Sahl bin Haneef (RA) reports that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) was in one of his homes when the following verse of the Quran was revealed:

واصبر نفسك مع الذين يدعون ربهم بالغداة والعشي

"and attach yourself with those who call out to their Rabb morning and evening" 18:28

Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) came forth in search of the people mentioned in this verse. He found a group of engaged in the remembrance of Allah; among them were those with disheveled hair and parched skin and dressed only with a single garment. He came close to them and sat down among them exclaiming: All praise belongs to Allah for having made in my Ummah such people whom (even) I have been instructed to sit with.

- Narrated by Tabrani, Ibn-Jareer

Shaikh Zakariyyas (R) commentary:

In one Hadith it has been narrated that he searched for them and found them at the back of the Masjid, engaged in the remembrance of Allah. He stated similar words to the above Hadith and said: You (really) are my companions in life and after death. Shaikh Ibrahim Nakhai (R) says: الذين يدعون  refers to those who are engaged in Zikr.

The establishment of Masajid for the purpose of Allahs remembrance and obedience is evident; which includes actions such as Salaah, Tilawah, Azkaar, Waz, Dars, etc. Congregational Salaah is offered on fixed times, but the rest of the time, the Masjid is free for the performance of any Nafl Ibadah (voluntary acts). However, since the Masjid is a public place, it is regulated by certain etiquette in order to ensure that no person is disturbed by another in anyway. The Hadith clearly states that a true Muslim is one who does not cause inconvenience to the next Muslim by way of his tongue or hand.

The desirability of Zikr, whether individually or collectively has been established from the Ahadith. If the Majlis-Zikr is arranged in such a way so as not to cause inconvenience to those performing Iitikaaf or Salaah, there is no harm in it. This is documented by Maulana Khalil Ahmad (R) in his Fatawa-Khaliliyyah. In the annexture of Aadaabul-Masajid Maulana Thanwi (R) relates the famous view of Imam Sharani (R):

عن الامام الشعراني اجمع العلماء سلفا و خلفا علي استحباب ذكر الجماعة في المساجد و غيرها الا ان يشوش جهرهم علي نائم او مصل او قارئ

"It is reported on the authority of Imam Sharani (R): The Ulama, past and present are unanimous upon the Istihbaab (meritoriousness) of Zikr gatherings in Masjids and elsewhere, except if their loud Zikr disturbs the rest of a person, a Musalli or a Qari (Reciter of Quran)."

By Shaykh Abd al-Hafiz Makki, translated by Mufti Zubair Bhayat




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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.


Posted By: Suleyman
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 3:23am

Es_Selam'un Aleykum ve Rahmetullahi ve Berakatuh,

With my all full respects to both of u...i prefer to think on the priorities of islam...Tawhid...in the conditions of my country coming from the secular biases,acting the hadra is so wrong for the person's embraces who are so far away from Islam by the cause of the secular system made biases on their minds,long story,dirty game!...i prefer to talk and live the priorities of islam,i have no time to making hadra while my people is falling to the river going to hell by the cause of not seeing any kind of high issues(Tawhid) passing in the daily life...my country's problems are different...Allah knows the best...best regards to both of u...wa salaam....



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Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 3:45am
Bi ismillahir rahmanir raheem

assaslamu alaikum

With my all full respects to both of u...i prefer to think on the priorities of islam...Tawhid...in the conditions of my country coming from the secular biases,acting the hadra is so wrong for the person's embraces who are so far away from Islam by the cause of the secular system made biases on their minds,long story,dirty game!...i prefer to talk and live the priorities of islam,i have no time to making hadra while my people is falling to the river going to hell by the cause of not seeing any kind of high issues(Tawhid) passing in the daily life...my country's problems are different...Allah knows the best...best regards to both of u...wa salaam....


To me brother it seems that the issue for you is a matter of personel dislike rather than basing your idea that it is wrong on any evidence.

Many people pray who are far away from Islam does that make prayer wrong...no. what the people are like who do the hadra in you area is not the issue.

Unless you are implying that every person who has performned this dhikr is wrong which is wrong in itself to think that.


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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.


Posted By: Suleyman
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 3:50am

Aleyku Selam Brother Rami,

 Your statements are right from the scene can be seen...but what about the things we don't see behind the scenes...as i said it is an long issue that i have taken decisions for only reading inside the topics for the long topics...i feel tired,i am not old suleyman...i wish u will understand me...wa salaam...

 



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Posted By: abuayisha
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 6:44am

"Firstly Dhikr is not Salat, what is said above in relation to bidah is only aplicable to salat since the actions of salat have been specificaly described and changing them or ading to them is certainly a reprihensable Bidah.

A basic rule of Usul al Fiqh is that "Everything is permisable unless sharia evidence exists otherwise", for Ibadah (salat) it is oposite."

Brother Rami, is it your belief that dhikr is not ibadah?



Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 29 May 2005 at 7:01am
Bi ismillahir rahmanir raheem

assalamu alaikum

Br i have no right to change the words of scholars, the word Ibadah was used and restricted to the salat aspect of ibadah, exactly the same way i did above with the paragraph. This is the context of the word and how scholars used it in this Usul.


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Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.



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