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Archive: Ayaat of the Week

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Category: Religion - Islam
Forum Name: Quran & Sunnah
Forum Discription: Understanding Quranic ayat and Sunnah
URL: http://www.IslamiCity.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=6020
Printed Date: 25 July 2014 at 6:13pm


Topic: Archive: Ayaat of the Week
Posted By: fatima
Subject: Archive: Ayaat of the Week
Date Posted: 07 July 2006 at 4:48am

Bismillah irrahaman irrahim

Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahe Wa Barakatuhu

Surah 96. Al-'Alaq 

(96:1) Read (O Prophet,) in the name of your Lord; Who created.

(96:2) Created man from a clot of congealed blood.

(96:3) Read: and your Lord is Most Generous,

(96:4) Who taught knowledge by the pen:

(96:5) taught man what he did not know.

Tafsir by Sayyid Qutb

Surah 96
The Blood Clots al Alaq

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Commentary:

It is universally agreed that the opening of this surah was the first Qur'anic revelation. The accounts stating that other verses were revealed first are not authentic. Imam Ahmad transmits the following hadith attributing it to Aisha, the Prophet's wife:

The first aspect of revelation to Allah's Messenger was that his dreams came true. Whatever vision he might have in his sleep would occur exactly as he had seen. Then, he began to enjoy seclusion. He used to retreat alone into the cave of Hira where he would spend several days in devotion before going back to his family. He used to take some food with him, and when he came back he would take a fresh supply for another period. He continued to do so until he received the truth while in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and said, "Read." He replied, "I am not a reader." The Prophet says, "He held me and pressed hard until I was exhausted, then he released me and said, "Read." and I replied, "I am not a reader". So, he held me and pressed me hard a second time until I was exhausted, then he released me and said, "Read." I replied, "I am not a reader." He then held me and pressed me hard for the third time. Then he said, "Read, in the name of your Lord Who created, created man from clots of blood. Read! your Lord is the most bounteous, Who has taught the use of the pen, has taught man what he did not know." The Prophet returned home to Khadeeja trembling and said, "Wrap me! Wrap me!" They wrapped him and his fear subsided. He turned to Khadeeja and exclaimed, "What has happened to me?" and related to her what had hap pened and said, "I fear for myself." And Khadeeja replied, "Fear not, be calm and relax. Allah will not let you suffer any humilia tion, because you are kind to your relatives, you speak the truth, you assist anyone in need, you are hospitable to your guests and you help in every just cause." Then she took him to Waraqa ibn Nawfal, her paternal cousin who was a Christian convert and a scholar with good knowledge of Arabic, Hebrew and the Bible. He had lost his eyesight as he had grown very old. Khadeeja said to Waraqa, "Cousin, would you like to hear what your nephew has to say?" Waraqa said, "Well, nephew, what have you seen?" The Prophet related to him what he had seen. When he finished, Waraqa said, " It is the same revelation as was sent down to Moses. I wish I was a young man so that I might be alive when your people turn you away from this city." The Prophet exclaimed, "Would they turn me away?" Waraqa answered "Yes! No man has ever preached a message like yours but was met with enmity. If I live till that day, I will certainly give you all my support." But Waraqa died soon after that ...

This hadith is transmitted in both of the most authentic books of the Prophet's traditions and was related by Al-Zuhri.

Al-Tabari also transmitted the following tradition, related by Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair:

The Prophet said, 'While I was asleep he came to me carrying a case of a very rich material in which there was a book. He said, 'Read.' I replied, 'I am not a reader.' He pressed me so hard that I felt I was about to die. Then he released me and said, 'Read.' I asked 'What shall I read?' (and I said this only out of fear that he might repeat what he had done to me before.) He said, 'Read: In the name of your Lord who created ... taught man what he did not know. ' I read it. He stopped, then left me and went away. I woke up feeling that it was actually written in my heart'." The Prophet went on to say, "No man was ever more loathsome to me than poets or deranged persons. I could not bear even looking at either. I thought, 'The man (meaning himself) is undoubtedly a poet or deranged. This shall not be said about me amongst the Quraish. Let me climb high up in the mountain and throw myself and get rid of it all.' I went to carry out this intention. When I was half way up in the mountain I heard a voice coming from the heavens saying, 'Muhammad, you are the Messenger of Allah and I am Jibril.' I raised my head up to the sky and I saw Jibril in the image of a man with his feet one next to the other, up on the horizon. He said again, 'Muhammad, you are the Messenger of Allah and I am Jibril.' I stood in my place looking up at him; this distracted me from my intention. I was standing there unable to move. I tried to turn my face away from him and to look up at the sky, but wherever I looked, I saw him in front of me. I stood still, moving neither forward nor backward. Khadeeja sent her messengers looking for me and I remained standing in my place all the while until they went back to her. He then left me and I went back to my family ...

This tradition is also related in more details by Ibn Ishaq, on the authority of Wahb ibn Kayssan.

I reflected for a while upon this event. We all have read it many times in books; either those of the Prophet's biography or those explaining the meaning of the Qur'an. But we either read it casually or gave it little thought and went on with our reading.

Yet this is an event which has immense significance. It is an event which has important bearing on the life of humanity; but much as we try today to perceive its great value, many of its aspects will remain beyond our perception. It is no exaggeration to describe this event as the greatest in the long history of human existence.

The true nature of this event is that Allah, the Great, the Compeller, the Almighty, the Supreme, the Sovereign of the whole universe, out of His benevolence, has turned to that creation of His which is called "man", and which takes its abode in a hardly visible corner of the universe, the name of which is the "Earth" . He has honoured this species of His creation by choosing one of its numbers to be the recipient of His Divine light and the guardian of His wisdom.

This is something infinitely great. Some aspects of its greatness become apparent when man tries, as best as he can, to perceive the essential qualities of Allah: absolute power, freedom from all limitations and everlastingness; and when he reflects, in comparison, on the basic qualities of Allah's servants who arc subject to certain limitations of power and life duration. One may then perceive the significance of this Divine care for man. He may realise the sweetness of this feeling and manifest his appreciation with thanksgiving, prayers and devotion. He feels that the whole universe shares in the general happiness spread by the revelation of Divine words to man in his obscure corner of the universe.

What is the significance of this event? With reference to Allah, it signifies that He is the source of all the great bounties and unfailing compassion. He is the Benevolent, the Loving, Who bestows His mercy and benefactions for no reason except that benevolence is one of His Divine attributes. As for man, this event signifies that Allah has bestowed on him an honour the greatness of which he can hardly ever appreciate and for which he can never show enough gratitude not even if he spends all his life in devotion and prostration. This honor is that Allah has taken notice and care of him, established contact with him and chosen one of the human race as His messenger to reveal to him His words that the earth, man's abode has become the recipient of these Divine words, which the whole universe echoes with submission and devotion.

This great event began to bear on the life of humanity as a whole right from the first moment. It marked a change in the course of history, following the change it brought about in the course followed by human conscience. It specified the source man should look up to in order to derive his ideals, values and criteria. The source is heaven and the Divine revelations, not this world and man's own desires. When this great event took place the people who recognised its true nature and adapted their lives accordingly enjoyed Allah's protection and manifest care. They looked up to Him directly for guidance in all their affairs, big and small. They lived and moved under His supervision. They expected that He would guide them along the road, step by step, stopping them from error and leading them to the right. Every night they expected to receive some Divine revelations concerning what they had on their minds, providing solutions for their problems and saying to them, "Do this and leave that."

The period which followed the event was certainly remarkable: twenty-three years of direct contact between the human race and the Highest Society. The true nature of this period cannot be recognised except by those who lived in that period and went through its experience, witnessed its start and its end, relished the sweet flavour of that contact and felt the Divine hand guiding them along the road. The distance which separates us from that reality is too great to be defined by any measure of length this world has known. It is a distance in the world of conscience incomparable to any distance in the material world, not even when we think of the gaps separating the stars or galaxies. It is a gap that separates the earth and the Heaven; a gap between human desires and Divine revelation as sources from which concepts and values are derived; a gap between Ignorance and Islam, the human and the Divine.

The people who lived in that period were fully aware of its uniqueness, recognised its special place in history and felt the great loss when the Prophet passed away to be in the company of the Supreme Companion. This marked the end of this remarkable period which our minds can hardly imagine but for its actual occurrence.

Anas related that Abu Bakr said to 'Umar after the death of the Prophet "Let us go to visit Umm Ayman as the Prophet used to do." When they went to her she burst into tears. They said, "What are you crying for? Don't you realise that Allah's company is far better for the Prophet?" She replied, "That is true, I am sure. I am only crying because revelation has ceased with his death." This made tears spring to their eyes and the three of them cried together. (Transmitted by Muslim).

The impact of that period has been in evidence in the life of humanity ever since its beginning up to this moment, and it will remain in evidence until the day when Allah inherits the earth and all that walks on it. Man was reborn when he started to derive his values from Heaven rather than earth and his laws from the Divine revelation instead of his own desires. The course of history underwent a change the like of which has never been experienced before or since That event, the commencement of revelation, was the point at which the roads crossed. Clear and permanent guidelines were established which cannot be changed by the passage of time or effaced by events. Human conscience developed a concept of existence, human life and its values unsurpassed in comprehensiveness, clarity and purity of all worldly considerations as well as its realism and practicability in human society. The foundations of this Divine code have been firmly established in the world and its various aspects and essential standards have been made clear, "so that he who perishes may perish after having received a clear sign and he who lives may live after having received a clear sign. " (Al-Qur'an 8:42)

The beginning of revelation was a unique event at a unique moment marking the end of one era and the start of another. It is the demarcation line in the history of mankind, not merely in the history of a certain nation or a particular generation. It has been recorded by the universe and echoed in all its corners. It has also been recorded in the conscience of man which today needs to be guided by what Allah has revealed and never to lose sight of it. It needs to remember that this event was a rebirth of humanity which can take place only once in history.

It is self evident that the rest of the surah was not revealed at the same time as its opening but at a later date. For it refers to a certain situation and to events in the life of the Prophet which took place later, after he was instructed to convey his message and commanded to offer his worship in public, and after he was met with opposition by the polytheists. This is indicated in the part of the surah which begins: "Observe the man who rebukes a servant of Allah when he prays ..." Yet there is perfect harmony between all parts of the surah. The facts it relates after the opening part are also arranged in a perfect order. These two factors make the surah one perfectly harmonious unit.

Read in the name of your Lord Who created, created man from clots of blood Read! your Lord is the most Bounteous, Who has taught the use of the pen, has taught man what he did not know.

This is the first surah of the Qur'an so it starts with the name of Allah.' It instructs the Messenger of Allah right at the very firsf moment of his blessed contact with the Highest Society and before taking his very first step along the way of the message he was chosen to deliver, to read in the name of Allah, "Read in the name of your Lord." The first attribute of Allah it mentions is that of creation and initiation: " ... your Lord Who created " Then it speaks in particular of the creation of man and his origin: "created man from clots of blood." He is created from a dried drop of blood which sticks to the womb: a cheap and unsophisticated substance. This reflects the grace and mercy of the Creator as much as it reflects His power. It is out of His grace that He has elevated this clot of blood to the rank of man who can be taught and who can learn: "Read! your Lord is the most Bounteous, Who has taught the use of the pen, has taught man what he did not know." The gulf between the origin and the outcome is very wide indeed. But Allah is Able and He is Bounteous, hence this change which makes us dizzy with wonder.

Here also emerges the fact of the teaching of man by the Creator. The pen has always been the most widespread means of learning and it has always had the most far-reaching bearing on man's life. This fact was not as clear at the time of revelation as it is now. But Allah knows the value of the pen; hence, this reference to the pen at the bcginning of this His final message to humanity, in the first surah of the Qur'an. Yet the Messenger charged with the conveyance of this message could not write. Had the Qur'an been his own composition, he would not have stressed this fact at the first moment. But the Qur'an is Allah's revelation and a message from the Divine.

The surah then states the source of learning, which is Allah. From Him man receives all his knowledge, past, present and future. From Him man learns any secret revealed to him about this universe, life and himself.

This single paragraph revealed at the very first moment of the Messenger's contact with the Highest Society states the comprehensive basis of faith and its concepts. Everything starts, works and moves in His name. He is the One Who creates, originates and teaches Whatever man learns and whatever experience and knowledge he acquires come originally from Allah. He has taught man what he did not know. The Prophet recognised this basic Qur'anic fact. It governed his feelings teachings and actions for the rest of his life because it is the principal fact of faith.

Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah summarises in his book "Zad al-Ma'ad" the Messenger's teaching respecting the remembrance of Allah:

The Prophet was the most perfect man with regard to his remembrance of Allah, the Exalted. Indeed whatever he spoke was in the line of such remembrance. His commands, prohibitions, legislations, his teaching concerning the Lord and His attributes, judgements, actions, promises and threats were all part of this remembrance So were his praise and glorification of the Lord, his prayers to Him, his feelings of fear and hope of Him and even his silence. He was conscious of Allah at all times and in every state. His praise of Allah was part of his very nature as if he praised Him with every breath. Indeed he praised Him as he stood up, sat or reclined and when walking, riding, moving, at home or travelling. When he woke up he used to say, "Praise be to Allah Who has given us life after He had caused us to die. To Him we shall be resurrected." Aisha said that the Prophet used to say when he woke up at night, "Allah is the greatest," and would repeat it ten times. Then he would repeat ten times the statement, "There is no deity but Allah," and pray, "My Lord, I seek refuge with You against constraint in this life and on the Day of Resurrection," ten times. Then he would start his formal prayers. Aisha also said that when the Prophet woke up at night for his devotion he would say, "There is no God but You, my Lord. Praise be to You. I beseech You to forgive my sins and appeal to You for mercy. My Lord, enrich my knowledge and cause not my heart to go astray after You have granted me Your guidance. Grant me Your mercy, for You are the most Bounteous." (Transmitted by Abu Dawood)

The Messenger has also taught us that whoever gets up at night and says, "There is no God but Allah alone; He has no partner; to Him belongs the Sovereignty and praise; He is able to do everything; all grace is His; Glorified be He; there is no deity but Allah; Allah is the greatest; no power can operate without His permission; He is the Great, the Supreme," and after this says, "My Lord, forgive me," or any other prayer, his prayers will be answered. Should he make ablution and offer prayers, these will be accepted.

The Messenger once stayed for a night at Ibn Abbas's home. The latter related that when he, the Messenger, woke up he raised his hand to the sky and read the last ten verses of surah "Aal-'Imran. " Then he went on to pray, "My Lord, to You belongs all praise; You are the light of heaven and earth and all therein; Praise be to You, the true Lord; Your promise is true; whatever You say is true; the Meeting with You is true; Heaven is true; Hell is true; the Prophets are true; and the Hour is true. I submit myself to You, I believe in You and depend on You. To You I return . Any dispute I may enter into is for You. To You I turn for judgement. Forgive me all my sins, past and future, public and secret. You are my Lord and there is no God but You. No power can operate without the permission of Allah, the Great, the Supreme."

Aisha related that when the Prophet woke up at night to worship he used to say, "My God, the Lord of Jibril, Mikaeel and Israfeel, the Creator of heaven and earth, Who knows what is concealed and what is made public. You judge amongst Your servants in their disputes. Guide me, with Your own will, to the truth over which people argue and dispute, for You guide whom You will to the straight path." She might have also said that he used to say this at the start of his prayers.

After offering the "witr" prayer, the Messenger used to repeat three times, "Glorified be Allah, the Holy One." When he went out of his house he would say, "In the name of Allah. I depend on Allah. My Lord, I appeal to You to guard me against going astray or causing anyone to go astray, and against any slip, and being unjust to anyone or being victim to any injustice by others, and against acting ignorantly, or being ignorantly done by."

The Messenger said, "Whoever says as he leaves his home, 'In the name of Allah. I depend on Allah. No power is operative without the permission of Allah,' he will receive the answer. 'You are rightly guarded and well protected,' and the devil will be made to turn away from him."

Referring to the night when he was host to the Messenger, Ibn Abbas said that when the Messenger left for the mosque for the dawn prayers he said, "My Lord, give me light in my heart, tongue, ears and eyes: give me light in front of me, over me and below me and make the light You give me great."

Abu Said al-Khudri related that the Prophet said, "When a man goes out to the mosque for prayers and says, 'My Lord, I appeal to You by the right of those who pray to You, and the right us my journey to You. I have not come out with any feeling of selfsufficiency, nor in hypocrisy or conceit, nor to seek reputation. I have come out with the hope of avoiding Your anger, seeking Your pleasure. I pray you, save me from Hell and forgive me my sins; You are the Only One Who forgives sins;' seventy thousand angels will be charged with praying for his forgiveness and Allah will receive and welcome him until he finishes his prayers."

Abu Dawood transmitted that the Prophet used to say when he entered the mosque, "I seek refuge with Allah, the Great, and His Holy face, and His old power against Satan, the Outcast." When a man says this the Devil says, "He is now protected against me for the rest of the day."

The Prophet said, "Whenever any of you comes to the mosque, let him pray and ask peace for the Prophet and say, 'My Lord, open to me the doors of your mercy.' When he leaves the mosque, let him say, 'My Lord, I pray You to give me out of Your grace.'" It is also related that when the Prophet entered the mosque, he would ask peace for Muhammad (himself) and his household, then he would say, "My Lord, forgive me my sins and open the doors of Your mercy to me." When he left, he would again ask peace for Muhammad and his household, and say, "My Lord, forgive me my sins and lay open to me the doors of Your grace." After offering the dawn prayers, Allah's Messenger used to stay in his praying place until sunrise, utilising his time in the remembrance of Allah, the Exalted. In the morning, he would say, "Our Lord, we have lived till this morning by Your will, and we also live till evening by Your will. We live and die by Your will. To You we will return." He also used to say, "Morning has appeared. This morning all sovereignty belongs to Allah, praised be He. There is no God but Allah alone. He has no partner, to Him belongs all the universe and to Him is all praise. He is the Almighty, able to do what He wills. My Lord, I pray to You to give me of the best of this day and the best of the days to follow. I seek refuge with You against the evil of this day and the days to follow. My Lord, I seek Your refuge against laziness and the evils of old age, against suffering in Hell and suffering in the grave." In the evening he would repeat the same prayer substituting evening for morning (Transmitted by Muslim).

Once Abu Bakr, the Prophet's most distinguished companion said to him, "Teach me some prayers to say in the morning and in the evening." Allah's Messenger taught him the following prayer, "My Lord, the Creator of heaven and earth. Who knows the visible and the unseen, the perceptible and the imperceptible, the Lord and Possessor of all, I declare that there is no God but You. I appeal to You to protect me against my own evil and the evil of Satan; I seek Your refuge against doing myself any harm or causing harm to any Muslim." The Messenger told Abu Bakr to say this prayer in the morning, evening and before going to bed. (Zad al-Maad contains numerous traditions on the same subject.) ... When Allah's Messenger had a new garment, he would mention it by name (e.g. a shirt, a gown or a turban) and say, "My Lord, praise be to You. You have given me this. I pray You to give me its goodness and the goodness for which it was made. I pray to You to rid me of its evil and the evil for which it was made." The Messenger is reported to have been in the habit of saying the following prayer when he returned home, "Praise be to Allah who has given me this shelter and what is sufficient for me; and praise be to Allah Who has given me food and drink, and praise be to Allah Who has given me much (of His generosity). I pray You to extend Your protection to me against Hell.

It is confirmed in the two authentic books of the Messenger's traditions that, when he entered the toilet, he used to say,

My Lord, I pray You to rid me of evil things." When he left, he used to say, "Praise be to Allah Who has ridden me of harm and given me good health." (Transmitted by Ibn Majah).

It is also confirmed that he once put his hand in a water container and said to his companions, "Make ablutions in the name of Allah." When he saw the new moon, he used to say, "My Lord, let it come to us with security, faith, safety and submission to You. New moon, Allah is my Lord and Your Lord." (Transmitted by At-Tirmithi).

When he started eating, he used to say, "In the name of Allah." He also said, "When any of you eats, let him mention the name of Allah. If he forgets to do so, let him say (when he remembers), in the name of Allah at the beginning and at the end."

Thus was the life of the Messenger of Allah. It was conditioned, down to every single detail, by the Divine instruction which he received at the very first moment of his message. This instruction helped his faith to bc established on a genuine basis .

It is Allah, then, Who creates, teaches and bestows His abundant bounties on man. This implies that man should acknowledge Allah's benevolence and be grateful for it. But what actually happens is something different.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ibn kathir starts the tafsir with the same hadith as Sayyid Qutb and carries on with the event.

Waraqah died and the revelation paused until Allah swt's Messenger (saw) became sad according to what we were told. Due to this grief he set out a number of times with the intent of throwing himself from the mountain tops. However, every time he would reach the peak of a mountain to throw himself from it, Jibril (as) would appear to him and say, "O Muhammad! You are truly the Messenger of Allah!" Therefore, his worry would be eased, his soul would be settled and he would return. Then when the revelation did not come again for a long time, he set out as he had done before. So when he reached the peak of the mountain, Jibril appeared to him again and said to him the same as he said before.

So the first thing that was revealed of the Quran were these noble and blessed Ayaat. They are the first mercy that Allah bestowed upon His servants and the first bounty that Allah favored them with.

The Honor and Nobility of Man is in His Knowledge

These ayaat inform of the beginning of man's creation from a dangling clot, and that out of Allah's generosity. He taught man that which he did not know. Thus, Allah exalted him and honoured him by giving him knowledge, and it is the dignity that the father of Humanity, Adam, was distinguished with over the angels. Knowledge sometimes is in the mind, sometimes on the tongue, and sometimes in writing with the fingers. Thus, it may be intellectual, spoken, and written. And while the last necessitates the first two, the reverse is not true. For this reason Allah says,

Read: and your Lord is Most Generous, Who taught knowledge by the pen: taught man what he did not know.

There is a narration that states, "Record Knowledge by writing." There is also a saying which states, "whoever acts according to what he knows, Allah will make him inherit knowledge that he did not know."

 

Tafsir Maulana Mawdudi

Read *1 (O Prophet,) in the name of your Lord; *2 Who created. *3. when the Angel said to the Holy Prophet, "Read", the latter replied, "I cannot read!"" This indicates that the Angel had presented these words of the Revelation before him in the written form and had asked him to read them. For if the Angel had meant that he should repeat what he recited, he should not have replied, saying "I cannot read!"
*2 "Read in the name of your Lord": Bismillah and read. This shows that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) even before the coming down of this Revelation regarded and acknowledged Allah alone as his Lord. That is why there was no need to ask who his Lord was, but it was said: "Read in the name of your Lord."
*3 Only the word khalaqa (created) 'has been used absolutely, and the object of creation has not been mentioned, This automatically gives the meaning: "Read in the name of the Lord, Who is the Creator, Who created the whole universe and everything in it."

Created man from a clot of congealed blood. *4

*4 After making mention generally of the creation of the universe, mention has been made of man in particular, saying how Allah made him a perfect tnan starting his creation from an insignificant and humble state. 'Alaq is plural of 'alaqah, which means congealed blood. This is the primary state of the embryo which appears a few days after conception. Then it assumes the form of a lump of flesh, then afterwards it gradually takes human shape.
 
Read: and your Lord is Most Generous,
Who taught knowledge by the pen: *5
*5 That is, "It is a great favour of Allah that starting man's creation from a most insignificant state He made him possessor of knowledge which is the noblest attribute of creation, and He made him not only possessor of knowledge but also taught him the art of writing by the use of pen, which became the means of propagation, progress, dissemination and preservation of knowledge on a large scale. Had He not given tnan the knowledge of the art of pen and writing (by inspiration) his intellectual faculty would have stagnated, and it would have had no opportunity to develop, expand and become a means of transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next and make future progress.
taught man what he did not know. *6
*6 That is, Man originally was absolutely illiterate. Whatever of knowledge he obtained, he obtained it as a gift from Allah. Whatever doors of knowledge at any stage did Allah will to open for man, they went on opining up before him. This same thing has been expressed in the verse of the Throne, thus: "And the people cannot comprehend anything of His knowledge save what He Himself may please to reveal." (Al-Baqarah: 255). Whatever man looks upon as his own scientific discovery was, in fact, unknown to him before. Allah gave him its knowledge whenever He willed without his realizing that Allah by His grace had blessed him with the knowledge of it.
These verses were the very first to be revealed to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), as is stated in the Hadith reported by Hadrat `A'ishah. This first experience was so intense and tremendous that the Holy Prophet could not bear it any more. Therefore, at that time he was only made aware that the Being Whom he already knew and acknowledged as his Lord and Sustainer was in direct communion with him, had started sending down Revelations to him, and had appointed him as His Prophet. Then after an intermission the opening verses of Surah al-Muddaththir were revealed in which he was told what mission he had to perform after his appointment to Prophethood.

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL



Replies:
Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 14 July 2006 at 5:42am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surat An-Naba

(Chapter - 78)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

Tafsir Ibn kathir

(1. What are they asking about) (2. About the great news,) (3. About which they are in disagreement.) (4. Nay, they will come to know!) (5. Nay, again, they will come to know!) (6. Have We not made the earth as a bed,) (7. And the mountains as pegs) (8. And We have created you in pairs.) (9. And We have made your sleep as a thing for rest.) (10. And We have made the night as a covering,) (11. And We have made the day for livelihood.) (12. And We have built above you seven strong,) (13. And We have made (therein) a shining lamp.) (14. And We have sent down from the Mu`sirat water Thajjaj.) (15. That We may produce therewith grains and vegetations,) (16. And gardens that are Alfaf.)

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=78&tid=56706.htm -

Refutation against the Idolators' Denial of the Occurrence of the Day of Judgement

In rejection of the idolators' questioning about the Day of Judgement, due to their denial of its occurrence, Allah says,

 (What are they asking about About the great news,)

meaning, what are they asking about They are asking about the matter of the Day of Judgement, and it is the great news. Meaning the dreadful, horrifying, overwhelming information.

(About which they are in disagreement.)

meaning, the people are divided into two ideas about it. There are those who believe in it and those who disbelieve in it. Then Allah threatens those who deny the Day of Judgement by saying,

(Nay, they will come to know! Nay, again, they will come to know!)

This is a severe threat and a direct warning.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=78&tid=56714.htm -

 Mentioning Allah's Power, and the Proof of His Ability to resurrect the Dead

Then, Allah begins to explain His great ability to create strange things and amazing matters. He brings this as a proof of His ability to do whatever He wishes concerning the matter of the Hereafter and other matters as well. He says,

(Have We not made the earth as a bed,)

meaning, an established, firm and peaceful resting place that is subservient to them.

 (And the mountains as pegs)

meaning, He made them as pegs for the earth to hold it in place, make it stable and firm. This is so that it may be suitable for dwelling and not quake with those who are in it. Then Allah says,

(And We have created you in pairs.)

meaning, male and female, both of them enjoying each other, and by this means procreation is achieved. This is similar to Allah's statement,

(And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.) (30:21)

 (And We have made your sleep as a thing for rest.)

meaning, a cessation of movement in order to attain rest from the frequent repetition and going about in search of livelihood during the day. A similar Ayah has been mentioned previously in Surat Al-Furqan.

 (And We have made the night as a covering,)

meaning, its shade and darkness covers the people. This is as Allah says,

 (By the night as it conceals it.) (91:4)

Qatadah commented;

(And We have made the night as a covering,)

meaning, a tranquil residence. Concerning Allah's statement,

(And We have made the day for livelihood.)

meaning, `We made it radiant, luminous, and shining so that the people would be able to move about in it.' By it they are able to come and go for their livelihood, earning, business dealings and other than that as well.[1][1] In reference to Allah's statement,

 (And We have built above you seven strong,)

meaning, the seven heavens in their vastness, loftiness, perfection, precision, and adornment with both stable and moving stars. Thus, Allah says,

(And We have made (therein) a shining lamp.)

meaning, the radiant sun that gives light to all of the world. Its light glows for all of the people of the earth. Allah then says,

 (And We have sent down from the Mu`sirat water Thajjaj.)

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "From the Mu`sirat means from the clouds.''[2][2] This was also stated by `Ikrimah, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ath-Thawri, and it is preferred by Ibn Jarir.[3][3]

 Al-Farra' said, "They are the clouds that are filled with rain, but they do not bring rain. This is like the woman being called Mu`sir when (the time of) her menstrual cycle approaches, yet she does not menstruate.''[4][4] This is as Allah says,

                                                                          

(Allah is He Who sends the winds, so that they raise clouds, and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments, until you see rain drops come forth from their midst!) (30:48)

meaning, from its midst. Concerning Allah's statement,

 (water Thajjaj) Mujahid, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas all said, "Thajjaj means poured out.''[5][5] At-Thawri said, "Continuous.''[6][6] Ibn Zayd said, "Abundant.''[7][7] In the Hadith of the woman with prolonged menstrual bleeding, when the Messenger of Allah said to her,

 (I suggest you to make an absorbent cloth for yourself.)''

Meaning, `dress the area with cotton.' The woman replied, "O Messenger of Allah! It (the bleeding) is too much for that. Verily, it flows in profusely (Thajja).''[8][8] This contains an evidence for using the word Thajj to mean abundant, continuous and flowing. And Allah knows best. Allah said,

(That We may produce therewith corn and vegetation, and gardens that are Alfaf.)

meaning, `so that We may bring out great abundance, goodness, benefit, and blessing through this water.'

(grains) This refers to that which is preserved for (the usage) of humans and cattle.

 (and vegetations) meaning, vegetables that are eaten fresh.

 (And gardens) meaning, gardens of various fruits, differing colors, and a wide variety of tastes and fragrances, even if it is ingathered at one location of the earth. This is why Allah says

(And gardens that are Alfaf.) Ibn `Abbas and other said, "Alfaf means gathered.''[9][9] This is similar to Allah's statement,

(And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayat for the people who understand.) (13:4)

 

Wassalam


-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 20 July 2006 at 3:13am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

14/07/06

Tafheem-ul-Quran (Maulana Mawdudi)

(78:1) About what are they inquiring? (78:2) Is it about the Great News concerning  (78:3) which they are at variance? *1

*1 "The Great News": the news of the Resurrection and Hereafter, which the people of Makkah heard with amazement, then raised questions and doubts about it in their assemblies. When they met each other they would ask: "Did you ever hear that the dead will be resurrected to life? Is it credible that life will be infused once again into the bones which have decayed and become rotten? Does it stand to reason that the former and the latter generations will rise up and gather together at one place? Is it possible that these huge mountains which are so firmly set in the earth will fly about like flakes of wool? Can it so happen that the sun and the moon and the stars should be extinguished and the order and system of the world be overturned and upset? What has happened to him who was until yesterday a sane and wise man among us? Today he is giving us strange, impossible news. Where were this Hell and Heaven of which we had never heard from him before? wherefrom have they appeared suddenly so that he has started depicting them so vividly before us?" Another meaning of fi-hi mukhtalifun also can be: "As these people themselves are not agreed on any one view about the end of the world, they hold varying views about it." Some one has been influenced by the Christian belief and believes in the life after death but thinks that the second life would not be a physical but only a spiritual life. Another does not deny the Hereafter absolutely but doubts whether it was possible or not. The Qur'an relates the view of these very people when it says: "We do only guess: we are not certain." (AI-Jathiyah: 32). And another plainly said: "There is no other life than this present life, and we shall never be raised back to life after our death." (Al-An`am: 29). Then, there were some atheists, who said: "Life is only this worldly life of ours. Here we shall die and live and nothing but the change of time destroys us." (AI-Jathiyah: 24). There were some others who were not atheistic but they regarded the second life as impossible. According to them it was beyond the power of God to raise the dead back to life. They said, "Who will give life to these bones when they are rotten." (Ya Sin: 78). Their different views by themselves were a proof that they had no knowledge in this regard; they were only conjecturing and guessing. Had they any knowledge they would have agreed on ane view.

(78:4) By no means! *2

*2 That is, whatever they say about the Hereafter is false, and all their concepts about it are wrong.

(78:5) They shall soon know. Yes, by no means! They shall soon know! *3

*3 That is, the time is not far off when the same thing about which they are expressing all sorts of meaningless doubts and misgivings, will appear before them as a reality. Then they will realize that what the Messenger had foretold was absolutely true and what they were saying on the basis of conjecture and speculation had no truth in it.

(78:6) Is it not a fact that We have made the earth a bed *4

*4 Enough light has been thrown at several places in The Meaning of the Qur'an on the supreme wisdom and power of Allah that underlies His making the earth a carpet, i.e. an abode of perfect peace and rest. (further explanation in 43:10)

(43:10) He it is Who made this earth a cradle for you *7 and made in it paths *8 for you so that you may be guided to your destinaions *9;

*7 At other places the earth has been described as a bed, but here as a cradle. That is, just as a child lies resting in its cradle, so is this great globe meant to be a place of rest for you, which is suspended in space, which is spinning on its axis at a speed of 1,000 miles an hour, which is revolving around the sun at a speed of 66,000 miles an hour. Its interior is so intensely hot that it can melt the stones and it manifests its power sometimes in the form of volcano eruptions. But, in spite of that, the Creator has made it so tranquil that one sleeps on it. in fill peace and there is no jerk whatever. One lives on it and does not at all feel that this globe is suspended and one is hanging from it with one's head pointing downward. One moves about on it with satisfaction and never thinks that one is riding on a vehicle moving faster than a bullet. You dig it at will and turn it inside out and beat it as you like to obtain your sustenance, whereas a little shaking of it in an earthquake makes you feel what a terrible giant it is, which Allah has subdued for you.

(78:7) and set the mountains as pegs *5

*5 Allah says in another place, (16:15) And He has placed firm mountains on the earth lest it should move away from you, For modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots can reach several times their elevations above the surface of the ground. So the most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is the word pegs.

(78:8) and created you as pairs (of men and women), *6

This is still another argument for Tauhid. Here again certain realities of daily experience have been mentioned and it is suggested that man observes these day and night but does not ponder over them seriously, whereas they contain signs and pointers to the reality. The coming together of the man and woman is the cause of man's own birth. Procreation among the animals also is due to the combination between the male and the female. About vegetation also man knows that the law of sex is working in it. Even among the lifeless substances when different things combine with one another, a variety of compounds come into existence. The basic composition of matter itself has become possible due to the close affinity between the positive and the negative electric charges. This law of the pairs which is the basis of the existence of the entire universe, contains in itself such complexities and finenesses of wisdom and workmanship, and there exist such harmonies and mutual relationships between the members of each pair that an objective observer can neither regard it as the result of an accident, nor can he believe that many different gods might have created these countless pairs and matched their members, one with the other, with such great wisdom. The members of each pair's being a perfect match for each other and coming into being of new things with their combination itself is an explicit argument of the Creator's being One and only One.

(78:9) and made your sleep for rest *7

Though man generally sleeps at night and works for his living in the day, this is not a law. Many people also sleep in the day and work for their livelihood at night. That is why the night and the day both have been mentioned and it has been said: "In both day and nights you sleep as well as work for your livelihood. " This also is a Sign which points to the design of the Wise Creator: Furthermore, it also points to the fact that He is not merely a Creator but also extremely Compassionate and Merciful to His creations, and is more anxious than the creation to meet its needs and requirements. Man cannot constantly labour but needs to have a rest of a few hours after every few hours of hard work so as to rebuild energy to take up work again. For this purpose, the Wise and Merciful Creator has not rested content with creating a feeling of fatigue and a desire for rest in man, but has placed in his nature a powerful urge for the "sleep", which without his will, even inspite of resistance from him, overpowers him automatically after every few hours of work and wakefulness, and compels him to have a few hours of rest, and leaves him as soon as the need has been fulfilled. Man has so far been unable to understand the naturer and real causes of the sleep. This is something wholly innate, which has been placed in the nature and structure of man. Its being` precisely according to the requirements of man is enough to testify that it is not anything accidental, but has been provided by a Wise Being in accordance with a purpose and plan. It is based on a clear wisdom and reason and purposefulness. Moreover, the sleep itself testifies that the One Who has placed this compulsive urge in man is a greater well wisher of man than man himself, otherwise man would have deliberately resisted the sleep and endeavoured to keep constantly awake and worked continuously hard and thus exhaust not only his work-power but also his vital powers.

(78:10) and the night a covering  (78:11) and the day for seeking livelihood, *8

*8 That is, "The night has been made dark so that protected from light, you could enjoy a peaceful sleep- more easily and made the day bright for the reason that you could work for your livelihood with greater ease and facility. Reference has been made to only one benefit out of countless benefits of the continuous alternation of night and day regularly on the earth to tell that all this is not happening without a purpose or accidentally, but there is supreme wisdom underlying it, which has a deep connection with your own immediate interests. The darkness that was needed for the peace and rest of your body in view of its structure has been provided in the night and the light that was needed for earning livelihood has been provided in the day. This arrangement that has been made precisely in accordance with your needs by itself testifies that it could not be possible without the wisdom of a Wise Being."

(78:12) and established above you seven strong heavens, *9

*9 "Strong" in the sense that their boundaries are so strongly fortified that no change whatever occurs in them, nor does any of the countless stars and planets in the heavens, violating these boundaries, collide with the other, nor falls down to the earth.

(78:13) and set a bright, blazing lamp, *10

*10 "A bright, blazing lamp": the sun. The word wahhaj used for the sun means both intensely hot and intensely bright. Hence our rendering. In this brief sentence, allusion has been made to a most wonderful and glorious sign of Allah Almighty's power and wisdom which the sun is. Its diameter is 109 times that of the earth's and its size more than 333,000 tunes that of the earth's. Its temperature is 14,000,000C. In spite of shining 93,000,000 miles away from the earth, its light and brightness is dazzling, and man can look at it with the naked eye only at the risk of losing his eye-sight. As for its heat, temperature in some parts of the earth reaches 140F. because of its radiation. It is only Allah Who by His wisdom has placed the earth at the right distance from it, neither it is too hot for being close to it, nor too cold for being very far away from it. For this very reason life of man, animal and vegetable became possible on it. Measureless treasures of energy from it are reaching the earth and sustaining life. It helps ripen our crops to provide sustenance to every creature; its heat causes vapours to rise from the seas, which spread to different parts of the earth by means of the winds and fall as rain. In the sun Allah has kindled such a mighty furnace that has been constantly radiating light, heat and different kinds of rays throughout the entire solar system since millions and millions of years.

(78:14) and rained water from the clouds in abundance (78:15) that We may produce thereby corn and vegetables  (78:16) and lush gardens? *11

That is, "For each region He has ordained an average measure of the rain, which falls year after year for long ages regularly. It does not happen that an area may have two inches of the rainfall one year and 200 inches of it the next year. Then He spreads the rainfall over different places in different times in such a way that it becomes beneficial on the whole for the products of the earth. And this is also His wisdom that He has deprived some parts of the earth of the rainfall almost wholly and turned them into dry, barren deserts, and in some other parts, He sometimes causes famines w occur and sometimes sends torrential rains so that man may know what a great blessing the rain and its general regularity is for the populated areas, and he may also remember that this sysum is under the control of another power, whose decrees cannot be changed by anyone. No one has the power that he may change the general average of the rainfall of a country, or effect a variation in its distribution over vast areas of the earth, or avert an impending storm, or attract the displeased clouds towards one's own land and compel them to rain." Here, the birth of vegetation in the earth by means of water has been presented as an argument for two things simultaneously: (1) That these things are happening by the power and wisdom of One God; no one else is His associate in these works; and (2) that there can be life after death, and it will be.

In these brief sentences the vegetable and plant life of the earth has been presented as an argument. Man is eating the products of the earth day and night and regards this as very ordinary. But if he considers it seriously, he will see drat the growth of rich crops and lush green gardens from the dry earth and the flowing in it of the springs and rivers is not a simple thing, which might be happening of itself, but there is a great wisdom and power and providence which is working behind it. Consider the reality of the earth. The substances of which it is composed do not possess any power of their own for growth. All these substances individually as well as after every sort of combination, remain inorganic, and thus do not possess any sign of life. The question is: How did it become possible for plant life to emerge from the lifeless earth? If one looks into it, one will see that there are some important factors without whose provision leforehand life here could not have coma into existence.
First, in particular regions of the earth, on its outer surface, a layer was arranged of many such substances, which could serve as food for vegetation. This layer was kept soft so that the roots of the vegetation could spread in it and suck food.
Secondly, a system of irrigation was arranged on the earth in different ways so that the food elements could get dissolved in water and absorbed by the roots . Thirdly, the atmosphere was arranged around the earth which protects it against the calamities of the sky, becomes a means of the rainfall, and possesses gases which are necessary for the life and growth of the vegetation.
Fourthly, a relationship was established between the sun and the earth so as to provide proper temperature and suitable seasons for the vegetation.
With the provision of these main factors (which in themselves are combinations of countless other factors), the coming to life of the vegetation becomes possible. After arranging the suitable conditions the seed of each species of the vegetation was so constituted that as soon as it received favourable soil, water, air and season, vegetable life should begin stirring within it. Besides, inside the same seed a system was so arranged that from the seed of every species a plant precisely of the same species should grow with all the characteristics of its own species and heredity. Then, in addition to this, another wonderful thing was done. Vegetation was not created in twenty, or fifty, or a hundred kinds but in countless species, and they were so made that they should fulfil the requirements of food, medicine and clothing and innumerable other needs of the countless kinds of animals and man, who were to be brought into being after the vegetation on the earth.
Anyone who ponders over this wonderful arrangement, if he is not stubborn and prejudiced, will himself testify that all this could not have come about by itself. There is certainly a wise plan underlying it, according to which harmonies and relationships of the soil, water, air and season with respect to the vegetation, and harmonics and relationships of the vegetation with respect to the needs and requirements of animals and human beings have been determined, keeping in view the finest detail. No sensible person can imagine that these universal, all-embracing relationships could be a mere accident. This same subtle arrangement points to the fact that this cannot be the work of many gods. This is, and can only be, the work of One God, Who is the Creator and Lord of the earth, water, air, sun, vegetation, animals and mankind. If each of these had a separate god, it cannot be imagined that such a comprehensive and universal plan with such deep and wise relationship and harmony could be produced, and should have continued to work with such regularity for millions upon millions of years.

After presenting a number of the signs and testimonies, one after the other, in these verses, the deniers of the Resurrection and Hereafter have been exhorted, so as to say: "If you consider the earth and the mountains and your own creation, your sleep and wakefulness, and the system of the day and night intelligently, and consider the well-fortified system of the universe and the shining sun in the heavens, the rain falling from the clouds and the vegetables growing thereby, you will see two things very clearly: first, that all this could neither come into existence without a mighty power, nor continue to exist and function so regularly; second, that in each of these great wisdom is working and nothing that happens here is purposeless. Now, only a foolish person could say that the Bring Who by His power has brought these things into existence, does not have the power to destroy them and create them once again in some other form, and this also could be said only by an unreasonable person that the Wise Bring Who has not done anything without purpose in this universe, has given to man in His world understanding and intelligence, discrimination between good and evil, freedom to obey or disobey, and powers of appropriation over countless of His creatures, without any purpose and design: whether man uses and employs the things granted by Him in the right way or the wrong way, it does not make any difference; whether man continues to do good throughout life till death, he will end up in the dust, or continues to do evil till death, he will likewise end up in the dust; neither the virtuous man will receive any reward for the good deeds nor the bad man will be held accountable for his evil deeds.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 20 July 2006 at 3:14am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

14/07/06

Fi Zilal al-Quran (Sayyid Qutb)

 

Surah 78
The Tiding an Nab'a

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

About what are they asking? About the fateful tiding on which they are at variance. No indeed; they shall certainly know ! Again, no indeed; they shall certainly know. Have We not spread and leveled the earth, and made the mountains as pegs? We created you in pairs, and made your sleep a cessation of activity. We made the night a mantle, and appointed the day for gaining a livelihood. We built above you seven mighty ones, and placed therein a blazing lamp. We send down out of the rain-clouds water in abundance, by which We bring forth grain and varied plants, and gardens thick with trees.

Commentary:

This thirtieth part of the Qur'an has a special, distinctive colour. All the surahs it includes are Makkan, except two, namely, "The Clear Proof" and "Victory". Although they vary in length, they are all short. More significant, however, is the fact that they form a single group with more or less the same theme. They have the same characteristics of rhythm, images, connotations and overall style. They are, indeed, like a persistent and strong knocking on a door, or loud shouts seeking to awaken some people who are fast asleep, or some drunken men who have lost consciousness, or are in a night club, completely absorbed with their dancing or entertain ment. The knocks and the shouts come one after the other: Wake up! Look around you! Think! Reflect! There is a God! There is planning, trial, liability, reckoning, reward, severe punishment and lasting bliss. The same warning is repeated time after time. A strong hand shakes them violently. They seem to open their eyes, look around for a second and return to unconsciousness. The strong hand shakes them again, the shouts and knocks are repeated even more loudly. They may wake up once or twice to say obstinately, "No!" They may stone the person warning them or insult him and then resume their position of inattention. He shakes them anew.

This is how I feel when I read this part of the Qur'an. It puts strong emphasis on a small number of highly important facts and strikes certain notes which touch men's hearts. It concentrates on certain scenes in the universe and in the world of the human soul, as well as certain events which take place on the Day of Decision. I note how they are repeated in different ways, which suggests that the repetition is intended.

This is how one feels when one reads:

Let man reflect on the food he eats ... (Al-Qur'an 80:24) Or: Let man then consider of what he was created ... (Al-Qur'an 86:5) Or: Let them reflect on the camels, and how they were created; the heaven, how it was raised on high; the mountains, how they here set down, the earth, how it was levelled flat.(Al-Qur'an 88:17-20) Or: Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread the earth. He brought out water from it, and brought forth its pastures; and the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in. (Al-Qur'an 79:27-33) Or: Have We not spread and levelled the earth, and made the mountains as pegs? We created you in pairs, and gave you sleep a cessation of activity. We made the night a mantle and appointed the day for gaining a livelihood. We built above you the seven mighty ones and placed therein a blazing lamp. We send down out of the rain-clouds water in abundance, by means of which we bringforth grain and varied plants, and gardens thick with trees. (Al-Qur'an 78:6-16)

Or: Let man refl'ect on the food he eats: how We pour down the rain in torrents, and cleave the earth in fissures; how We bring forth the corn, the grapes and the fresh vegetation, the olive and the palm, the dense-treed gardens, the fruit-trees and the green pastures, for you and your cattle to delight in. (Al-Qur'an 80:24-32) Or: O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape. He can give you whatever form He wills. (Al-Qur'an 82:6-8) Or: Praise the name of your Lord, the Most High, Who creates and proportions well Who determines and guides, Who brings forth the pasturage, then turns it into withered grass. (Al-Qur'an 87:1-5) Or: We indeed have created man in the fairest shape and form: then We brought him down to the lowest of the low, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for theirs shall be an unfailing recompense. Who, then, can give you the lie as to the Last Judgement? Is not Allah the most Just of judges? (Al-Qur'an 95:4-8) Or: When the sun is darkened, when the stars fall and disperse. when the mountains are made to move away, when the camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended, when the wild beasts are brought together, when the seas are set alight, when men's souls are paired (like with like), when the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain, when the records are laid open, when the sky is stripped bare, when Hell is made to burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near, every soul shall know what it has put forward. (Al-Qur'an 81:1-14) Or: When the heaven is cleft asunder, when the stars are scattered, when the oceans are made to explode, when the graves are hurled about, each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones. (Al-Qur'an 82:1-5) Or: When the sky is rent asunder, obeying her Lord in true submission, when the earth is stretched out and casts forth all that is within her and becomes empty, obeying her Lord in true submission. (Al-Qur'an 84:1-5) Or: When the earth is rocked with her (final) earthquake, when the earth shakes off her burdens, and man cries: 'whats the matter with her?' On that day she will tell her news, that your Lord has inspired her. (Al-Qur'an 99:1-5)

We experience the same feeling as we meditate over the scenes of the universe portrayed at the beginning or in the middle of some of the surahs in this part of the Qur'an:

I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide them selves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and the first breath of dawn. (Al-Qur'an 81:15-18) Or: I swear by the twilight, and by the night and what it envelops, and by the moon in her full perfection. (Al-Qur'an 84:16-18) Or: By the dawn, by the ten nights by that which is even and that which is odd, by the night as it journeys on. (Al-Qur'an 89:1-4) Or: By the sun and his morning brightness, by the moon as she follows him, by the day which reveals its splendour, by the night when it enshrouds him, by the heaven and its construction, by the earth and its spreading, by the soul and its moulding, and inspiration with knowledge of wickedness and piety. (Al-Qur'an 91:1-8) Or: By the night when she lets fall her darkness, by the day in full splendour by him who created the male and the female. (Al-Qur'an 92:1-3) Or: By the white forenoon and the brooding night. (Al-Qur'an 93:1-2)

Strong emphasis is laid, throughout this thirtieth part of the Qur'an, on the origin of man as well as the origin of life, in both its vegetable and animal forms. Emphasis is also given to various scenes in the universe, such as scenes of the Day of Resurrection, which is described in different places as "the Greatest Catastrophe" the Stunning Blast", "the Enveloper", etc. Scenes of the reckoning, fine reward and severe retribution are also given prominence. They are drawn with images which leave a stunning effect. All these are given as a proof of the reality of creation and elaborate planning of the universe by Allah, as well as evidence confirming the reality of the life to come, and its decisive reckoning. These scenes are, at times, combined with scenes of the fate of some of the nations who rejected the Divine messages. The whole of this part exemplifies all this. We will make, however, a brief reference in this introduction to some examples.

The present surah, "The Tiding" is an example of the emphasis laid on the realities of creation and resurrection, and the prominence given to the scenes of the universe and the hereafter. The same applies to the next surah, entitled "The Pluckers". The third surah in this part, "The Frowning" starts with a reference to a certain event of the early days of Islam. The rest of the surah is devoted to a discussion of the origins of man and plants before it tackles the "Stunning Blast":

On that day each man will forsake his brother, his mother and his father, his wife and his children: for each one of them will on that day have enough preoccupations of his own. Some faces on that day shall be beaming, smiling and joyful. Some other faces on that day shall be covered with dust, veiled with darkness. (Al-Qur'an 80:34-41)

Surah "The Darkening" portrays scenes of the great upheaval which envelops the whole universe on the Day of Resurrection. It also draws some fine and inspiring scenes of the universe in the context of affirming the reality of revelation and the honesty of the Prophet.

Surah "Cleaving Asunder" includes scenes of the universal upheaval, coupled with scenes of perfect happiness and eternal suffering in the hereafter. As it portrays these scenes it attempts to shake and awaken men's hearts: O man! What has lured you away from your gracious Lord ... (Al-Qur'an 82:6)

Scenes of both types are also portrayed in the surah entitled, "The Rending". Surah "The Constellations" touches very briefly on some scenes of the universe and the here after by way of introduction to the main theme. The surah tackles the history of a group of believers who were subjected by the disbelievers to severe torture with fire. It also states how Allah will inflict greater and more severe torture with fire on those disbelievers.

Surah "The Night Visitor" gives some scenes of the universe and speaks of the origins of man and plants prior to an oath by all these affirming Surely it is a decisive word, it is no frivolity. (Al-Qur'an 86:13-14)

The surah entitled "The Most High" speaks of creation, planning, Divine guidance and the various stages of the growth of pastures. All this is given by way of introduction to the theme of the hereafter, reckoning, reward and retribution. Surah "The Enveloper" gives some images of the happiness of the believers in the hereafter. and the misery of the disbelievers. It also draws attention to the creation of camels, heaven, earth and mountains. The same applies right through to the end of this thirtieth part, with the exception of a few surahs which are devoted to the exposition of the fundamental principles of faith, such as the surahs entitled "Purity of Faith", "The Disbelievers", "Small Kindness" "The Declining Day", "Power", and "Victory", and with the exception of a few more surahs which give encouragement and solace to the Prophet and direct him to seek the refuge of his Lord against all evil, such as those entitled, "The Forenoon", "Solace", "Abundance", "The Daybreak" and "Men".

Another aspect of the style of this part is its artistic use of fine expressions, images, rhythm, meter and rhyme to touch upon areas of exceptional beauty in the human soul and in the universe at large. It does this in order to achieve better results as it addresses those who have lost sight of the truth, trying to attract their attention and awaken their feelings. This is clearly evident, for example, in its portrait of the stars as they turn in their orbits, rise and set, in the image of deer disappearing in their dens then appearing again, its image of the night as a living being walking quietly in the dark, and the dawn breathing with the first rays of light:

I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and the first breath of dawn. (Al-Qur'an 81:15-18)

It is also clear in the description of sunset, the night and the moon:

I swear by the twilight, and by the night and what it envelops, and by the moon, in her full perfection (Al-Qur'an 84:16-18)

and in the scenes of dawn and the travelling night:

By the dawn, by the ten nights, by that which is even and that which is odd, by the night as it journeys on, (Al-Qur'an 89:1-4) or: By the white fore noon and the brooding night. (Al-Qur'an 93:1-2)

Again it is markedly evident in the inspiring address to the human heart:

O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape? He can give you what ever form He wills. (Al-Qur'an 82:6-8)

in the description of Heaven:

 

Other faces on that day are jocund, well-pleased with their striving, in a sublime garden, where they hear no babble (Al-Qur'an 88:8-11),

and of Hell:

But he whose scales are light, shall have the abyss for his home. Would that you knew what that is like! It is a raging fire. (Al-Qur'an 101:8-11)

Allegory is often employed and an unusual derivation is sometimes preferred in order to obtain the intended musical effect. All this shows the artistry which so entirely pervades this part of the Qur'an.

The present surah is a good example of the general bent of this part, its themes, the fundamental principles it seeks to establish, the scenes and images it portrays, its inferences, its music and its fine touches, as well as its artistic selection and manipulation of terms and expressions to enhance its effect. It opens with a form of question which imparts a sense of gravity to the matter in dispute, yet it is something that admits of no dispute. This is followed by an immediate warning of what will happen on the day when they will realise its nature:

About what are they asking? About the fateful tiding on which they are at variance. No indeed; they shall certainly know! Again, no indeed; they shall certainly know.

Discussion of this fateful tiding is then temporarily dropped. The surah draws attention to what we see around us in the universe and what we feel in our souls which give an unmistakable indication of what will follow:

Have We not spread and levelled the earth, and made the mountains as pegs? We created you in pairs, and made your sleep a cessation of activity. We made the night a mantle and appointed the day for gaining a livelihood. We built above you seven mighty ones, and placed therein a blazing lamp. We send down out of the rain-clouds water in abundance, by which We bring forth grain and varied plants, and gardens thick with trees.

This is the fateful tiding about which they ask, and this is what will happen on the day when they will realise the true nature of this great event. About what are they asking? About the fateful tiding on which they are at variance. No indeed; they shall certainly know. Again, no indeed; they shall certainly know.

The surah opens by shunning the enquirers and the enquiry. It wonders that anyone should raise any doubts about resurrection and judgement, which were the centre points of bitter controversy. For the disbelievers could hardly imagine that resurrection is at all possible, despite the fact that it is most logical. The surah asks what they are talking about: About what are they asking?

We are then given the answer. The question is not meant to solicit information but to draw attention to the singularity of their questioning by putting forward the subject of their questions and stating its nature:

The answer does not name the event but describes it to enhance the feeling of wonder and amazement at such people. The variance was between those who believed in resurrection and those who denied it, but the questions were raised by the latter only.

The surah does not provide any more details about the event in question. It simply describes it as great before adding an implicit threat which is much more frightening than a direct answer. No indeed, they shall certainly know. Again, no indeed, they shall certainly know.

The phrase "no indeed" is used here as the nearest possible rendering of the Arabic term "kalla", which denotes strong shunning. The whole sentence is repeated to add force to the threat implied.

The surah then puts aside, apparently, that great event which is at the centre of controversy, only to pick it up later on. The surah takes us on a quick round of the universe in which we see a multitude of scenes, creatures and phenomena. Contemplation of these would strongly shake any human heart:

Have We not spread and levelled the earth, and made the mountains as pegs? We created you in pairs, and made your sleep a cessation of activity. We made the night a mantle and appointed the day for gaining a livelihood. We built above you seven mighty ones, and placed therein a blazing lamp. We send down out of the rain-clouds water in abundance, by which We bring forth grain and varied plants, and gardens thick with trees.

In this round we go across the vast universe, observing a great multitude of scenes and phenomena, which are sketched out with great economy of words and phrases. This helps make the rhythm sharp and penetrating, like incessant hammering. The form of question implying a statement is used here on purpose. It may be likened to a strong hand shaking those unaware, it draws their attention to all these creatures and phenomena which give strong evidence of the deliberate planning and designing which go into their creation, the ability to create and recreate, and the wisdom behind creation, which dictates that no creature will be left out of the great reckoning. Hence we come back to the fateful tiding, the subject of argument.

The first leg in our round takes in the earth and the mountains: Have We not spread and levelled the earth, and made the mountains as pegs?

Both facts mentioned here can be easily recognised and appreciated by everyone. Indeed, even primitive man can be affected by them once his attention is drawn to them.

As human knowledge advances and man acquires better insight into the nature of the universe and its varied phenomena, his appreciation of these two aspects is enhanced. He recognises more fully Allah's elaborate planning of the universe, the accurate balance maintained between the individual kinds of creation and their respective needs, the preparation of the earth for human existence and man's adaptability to his environment. That the earth has been specially prepared as a comfortable home for human life in particular is irrefutable evidence of the careful designing of this existence.

It is sufficient to break one relation in the conditions available on earth or in the conditions and proportions required for life and the earth would no longer be that comfortable home for men to tread on.

Man recognises easily, by eyesight, that the mountains are very much like the pegs of a tent. From the Qur'an we learn that they steady the earth and keep its balance. This may be bccause the mountains' height offsets the depth of the seas and oceans. An alternative explanation is that mountains balance out the inner with the outer movements of our planet. Or probably they merely increase the weight of the earth at certain spots to prevent its violent shaking with earthquakes, volcanoes or internal tremors. There may be another explanation not yet known to man. In the Qur'an we find numerous references to natural laws the essence of which was completely unknown to man at the time of revelation, but knowledge of them has been acquired a few centuries later.

In its second leg our round touches upon various aspects of human existence: We created you in pairs.

Again, this is a well established phenomenon, easily recognised by every human being. Allah has made the survival and continuity of mankind conditional on each of the two different sexes, male and female, playing its role in life fully. Not much knowledge is required for appreciating what this involves of comfort, pleasure and recreation. Hence the Qur'anic statement stands to be appreciated by every society in every age according to that society's abilities and knowledge.

Beyond the primitive feeling of the importance of this fact there is a wider scope of contemplation as man's knowledge increases and his feelings become more refined. We may contemplate how one sperm produces a male child while another, absolutely similar to the first, produces a female child. Our contemplation, however penetrating, is bound to lead us to the inescapable conclusion that it is the perfect planning of Ailah which gives each sperm its distinctive characteristics so that we may have a male and a female, for life to continue.

And made your sleep a cessation of activity. We made the night a mantle and appointed the day for gaining a livelihood.

Allah has willed that sleep should overpower man and make him lose consciousness and activity. When asleep, man is in a state which is unlike life and unlike death. It ensures rest for his body and mind and compensates both for whatever effort they have exerted during wakefulness. All this happens in a way the true nature of which man cannot conceive. His will plays no part in it and it is impossible for him to discover how it happens to him. When awake, man does not know his condition while he is asleep. He is also unable, when asleep, to observe his condition and how sleep affects him. It is one of the secrets of the constitution of man and all living creatures, unknown except to the Creator Who has made sleep essential for life. For there is no living creature who can stay without sleep except for a limited period. If he were forced, by external means, to stay awake he would certainly die.

Sleep does not merely satisfy some of man's physical and mental needs. It is, indeed, a truce for the human soul from the fierce struggle of life. It is a respite which allows man to lay down his armour willingly or unwillingly, and enjoy a period of perfect peace which he needs no less than he needs food and drink. Sometimes, when one is low-spirited, mentally exhausted, possessed by fear and alarm, sleep may overpower one, for a few minutes perhaps, and bring about a total change in one's condition. Sleep does not merely renew one's strength, but it may revive one as if one wakes up a new person altogether. This is miraculous but still very true. It happened on a large scale to the early Muslims who fought in the battles of Badr and Uhud. Allah mentions both occasions in the Qur'an, reminding the Muslims of His favours. He made slumber overcome you as a reassurance from Him. (Al-Qur'an 8:11) Then, after grief, He let peace and security fall upon you - a sleep which overtook some of you ... (Al-Qur'an 3:154)

Many other people had the same experience in similar conditions. Cessation of activity and consciousness through sleep is a prerequisite for the continuity of life. Yet it can be given only by Allah. It is mentioned here by way of inviting man to contemplate his own creation and constitution.

Allah's perfection of creation has provided a correspondence between the movement of the universe and that of living creatures. As man requires sleep after his day's work, so Allah has provided the night as a covering mantle for man to enjoy his slumber. Day is also provided as a period of activity for man to pursue his livelihood. Thus perfect harmony is established. The world is perfectly suitable for the creatures who live in it, and Allah's creation is endowed with the characteristics which fit in easily and gently with the characteristics of the universe. What perfect planning by a scrupulous Designer!

The final leg of our round touches on the creation of heaven; We built above you seven mighty ones, and placed therein a blazing lamp. We send down out of the rain-clouds water in abundance, by which We bring forth grain and varied plants, and gardens thick with trees.

The seven mighty ones Allah has built above the earth are the seven heavens or skies, the precise nature of which is known only to Allah. They may be seven galaxies (a galaxy is a group of stars the number of which may exceed one hundred million) which have a bearing on our planet or on our solar system. The phrase may also refer to something else which we do not know. What we know for certain, however, is that these seven have strong constitution and do not easily disintegrate. This much we know about the stars and we observe-in what we call "the sky". The surah also points out that the construction of the seven mighty ones is in perfect harmony with the creation of the earth and the world of man. This is implied in the following verses: And placed therein a blazing lamp.

This is a reference to the sun which shines and gives the heat necessary for the earth and its living creatures. It also plays an important part in forming the clouds by evaporating sea water: We send down out of the rainclouds water in abundance.

The Arabic text refers to these clouds as something squeezable. But who squeezes them to extract their juice? The winds, maybe, or perhaps some kind of electric charge in the atmosphere. Beyond both types, however, there is the hand of the Designer, who has assigned to everything in the universe its respective qualities.

The use of the word "lamp" to refer to the sun is very apt, for a lamp gives heat and light and it shines as if it is ablaze. The heat and the light provided by the sun combine with the water flowing in abundance time after time from the "squeezable" clouds to help the seeds send out their shoots. This is how grains, vegetables, bushes and wide-branching trees grow. This consonance in the design of the universe could not have been achieved without the careful Designer and the wise Planner. Any man would appreciate this if his attention were drawn to it. If he acquired advanced knowledge he would find much more consonance and congruity in the universe, which would leave him wondering in complete amazement. He would then find completely insupportable the argument that all this had been the result of coincidence. He would consider those who evade admitting the fact of elaborate and conscious planning pig-headed, unworthy of respect.

The Qur'an refers to this multitude of scenes and phenomena in the universe in a very significant succession: making the earth level, the mountains its pegs, mankind pairs, sleep a cessation of activity, the night a covering mantle, the day a period of bustling activity, building the seven mighty ones, providing the blazing lamp and the abundant flow of water so that vegetation, grains and trees can shoot forth and grow. This succession confirms the perfect consonance and produces a very strong feeling of the great Wisdom that has planned all this. It inspires the heart with the realisation of the purpose of this life ... Hence, we pick up again the theme of the fateful tiding, the subject of controversy.

All this has been for work and pleasure, but there are reckoning and reward to follow, on the appointed Day of Decision:

wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 28 July 2006 at 5:29am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

Surah An-Naba (continued) 21-30

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(21. Truly, Hell is a place of ambush) (22. A dwelling place for the Taghun,) (23. They will abide therein Ahqab.) (24. Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink.) (25. Except Hamim, and Ghassaq) (26. An exact recompense (according to their evil crimes).) (27. For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning.) (28. But they denied Our Ayat Kidhdhaba.) (29. And all things We have recorded in a Book.) (30. So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.) (26. An exact recompense (according to their evil crimes).) (27. For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning.) (28. But they denied Our Ayat Kidhdhaba.) (29. And all things We have recorded in a Book.) (30. So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.)

(Truly, Hell is a place of ambush)

meaning, it is waiting in preparation.

(for the Taghun) These are the disobedient rejectors who oppose the Messengers.

(A dwelling place) meaning, a place of return, final destination, final outcome, and residence. Allah said,

(They will abide therein Ahqab.)

meaning, they will remain in it for Ahqab, which is the plural of Huqb. Huqb means a period of time. Khalid bin Ma`dan said, "This Ayah, and the Ayah,

except your Lord wills. (11:107) both refer to the people of Tawhid. "[1][13] Ibn Jarir recorded this statement. Ibn Jarir also recorded from Sa0lim that he heard Al-Hasan being asked about Allah s statement,

(They will abide therein Ahqab) "In reference to Ahqab, it has no specific amount of time other than its general meaning of eternity in the Hellfire. However, they have mentioned that the Huqb is seventy years, and every day of it is like one thousand years according to your reckoning (in this life).''[2][14]

Sa`id reported from Qatadah that he said, "Allah says,

(They will abide therein Ahqab.) (78:23)

And it is that which has no end to it. Whenever one era comes to an end, a new era follows it. It has been mentioned to us that the Huqb is eighty years.''[3][15] Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said,

(They will abide therein Ahqab) "No one knows how much time this Ahqab is, except for Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. It has been mentioned to us that one Huqb is eighty years, and the year is three hundred and sixty days, and each day is equivalent to one thousand years according to your reckoning (in this life).'' Ibn Jarir has recorded both of these statements.[4][16]

Allah's statement:

(Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink.)

meaning, they will not find any coolness in Hell for their hearts, nor any good drink for them to partake of. Thus, Allah says,

(Except Hamim, and Ghassaq) Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "The Hamim has been made an exception to the coolness, and Ghassaq is the exception to the drink.''[5][17] This has also been said by Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. In reference to the Hamim, it is the heat that has reached its maximum temperature and point of boiling. The Ghassaq[6][18] is gathered from the pus, sweat, tears, and wounds of the people of Hellfire. It is unbearably cold with an intolerable stench. May Allah save us from that by His beneficence and grace. Then He continues,

(An exact recompense.)

meaning, that which will happen to them of this punishment is in accordance with their wicked deeds, which they were doing in this life. Mujahid, Qatadah, and others have said this.

Then Allah said,

(For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning.) (78:27)

meaning, they did not believe that there would be an abode in which they would be taken to account.

(But they denied Our Ayat Kidhdhaba.)

meaning, they used to deny the evidences of Allah and His proofs for His creation, which He revealed to His Messengers. So they met these proofs with rejection and obstinance. His statement,

(Kidhdhaba) it means rejection, and it is considered a verbal noun that does not come from a verb. Allah said;

(And all things We have recorded in a Book.)

meaning, `surely We know the deeds of all of the creatures, and We have written these deeds for them. We will reward them based upon this.' If their deeds were good then their reward will be good, and if their deeds were evil their reward will be evil. Allah then says,

(So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.)

This means that it will be said to the people of the Hellfire, "Taste that which you were in. We will never increase you in anything except torment according to its type (of sin), and something else similar to it.'' Qatadah reported from Abu Ayyub Al-Azdi, who reported from `Abdullah bin `Amr that he said, "Allah did not reveal any Ayah against the people of the Hellfire worse than this Ayah,

(So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.)''

Then he said, "They will continue increasing in torment forever.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(78:21) Hell, in fact, is an ambush, *14

*14 "An ambush": a place contrived to entrap game by surprise. Hell has been described as an ambush, because the rebels of God are fearless of it and are enjoying life thinking that the world is a haven of bliss for them. They do not know that Hell is lying in ambush for them, which will trap them suddenly and keep them trapped.

(78:22) the abode for the rebellious

(78:23) in which they shall remain lodged for ages. *15

*15 The word ahqab as used in the original means successive periods of long time appearing continuously one after the other. From this word some people have tried to argue that there will be eternity in the life of Paradise but no eternity. in the life of Hell. For however long these ages may be, they will not be endless but will come to an end at some time. But this argument is wrong for two reasons. First, that lexically, the word haqab (sing. of ahqab) itself contains the meaning that one haqab should be closely followed by another haqab; therefore, ahqab will necessarily be used only for such periods of time as continue to appear successively one after the other and there should be no period which is not followed by another period. Second, that as a rule it is wrong to put a meaning on a verse of the Qur'an pertaining to a particular theme which clashes with other statements of the Qur'an pertaining to the same theme. At 34 places in the Qur'an the word khulud (eternity) has been used concerning the dwellers of Hell. At three places not only the word khulud has been used but the word abad an (for ever and ever) also has been added to it; and at one place it has been clearly stated: "They will wish to get out of Hell but shall not be able to come out of it and theirs shall be an everlasting torment." (AI-Ma'idah: 37). At another place it has been said: "Therein they shall abide for ever, as long as the earth and the heavens shall last, unless your Lord ordains otherwise." And the same thing has been said about the dwellers of Paradise too:" "They shall dwell in Paradise for ever, as long as the earth and the heavens shall last, unless your Lord wills something else." (Hud: 107-108). After these explanations, how can one argue, on the basis of the word abqab, that the stay of the rebels of God in Hell will not be eternal, but it will come to an end at some stage in time?

(78:24) In it they shall not taste any coolness nor any drink,

(78:25) except boiling water and the washing from wounds, *16

*16 The word ghassaq as used in the original applies to pus, blood, pus-blood and all those fluids that flow out from the eyes and skins as a result of a grievous penalty. Besides, this word is also used for a thing which stinks and gives out horrid, offensive smell.

(78:26) a full recompense (for their misdeeds).

(78:27) They did not expect any reckoning.

(78:28) and had treated Our Revelations as utterly false, *17

*17 This is the reason for which they will deserve this dreadful penalty of Hell. Firstly, they lived in the world thinking that the time will never come when they will have to appear before God and render an account of their deeds; second, that they utterly refused to accept and acknowledge the Revelations that Allah had sent through His Prophets for their instruction and treated them as falsehood.

(78:29) whereas We had counted and preserved everything in writing. *18

*18 That is, "We were continuously preparing a complete record of their sayings and doings, their movements and occupations, even of their intentions. thoughts and aims in life and nothing was being left un-recorded, whereas the foolish people in their heedlessness thought that they were living in a lawless kingdom where they were free to do whatever they pleased and desired. and there was no power to call them to account. "

(78:30) Now taste it, for We shall never increase anything for you except the torment.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al-Quran

 

The surah takes another step beyond resurrection, to describe the fate of the tyrant unbelievers and also that of the righteous. It begins with the former group who raise doubts about the fateful tiding:

[78:21]Surely hell lies in wait, [78:22]A place of resort for the inordinate, [78:23]Living therein for ages. [78:24] They shall not taste therein cool nor drink [78:25] But boiling and intensely cold water, [78:26] Requital corresponding. [78:27] Surely they feared not the account, [78:28] And called Our communications a lie, giving the lie (to the truth). [78:29] And We have recorded everything in a book, [78:30] So taste! for We will not add to you aught but chastisement.

 

Hell has been created so that it may watch the tyrants and transgressors and await their arrival. They find it well prepared to receive them, as if they are returning to their natural home after having sojourned on earth a while. It is a home in which they stay endlessly. But they taste neither coolness nor any drink. The next verse provides an exception to this, but the exception is even worse: except boiling fluid and decaying filth. Their throats and stomachs burn as they drink the boiling fluid, which is the only coolness they have, while their other drink is the filth of the burning bodies, decaying in the enormouns heat. The Quran comments that this is a fitting recompense. It is in keeping with they have done in their lives. For they thought they would never return to God: . [78:27] Surely they feared not the account, [78:28] And called Our communications a lie, giving the lie (to the truth). Their denial, as the Arabic verse suggests, is strongly emphatic and strongly upheld. But God keeps a meticulous record which doeleave out anything they do or say: ). [78:29] And We have recorded everything in a book, Then follows a reproach coupled with the tiding that they can hope for no change in their condition and no abatement of its intensity: [78:30] So taste! for We will not add to you aught but chastisement.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 28 July 2006 at 6:07am

Amah's post

Bismillah Arrahmaan Arraheem

Surah An-Naba (continued) Verses 17-20

21/07/06

**********************************


Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

(17. Verily, the Day of Decision is a fixed time,) (18. The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds.) (19. And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates.) (20. And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage.)

 

Explaining the Day of Decision and what occurs during it

Allah says about the Day of Decision -- and it is the Day of Judgement -- that it is at a fixed time, with a set appointment. Its time cannot be added to or decreased. No one knows its exact time except Allah. This is as Allah says,

(And We delay it only for a term fixed.) (11:104)

(The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds.)

Mujahid said, "Groups after groups.''[1] Ibn Jarir said, "This means that each nation will come with its Messenger. It is similar to Allah's statement,

(The Day when We shall call together all human beings with their Imam.) (17:71)''

Al-Bukhari reported concerning the explanation of Allah's statement,

(The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds.)

Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(That which is between the two blowings is forty.)

Someone asked, "Is it forty days, O Abu Hurayrah'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.''

They then asked, "Is it forty months'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.''

They asked again, "Is it forty years'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.''

(Abu Hurayrah added:) "Then the Prophet went on to say,

(Then Allah will send down a rain from the sky and the dead body will sprout just as a green plant sprouts. Every part of the last person will deteriorate except for one bone, and it is the coccyx bone (tailbone). From it the creation will be assembled on the Day of Judgement.)''

(And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates.)

meaning, paths, and routes for the descending of the angels.

(And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage.)

This is similar to Allah's statement,

(And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds.) (27:88)

He also says,

(And the mountain will be like carded wool.) (101:5)

And Allah says here,

(As if they were a mirage.)

meaning, they appear to the one who looks at them as if they are something, but they are actually nothing. After this they will be completely removed. Nothing will be seen of them, and there will be neither base nor trace of them. This is as Allah says,

(And they ask you concerning the mountains, say: "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain. You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.'') (20:105-107)

And He says,

(And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47)

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(78:17) Surely the Day of Decision is an appointed time.

(78:18) The day the Trumpet is blown,

(78:19) you shall come out in multitudes, *12 and the heaven shall be opened so as to become all doors,

*12 This implies the final sounding of the Trumpet at which all dead men will rise back to life forthwith. "You" implies not only those who were the addressees at that time but all those humans who will have been born from the beginning of creation till Resurrection.

"The Resurrection will not take place piecemeal so that the people may leisurely watch its coming, but it will come all of a sudden when the people will be engaged in their daily business and they will have no idea whatever that the end of the world had approached. There will be a terrible blast and everyone will fall dead at the spot. " Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Amr and Hadrat Abu Hurairah have related a Hadith from the Holy Prophet saying: "The people will be walking on the roads as astral, will be buying and selling in the markets, will be disputing matters in their assemblies, when suddenly the Trumpet shall be sounded. Thereupon the one who was buying cloth would collapse and he would not have the time to put down the cloth from his hand; the one who was filling a cistern to water his animals would not have the time to water; and the one who was going to eat, would not have the time to Iift the morsel to his mouth and Resurrection will take place. "

(78:20) and the mountains shall be set in motion till they become as a mirage. *13

*13 One should bear in mind the fact that here also, as at many other places in the Qur'an, the different states of Resurrection have been mentioned all together. In the first verse, mention has been made of what will happen at the final sounding of the Trumpet and in the following two verses of the state which will appear at the second sounding of the Trumpet. While reading the following verses one should keep in mind that at some places in the Qur'an the three stages of Resurrection which will occur one after the other at different times have been mentioned separately, and at others all the three have been combined and mentioned as a single event. For example, in Surah An-Naml: 87 the first blowing of the Trumpet has been mentioned, when everyone will be suddenly struck with terror. At that time they will witness the general confusion and the upsetting of the order of the universe, as described in Al-Hajj: 1-2, Ya Sin 49-50 and At-Takvir: 1-6. In Surah Az-Zumar: 67-70, mention has been made of the second and third blowing of the Trumpet. On the second blowing of it everyone will fall down dead, and when it is blown for the third time, all dead men will rise back to life and present themselves before Allah. In Ta Ha: 102-112, AI-Anbiya': 101-103, Ya Sin: 51-53 and Qaf: 20-22, only the third sounding of the Trumpet has been mentioned.

"The heavens shall be opened" means: All obstacles in the heavens will be removed and every heavenly calamity from every side will be befalling freely as though all doors for it were open and no door had remained closed to obstruct its happening. "The mountains will be set in motion till they become as a mirage" means: In no time will the mountains be uprooted from their places and then will be scattered away in particles leaving nothing but vast, empty sand plains behind. "This same state has been described in Surah Ta Ha, thus: They ask you: well, where will the mountains go on that Day? Say to them: My Lord will reduce them to fine dust and scatter it away. He will turn the earth into an empty level plain, wherein you will neither see any curve nor crease."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al-Quran

Fixed is the Day of Decision. On that day the Trumpet is blown and you shall come in crowds, and heaven is opened, and becomes gates, and the mountains are get in motion, and seem to have been a mirage.

After this multitude of images taken from actual life the surah takes up the issue of the event of which they have been warned. It explains to them its nature and how it takes place: Fixed is the Day of Decision. On that day the Trumpet is blown and you shall come in crowds, and heaven is opened, and becomes gates, and the mountains are set in motion, and seem to have been a mirage.

Creation is not without purpose. The Creator Who has accurately measured human life and carefully provided perfect harmony between it and the universe cannot let people just live and die in vain. Reason cannot accept that those who do good and the evil-doers should both end in dust. The rightly guided and the straying folk, the just and the tyrants cannot have the same fate. There must be a day when everything is judged and evaluated. The day is appointed by Allah: Fixed is the Day of Decision.

It is a day when upheaval overtakes the universe and destroys its systems.

On that day the Trumpet is blown and you shall come in crowds, and heaven is opened and becomes gates, and the mountains are set in motion, and seem to have been a mirage.

The "Trumpet" is a kind of horn of which we know nothing except its name and that it will be blown. We need not waste our time trying to discover how, for such discovery will not strengthen our faith.

Allah has revealed to us what we need to know of the secrets of the universe so that we may not waste our energy in futile pursuit of useless knowledge. We can imagine, however, a blow on the Trumpet which men answer by coming in crowds. We can visualise such a scene when all generations of mankind, which succeeded one another on this earth, rise up, walking in multitudes, from all directions to attend the great reckoning. We can imagine the fearful sight of people rising up from graves and the great crowd, huge, endless. We can feel the horror of the day with such an unprecedented crowd, helpless', horror-stricken. We do not know where will this happen, for the universe is full of great events" and heaven is opened and becomes gates, and the mountains are set in motion, and seem to have been a mirage.

Heaven, the mighty heaven, is opened up so that it becomes gates. It is, as described elsewhere in the Qur'an, rent asunder. So, it will look very unfamiliar to us. The firmly dug-in pegs, namely, the mountains are set in motion. They are hammered, scattered, turned into dust, blown by the wind, as other Qur'anic verses describe. Hence, they become non-existent, like a mirage which has no reality. Or, probably, different rays are reflected against them after they have been turned into dust and they look like a mirage.

All in all, it is horror apparent in the upheaval which envelops the universe as well as in men's resurrection after blowing the Trumpet. Such is the Day of Decision carefully and wisely fixed.

Wassalaam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 04 August 2006 at 4:24am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

Surah An-Naba (continued) Ayaah 31-36

 

Tafsir ibn Kathir

(31. Verily, for those who have Taqwa, there will be a success;) (32. Hada'iq and vineyards,) (33. And Kawa`ib Atrab,) (34. And a cup Dihaq.) (35. No Laghw shall they hear therein, nor lying;) (36. Rewarded from your Lord with a sufficient gift.)

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=78&tid=56825.htm -  

The Great Success will be for Those Who have Taqwa

Allah informs about the happy people and what He has prepared for them of esteem, and eternal pleasure. Allah says,

 

(Verily, for those who have Taqwa, there will be a success;)

Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak both said, "A place of enjoyable recreation.''[1][21] Mujahid and Qatadah both said, "They are successful and thus, they are saved from the Hellfire.''[2][22] The most obvious meaning here is the statement of Ibn `Abbas, because Allah says after this,

 (Hada'iq) And Hada'iq are gardens of palm trees and other things.

 (And vineyards, and Kawa`ib Atrab,)

meaning, wide-eyed maidens with fully developed breasts. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others have said,

 

(Kawa`ib) "This means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age. This means that they will only have one age.''[3][23]

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (And a cup Dihaq.) Ibn `Abbas said, "Continuously filled.''[4][25] `Ikrimah said, "Pure.'' Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, and Ibn Zayd all said,

 

 (Dihaq) "This means completely filled.''[5][26] Then Allah says,

 (No Laghw shall they hear therein, nor lying;)

This is similar to Allah's statement,

 

 (Free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) (52:23)

meaning, there will not be any vain, worthless speech therein, nor any sinful lying. Rather, it will be the abode of peace, and everything that is in it will be free of any shortcomings. Allah then says,

 

 (Rewarded from your Lord with a sufficient gift.)

meaning, `this that We have mentioned to you is what Allah will reward them with, and they will be given it by His favor and from Him. It will be a kindness, mercy, gift, and recompense from Him. It will be sufficient, suitable, comprehensive and abundant.' The Arabs say, "He gave me and he sufficed me.'' This means that he sufficiently provided for me.'' From this comes the saying, "Allah is sufficient for me.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(78:31) Surely for the righteous *19 there is a abode of success:

*19 Here, the word "righteous" has been used in contrast to those who did not expect any accountability and who had belied Allah's Revelations. Therefore, this word inevitably implies those people who believed in Allah's Revelations and lived in the world with the understanding that they had to render an account of their deeds ultimately.

 

(78:32) gardens and vineyards

(1) They will go about in the Gardens (Paradise) freely without any hesitation; (2) no effort will have to be made to open the gates of Paradise: they will open automatically as soon as they will have the desire to enter them; (3) the angels appointed for keeping Paradise will open the gates for them as soon as they see them. This third meaning has been expressed more clearly at another place in the Qur'an, thus: "When they arrive there, and its gates shall already have been opened, its keepers will say: Peace be upon you: you have fared well: enter here to dwell for ever. " (Az-Zumar: 73)

 

 

(78:33) and maidens of equal age *20

*20 TMs may mean that they will be of equal age among themselves as well as that they will be of equal age with their husbands. At another place it is mentioned, (56:37) lovers of their husbands *18 and of equal age.  The word 'uruban is used for the best feminine qualities of the woman in Arabic. This signifies a woman who is graceful and elegant, well-mannered and eloquent, and brimful of feminine feelings, who loves her husband with all her heart, and whose husband also loves her with all his heart.
*19 This can have two meanings: (1) That they will be of equal age with their husbands; and (2) that they will be of equal age among themselves; i.e. all the women in Paradise will be of the same age and will eternally stay young. Both these meanings may be correct at one and the same time, i.e. these women may be of equal age among themselves and their husbands also may be made of equal age with them. .According to a ,Hadith, "When the dwellers of Paradise enter it, their bodies will be without hair, their moustaches will be just appearing, but will yet he beardless, they will be handsome and fair-complexioned, with sturdy bodies and collyrium- stained eyes; they will all be 33 years of age." (Musnad Ahmad: Marwiyat Abi Hurairah). Almost the same theme has been related in Tirmidhi by Hadrat Mu'adh bin Jabal and Hadrat Abu Sa`id Khudri also.

 

(78:34) and brimful cups.

(78:35) There they shall neither hear idle talk nor any falsehood, *21

*21 At several places in the Qur'an this has been counted as among the major blessings of Paradise. Human ears there will remain secure against idle, false and indecent talk. There will be no nonsensical, meaningless gossiping in Paradise; no one will tell lies nor belie others; nor will there be any use of abusive language, slandering; calumnies and false accusations which are so common in the world. ( E.N.'s 13, 14 of AlWaqi`ah).  (56:25) There they shall neither hear vain talk nor sinful speech. *13

*13 This is one of the major blessings of Paradise, which has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an, viz. that in Paradise human ears will remain secure against idle and frivolous talk, lying, backbiting slander, invective, boasting and bragging, taunts and mockery, satire and sarcasm. It will not be a society of foul-mouthed, indecent people who will throw mud at each other, but a society of noble and civilized people free of such frivolities. A person who has been blessed with some deceney of manner and sense by Allah can very well feel what an agony it is in worldly life a hope of deliverance from which has been given to man in Paradise.

(56:26) Whatever they hear shall be right and pure. *14

*14 Some commentators and translators have taken the words, illa gilan salam-an salama, to mean that in Paradise one will hear only the greeting of 'Peace, peace' on every side; the correct view, however, is that it implies healthy and wholesome speech, i.e. such speech as may be free of the vices and blemishes, faults and evils, that have been mentioned in the preceding sentence. Here the word salam has been used nearly in the same sense as the English word sane.

 

(78:36) a reward and sufficient gift *22 from your Lord,

*22 "A reward and sufficient gift": that is, they will not only be given their due rewards which they will deserve for their good deeds, but over and above these they will be given additional and sufficient gifts and prizes as well. Contrary to this, in respect of the dwellers of Hell it has been said: "They will be recompensed fully for their misdeeds." That is, they will neither be punished less than what they will deserve for their crimes nor more.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al-Quran

31-36 The godfearing; shall have a place of security, gardens and vineyards and high-bosomed maidens, of equal age, for companions, and a cup overflowing. There they shall hear no idle talk, nor any falsehood. Such is the recompense of your Lord: a truly sufficient gift:

 

The scene of happiness, on the other hand, overflows with beauty: The godfearing shall have a place of security, gardens and vineyards and high-bosomed maidens, of equal age, for companions, and a cup over flowing. There they shall hear no idle talk, nor any falsehood. Such is the recompense of your Lord. a truly sufficient gift.

We then have the corresponding scene of the righteous in complete bliss.

If Hell is a vigilant watchguard which the tyrants cannot escape, the righteous, the godfearing, will end in a place of security. What a place it is: "gardens and vineyards." The vine tree is specifically mentioned because it is well known to the addressees. The godfearing will also have companions who are described here as high-bosomed and of equal age. They also drink of a cup overflowing with drink. These luxuries are given a physical description so that they may be appreciated by human beings. The precise nature of these luxuries and how they may be enjoyed remain unknown to us as our understanding is restricted by our limited world. But the enjoyment provided to the righteous is not purely physical. There they shall hear no idle talk, nor any falsehood.

So it is a pure life there, free of the idle chatting and falsehood which give rise to controversy. The reality is known to everyone, which means that there is no room for futile argument. It is a sublime state of affairs suitable for the eternal life. Then follows the Qur'anic comment: Such is the recompense of your Lord: a truly sufficient gift.

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 11 August 2006 at 4:24am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

Surah An-Naba (continued) 37-40

 

Tafsir ibn Kathir

(37. The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatsoever is in between them, the Most Gracious, with Whom they cannot dare to speak.) (38. The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom Ar-Rahman allows, and he will speak what is right.) (39. That is the True Day. So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with His Lord!) (40. Verily, We have warned you of a near torment -- the Day when man will see that which his hands have sent forth, and the disbeliever will say: "Woe to me! Would that I were dust!'')

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=78&tid=56847.htm -  No one will dare to speak before Allah -- not even the Angels - without first receiving Permission

Allah informs of His magnificence and His majesty, and that He is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatever is in them and between them. He explains that He is the Most Gracious, Whose mercy covers all things. Then He says,

 (With Whom they cannot dare to speak.)

meaning, no one is able to begin addressing Him except by His permission. This is as Allah says,

(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255)

It is also similar to His statement,

 (On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave.) (11:105)

 (The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak) (78:38)

The word Ruh here is referring to the angel Jibril. This has been said by Ash-Sha`bi, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ad-Dahhak.[1][27] This is as Allah says,

 (Which the trustworthy Ruh has brought down. Upon your heart that you may be of the warners.) (26:193-194)

Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "The Ruh is the noblest of the angels, the closest of them to the Lord, and the one who delivers the revelation.''[2][28]

Allah said;

 (except him whom Ar-Rahman allows,) This is similar to Allah's statement,

 

(On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave.) (11:105)

This is similar to what has been confirmed in the Sahih, that the Prophet said,

 (And none will speak on that Day except the Messengers.)''[3][29]

Allah said,

(and he will speak what is right.)

meaning, the truth. And from the truth is the fact that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah. This is as Abu Salih and `Ikrimah both said.[4][30] In reference to Allah's statement,

 

(That is the True Day.)

meaning, it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.

 

(So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with His Lord!)

meaning, a place of return, a path that leads to Him, and a way that he may pass by to get to Him.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=78&tid=56871.htm -  The Day of Judgement is Near

Allah said,

 (Verily, We have warned you of a near torment)

meaning, the Day of Judgement. It is mentioned here to emphasize the fact that its occurrence has become close, because everything that is coming will certainly come to pass.

 

(the Day when man will see that which his hands have sent forth,)

meaning, all of his deeds will be presented to him -- the good and bad, and the old and new. This is similar to Allah's statement,

 

(And they will find all that they did, placed before them.) (18:49).

It is also similar to His statement,

 

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (75:13)

Then Allah says,

 (and the disbeliever will say: "Woe to me! Would that I were dust!'')

meaning, the disbeliever on that Day will wish that he had only been dust in the worldly life. He will wish that he had not been created and that he had never come into existence. This will be when he sees the torment of Allah and he looks at his wicked deeds that will be written down against him by the noble righteous scribes among angels. It has been said that he will only wish for that when Allah passes judgement between all of the animals that were in the worldly life. He will rectify matters between them with His just wisdom that does not wrong anyone. Even the hornless sheep will be allowed to avenge itself against the sheep with horns. Then, when the judgement between them is finished, He (Allah) will say to them (the animals), "Be dust.'' So they will all become dust. Upon witnessing this the disbeliever will say,

 

(Would that I were dust!)

meaning, `I wish I was an animal so that I would be returned to dust.' Something of similar meaning to this has been reported in the well-known Hadith about the Sur. There are also narrations recorded from Abu Hurayrah, `Abdullah bin `Amr, and others concerning this.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(78:37) from the All-Merciful God, Who is the Owner of the heavens and the earth and of everything lying between them, before Whom none can have the power to speak. *23

*23 That is, the Court of Allah Almighty will be so awe-inspiring that no one, whether belonging to the earth or to the heavens, will dare open his mouth of his own will before Allah, nor interfere in the Court's work and proceedings.

 

(78:38) The Day when the Spirit *24 and the angels shall be standing up in ranks, none shall speak except the one whom the Merciful may permit, and who speaks what is right. *25

*24 According to most commentators, "the Spirit" implies the Angel Gabriel (peace be on him), who has been mentioned separately from the angels because of his high rank and position with Allah. "The Spirit": the Angel Gabriel (peace be on him), who has been mentioned separately from the angels in order to impress his unique glory and greatness. In Surah Ash-Shu'ara' it has been said: "The trustworthy Spirit has came down with this Qur'an upon your heart", (v. 193), and in Surah AI-Baqarah "Say to them: whoever is an enemy to Gabriel, should understand that he has, by .Allah's command. revealed upon your heart this Qur'an." (v. 97). These verses when read together show that Ar-Ruh (the Spirit) implies the Angel Gabriel.  

*25 "To speak": to intercede, and intercession has been made conditional upon two things: (1) That the person who is granted permission by Allah to intercede for a sinner will alone be allowed to intercede and for the particular sinner only; and (2) that the intercessor will say only what is right and proper, and nothing derogatory, and the one for whom he is interceding should have at least acknowledged the Truth in the world. That is, he should only be a sinner, not an unbeliever. This is a refutation of the ideas of those polytheists who consider either saints, angels or other beings to be so influential with God that if they were adamant in demanding something of Him, their demand would prevail. They are being told that, far from anyone having the power to impose his will on God, none - not even the greatest Prophets and the most highly esteemed angels - will dare utter one word in the majestic court of the Lord unless they are expressly permitted to do so.  

 

(78:39) That Day is sure to come. Now whoever wills, let him take the path back to his Lord.

(78:40) We have warned you of the torment which is near at hand: *26 the Day when man will see all that his hands have sent forward, and the disbeliever will cry out: "Would that I were mere dust!" *27

*26 Apparently, one might think that the people who were the audience of this verse died fourteen centuries ago, ,and even now it cannot be said how many hundreds or thousands or millions of years Resurrection will take to come. Then, in what sense has it been said: "The torment of which you have been warned, has approached near at hand?" And what is the meaning of saying in the beginning of the Surah: "Soon they shall know?" The answer is that man can have the feeling of time only until he is passing a physical life in the world within the bounds of space and time. After death when only the soul will survive, he will lose every feeling and consciousness of time, and on the Day of Resurrection when man will rise back to life, he will feel as though some one had aroused him from sleep suddenly. He will not at all be conscious that he has been resurrected after thousands of years. 
*27 "Would ......dust": "Would that I had not been born in the world, or had become mere dust after death, and thus reduced to nothingness."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al-Quran

Lord of the heavens and earth and all that lies between them, the All Merciful, with Whom they have no power to speak. On the day when the Spirit and the angels stand in ranks, they shall not speak, save him to whom the All-Merciful has given leave, and who shall say what is right. That day is a certainly Let him who will seek a way back to his Lord. We have forewarned you of an imminent scourge, on the day when a man will look on what his hands have forwarded and the disbeliever will cry: "Would that I Were dust"!

 

The surah closes with a distinctive note which accompanies a majestic scene of the day when all this takes place: The surah closes with the final scene of the day when all this happens. It is a scene in which we see Jibril, the Holy Spirit, and all the angels standing in ranks before Allah, their All-Merciful Lord. They stand in awe of Him; no-one dares utter a word without prior permission from the Merciful.

Lord of the heavens and earth and all that lies between them, the All Merciful, with Whom they have no power to speak. On the day when the Spirit and the angels stand in ranks, they shall not speak, save him to whom the All-Merciful has given leave, and who shall say what is right.

The recompense given to the righteous and to the tyrant transgressors which was detailed in the previous section is from your Lord ... Lord of the heavens and earth and all that lies between them, the All-Merciful.

What a befitting context to reaffirm the eternal truth of godhead. Allah is the Supreme Lord of man, heavens and earth, this life and the next, Who metes out reward for righteousness and punishment for tyranny. But above all He is the All-Merciful. The reward He assigns to each group is a manifestation of His mercy. Even the torment endured by the transgressors originates from Allah's mercy. For it is indeed part of mercy that evil should be punished and that it should not have the same end as good.

The other Divine attribute implied here is majesty: "with Whom they have no power to speak." In this highly awesome situation no man or angel can speak without permission from the All-Merciful. Whatever is said will be right because He does not permit anyone to speak whom He knows will not be saying what is right.

When we think that the angels, who are favoured by Allah, and absolutely pure from sin, stand silent in front of Allah and dare not speak without His permission, we are bound to feel how awesome the atmosphere is. Having motivated such a feeling the surah gives a cry of warning to those who have chosen not to hear or see: That day is a certainty. Let him who will, seek a way back to his Lord. We have warned you of an imminent scourge, on the day when a man will look on what his hands have forwarded and the disbeliever will cry: 'Would that I were dust!'

Those who raise doubts and question the reality of the Day of Decision are given a violent shake: "That day is a certainty." There is no room left for doubts and controversy. Yet there is time for mending one's erring ways before the fearful watchguard, i.e. Hell becomes a permanent home: "Let him who will, seek a way back to his Lord." The warning is stern enough to make the drunken awake: "We have forewarned you of an imminent scourge." It will not be long coming, for man's life is but a short period. The scourge is so fearful that the disbelievers, when faced with it, will send up that great cry expressing the wish that they had never lived: on the day when a man will look on what his hands have forwarded and the disbeliever will cry: 'Would that I were dust!'

It is a cry of one who is in great distress, who feels ashamedly for what has been and what one has done. He feels that it is better not to be, or to be something as worthless as dust, than to witness such a fearful occasion. The horrifying position of the disbelievers is the subject of the questions and doubts they raise concerning that fateful tiding.

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Naba'. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah. He is the Giver of success and protection from error.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 28 August 2006 at 2:59am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(1. By those who pull out, drowning.) (2. By those who free briskly.) (3. And by the swimmers, swimming.) (4. And by the racers, racing.) (5. And by those who arrange affairs.)

 

Swearing by Five Characteristics that the Day of Judgement will occur

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Abu Ad-Duha and As-Suddi all said,

(By those who pull out, drowning.) "These are the angels who remove the souls from the Children of Adam.''

Among them are those whose souls are removed by the angels with difficulty, as if he is being drowned during its removal. There are those people whose souls the angels remove with ease, as if they were unraveling him (i.e., his soul from him) due to their briskness. This is the meaning of Allah's statement,

(By those who free briskly.) This has been mentioned by Ibn `Abbas. In reference to Allah's statement,

(And by the swimmers, swimming.) Ibn Mas`ud said, "They are the angels.'' Similar statements have been reported from `Ali, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, and Abu Salih. Concerning Allah's statement,

(And by the racers, racing.) It has been narrated from `Ali, Masruq, Mujahid, Abu Salih, and Al-Hasan Al-Basri that this means the angels. Then Allah says,

(And by those who arrange affairs.)

`Ali, Mujahid, `Ata', Abu Salih, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, and As-Suddi all said, "They are the angels.'' Al-Hasan added, "They control the affairs from the heaven to the earth, meaning by the command of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.''

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=79&tid=56904.htm -  

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:1) By those (angels) who pluck out from the depths, (79:2) and draw out gently, (79:3) and by those (angels) who glide about swiftly (through space), (79:4) then hasten out (to carry out Commands), (79:5) then conduct the affairs (in accordance with Divine Commands) *1 :

*1 Here, the object for which an oath has been sworn by beings having five qualities has not been mentioned; but the theme that follows by itself leads to the conclusion that the oath has been sworn to affirm that the Resurrection is a certainty, which must come to pass, when all dead men shall be resurrected. Nor is there any mention as to what are the beings possessed of the qualities. However, a large number of the Companions and their immediate successors and most of the commentators have expressed the opinion that they are the angels. Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Hadrat `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubair, Abu salih Abud-Duha and Suddi; say that "those who pluck out from the depths and those who draw out gently" imply the angels, who wrench out the soul of man at death from the very depths of his body, from its every fibre. "Those who glide about swiftly", according to Hadrat Ibn Mas`ud, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubair and Abu Salih, also imply the angels, who hurry about swiftly in execution of Divine Commands as though they were gliding through space. The same meaning of "those who hasten out as in a race" has been taken by Hadrat `Ali, Mujahid, Masruq, Abu Salih and Hasan Bari, and hastening out implies that each one of them hurries on his errand as soon as he receives the first indication of Divine Will. "Those who conduct the affairs" also imply the angels as has been reported from Hadrat `Ali, Mujahid, 'Ata' Abu -Salih, Hasan Bari;, Qatadah, Rabi` bin Anas and Suddi. In other words, these are the workers of the Kingdom of the Universe, who are conducting all the affairs of the world in accordance with Allah's Command and Will. Though this meaning of these verses has not been reported in any authentic Hadith from the Holy Prophet, while this meaning has been given by some major Companions and their immediate successors and pupils, one is led to form the view that they must have obtained this knowledge from the Holy Prophet himself.
Now the question arises: On what basis has the oath been sworn by these angels for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death when they themselves are as imperceptible as the thing for the occurrence of which they have been presented as an evidence and as an argument. In our opinion the reason is (and Allah has the best knowledge) that the Arabs were not deniers of the existence of the angels. They themselves admitted that at the death the soul was taken out by the angels; they also believed that the angels moved at tremendous speeds; they could reach any place between the earth and the heavens instantly and promptly execute any errand that was entrusted to them. They also acknowledged that the angels are subordinate to Divine Will and they conduct the affairs of the universe strictly and precisely in accordance with Divine Will; they are not independent and masters of their will. They regarded them as daughters of Allah out of ignorance and worshipped them as deities, but they did not believe that they possessed the real authority as well. Therefore, the basis of the reasoning from the abovementioned attributes for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death is that the angels who took the soul by the order of God, could also restore the soul by the order of the same God; and the angels who conducted the affairs of the universe by the order of God could also upset this universe by the order of the same God whenever . He so ordered them and could also bring about a new world order. They would not show any negligence or delay in the execution of His Command.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

By those that pluck out vehemently and those that move forward rapidly; by those that swim vigorously and those that outstrip swiftly and those that conduct a certain affair.

This surah is just one example of many in this thirtieth part of the Qur'an which have one common objective, namely, to drive home to man the reality of the hereafter, its inevitability, and its awesome and serious nature, and to stress its importance to the Divine planning of man's life in this world. Such planning culminates in man's death and subsequent resurrection for the life to come. As it sets out to drive this idea home to man, the surah touches the emotions in different ways which are directly relevant to its central idea.

First we have an ambiguous opening which creates an air of fear and worried expectation. The rhythm here is quick and throbbing; it helps evoke feelings of fear, surprise and wonder: By those that pluck out vehemently, and those that move out rapidly, by those that swim vigorously, and those that outstrip swiftly, and those that conduct a certain affair.

Perhaps we should note that these verses end with the sound 'aaha' which adds length to the meter, intensifying the effect of majesty and awe. By those that pluck vehemently and those that move forward rapidly; by those that swim vigorously and those that outstrip swiftly and those that conduct a certain affair. Some commentators say of these verses that they refer to the angels who pluck out the souls vehemently, move along actively with ease and speed, swim along as they move in the outer world, outstrip other creatures to embrace the faith and carry out Allah's commands and conduct whatever affairs they are charged with. Other commentators maintain that they refer to the stars who pluck out as they run in their orbits, move rapidly in phases, swim in space, outstrip others as they run fast and bring about certain phenomena and results which are entrusted to them by Allah and which affect life on earth. A third group of commentators are of the view that the pluckers, runners, swimmers and outstrippers refer to the stars while the conductors of affairs are the angels.

Another group believe that the pluckers, runners and swimmers are the stars while the outstrippers and conductors of affairs are the angels.

Whatever the referents of these terms are, we feel from the general Qur'anic sense that mentioning them in this particular manner produces a shock and a feeling of expectation of something fearful. Thus, they contribute, right at the outset, to preparing our minds for the fearful account of the first and second quakes and of the Greatest Catastrophe later on in the surah.

Perhaps it is better not to go into great detail in trying to explain and discuss these verses. It is perhaps more fruitful to let these verses produce their effect naturally. The Qur'an seeks to achieve its objective of awakening men's hearts in different ways. If we do this we simply follow the example of Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He once read the surah entitled "The Frowning" . When he reached the verse which reads "wafakihatan wa abba"' he wondered, "We know the fruit trees 'fakihatan', but what is 'abba'?" But then he reproached himself saying: "You Ibn Al-Khattab, are being really fussy today! What harm is there in your not knowing the meaning of a word used in Allah's book?" He then said to the people around: "Follow what you understand of this book; what you do not understand you may leave alone." His statement, aimed at discouraging people from trying to explain what may be equivocal to them without the backing of perfectly sound authority, represents an attitude of veneration towards Allah's words, some of which may have been deliberately left equivocal so that they may fulfil a certain objective.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 01 September 2006 at 8:55am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (6-14)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(6. On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) (7. Followed by the Radifah.) (8. Hearts that Day will tremble.) (9. Their vision humiliated.) (10. They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'') (11. "Even after we are bones Nakhirah'') (12. They say: "It would in that case, be a return with loss!'') (13. But it will be only a single Zajrah.) (14. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.)

 

The Description of the Day of Judgement, the People, and what They will say

 

Then Allah says,

 (On the Day the Rajifah shakes, followed by the Radifah.)

Ibn `Abbas said, "These are the two blasts (of the Trumpet) -- the first and the second.''[1][7] Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others have made similar statements.[2][8] It has been reported from Mujahid that he said, "In reference to the first, it is the statement of Allah,

 (On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) This is similar to Allah's statement,

 (On the Day the earth and the mountains shake.) (73:14)

The second is Ar-Radifah, and it is like the Allah's statement,

(And the earth and mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) (69:14)''[3][9]

 

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (Hearts that Day will tremble.) Ibn `Abbas said, "This means afraid.''[4][10] Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.[5][11]

 (Their vision humiliated.)

meaning, the eyes of the people. It means that the eyes will be lowly and disgraced from what they will witness of terrors. Allah then says,

 (They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'')

meaning, the idolators of the Quraysh and whoever rejects the Hereafter as they did. They consider the occurrence of the resurrection after being placed in Al-Hafirah -- which are the graves -- as something farfetched. This has been said by Mujahid.[6][12] They feel that this is something impossible after the destruction of their physical bodies and the disintegration of their bones and their decaying. Thus, Allah says,

 (Even after we are bones Nakhirah) It has also been recited:

 (Nakhirah)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, all said, "This means decayed.''[7][13] Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the bone when it has decayed and air enters into it.'' Concerning their saying,

 (It would in that case be a return with loss.) (79:12)

Muhammad bin Ka`b said that the Quraysh said, "If Allah brings us back to life after we die, then surely we will be losers.''[8][14] Allah then says,

 (But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.)

meaning, this is a matter that is from Allah that will not occur twice, nor will there be any opportunity to affirm it or verify it. The people will be standing and looking. This will be when Allah commands the angel Israfil to blow into the Sur, which will be the blowing of the resurrection. At that time the first people and the last people will all be standing before their Lord looking. This is as Allah says,

 (On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52)

Allah has also said,

 (And our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50)

Allah also says,

 (And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer.) (16:77)

 Allah then says,

 (When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) Ibn `Abbas said, "As-Sahirah means the entire earth.''[9][15] Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Abu Salih have all said this as well. `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd have all said, "As-Sahirah means the face of the earth.''[10][16] Mujahid said, "They will be at its (the earth's) lowest part, and they will be brought out to highest part.'' Then he said, "As-Sahirah is a level place.''[11][17]

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said,

 (When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) "

Allah says,

 (On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:48)

and He says,

 (And they ask you concerning the mountains: say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain.You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.) (20:105-107)

and Allah says,

 (And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47)

and the earth will be brought forth which will have mountains upon it, and it will not be considered from this earth (of this life). It will be an earth that no sin will be performed on it, nor will any blood be shed upon it.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:6) the Day when the quake shall cause. a violent jolt, (79:7) which is followed by another jolt, *2

*2 The first jolt implies the jolt which will destroy the earth and everything on it, and the second jolt at which all dead men will rise up from death and from their graves. This same state has been described in Surah Az-Zumar, thus: "And when the Trumpet shall be blown on that Day, all those who are in the heavens and the earth shall fall down dead except those whom Allah may allow (to live). Then the Trumpet shall be blown again and they will all stand up, looking around." (v. 68)

(79:8) some hearts on that Day shall be trembling with fear, *3

*3 "Some hearts", because, according to the Qur'an, only the disbelievers, the wicked people and the hypocrites will be terror-stricken on the Resurrection Day, the righteous believers will remain secure from this tenor. About them in Surah Al-Anbiya' it has been said: "The time of great fright will not trouble them at all; the angels will rush. forth to receive them, saying: `This is the very Day which you were promised'." (v. 103)

(79:9) their looks struck with awe. (79:10) They say, "Shall we really be restored to our former state? (79:11) What, when we shall have become hollow, rotten bones?" (79:12) They said, "It would then be a return with sheer loss! " *4

*4 That is, when they were told that they would surely be raised back to life after death, they started mocking it, saying to one another, "Well, if we have really to be restored to our former state of life, then we would certainly be doomed. "

(79:13) Whereas it will only need a single shout (79:14) and they will forthwith appear in an open plain. *5

*5 That is, "They are mocking it as an impossibility, whereas it is not at all a difficult task for Allah for the performance of which He may have to make lengthy preparations. For it only a single shout or cry is enough at which your dust of ash will gather together from wherever it lay, and you will suddenly find yourself alive on the back of the earth. Thinking this return to be a return to loss, you may try to escape from it however hard you may, but it will inevitably take place; it cannot be averted by your denial, escape or mockery."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

On the day when the earth shall quake, followed soon afterwards by the sky, all hearts shall be filled with terror, and all eyes shall be downcast. They say, "What, are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones? They say, "That will be a losing return." But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth.

 

The opening of the surah takes the form of an oath, to confirm the event related in the following few verses:

On the day when the earth shall quake followed soon afterwards by the sky, all hearts shall be filled with terror, and all eyes shall be downcast. They say, 'What are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones?' They say. 'That will be a losing return. ' But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth. It has been suggested that the "quaker" is the earth. This is based on what the Qur'an says in another surah:

On the day when the earth and the mountains will quake (Al-Qur'an 73:14) It has also been suggested that the "follower" is the sky, as it follows the earth and witnesses its own upheaval which causes it to split and causes the stars to scatter. An alternative suggestion claims that the "quaker" refers to the first blast on the Trumpet which causes the earth, the mountains and all creation to quake and tremble and makes all who are in heaven and on earth fall down fainting except those who shall be spared by Allah. "The follower" it is claimed, refers to the second blow on the Trumpet which brings all creation back to life (as stated in surah 39, verse 68).

Whichever suggestion is the correct one, the very verses make men's hearts feel the quake and shake with fear and worry. They prepare them to realise what sort of terror will fill the hearts on the day of judgement:

All hearts shall be filled with terror and all eyes shall be downcast. Thus, it is a combination of worry, fear, humiliation and breakdown. This is what happens on that day, and it is the fact which the oath at the opening of the surah seeks to establish. In both sense and rhythm, the scene portrayed by these verses fits in perfectly with the opening.

The surah goes on to speak of their surprise and wonder when they are resurrected: They say, 'What, are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones? They wonder whether they are being returned to life again. Amazed, they ask how this can be done after they have been dead for so long that their bones have become hollow. Then they realise that their awakening does not take them back to their life on earth, but to their second life. At this point they feel their great loss and cry:

They say, 'That will be a losing return.' They have not banked on such a return, and have not prepared for it, so they have everything to lose by it. The Qur'anic comment is to state what will actually happen. But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth.

The "blast" is a shout, but it is described here as a blast to emphasise its force, and to strike a note of perfect harmony between this scene and the other scenes of the surah. The term used for "the earth" here refers to a bright white earth which is the land of resurrection. We do not know its exact location. All we know of it is that which the Qur'an or the authentic traditions of the Prophet relate. We have no intention of adding anything unauthoritative to their account. Other Qur'anic statements lead us to the conclusion that this one blast is most probably the second blow on the Trumpet, i.e. the blow of resurrection. The expression used here gives a sense of speed. The blast itself is associated with speed, and the general rhythm of the surah is a rapid one. The terrified hearts also beat fast. Hence the perfect harmony between the sense, the rhythm, the scenes and the surah as a whole.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 08 September 2006 at 4:38am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (15 - 26)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(15. Has there come to you the story of Musa) (16. When his Lord called him in the holy valley of Tuwa,) (17. Go to Fir`awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds.) (18. And say to him: "Would you purify yourself'') (19. "And that I guide you to your Lord, so you should fear Him'') (20. Then he showed him the great sign.) (21. But he denied and disobeyed.) (22. Then he turned back, striving.) (23. So he gathered and called out,) (24. Saying: "I am your lord, most high.'') (25. So Allah seized him with punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life).) (26. In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=79&tid=56944.htm -  Mentioning the Story of Musa and that it is a Lesson for Those Who fear Allah

Allah informs His Messenger Muhammad about His Messenger Musa. He mentions that he sent Musa to Fir`awn and He aided him with miracles. Yet, even after this, Fir`awn continued in his disbelief and transgression until Allah seized him with a mighty and powerful punishment. Thus is the punishment of whoever opposes you (Muhammad ) and rejects that which you have been sent with. This is why Allah says at the end of the story,

 (In this is a Lesson for whoever fears.)

Allah begins by saying,

 (Has there come to you the story of Musa)

meaning, have you heard of his story

 (When his Lord called him) meaning, He called out speaking to him.

(in the holy valley) meaning purified

(Tuwa) According to what is correct, it is the name of a valley, as preceded in Surah Ta Ha. So, He said to him:

(Go to Fir`awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds.)

meaning, he has become haughty, rebellious and arrogant.

(And say to him: "Would you purify yourself'')

meaning, say to him, "Will you respond to the path and way that will purify you'' This means, `will you submit (accept Islam) and be obedient'

(And that I guide to your Lord,)

meaning, `I will guide you to the worship of your Lord.'

 (so that you fear)

meaning, `so that your heart will become humble, obedient, and submissive to Him after it was hard, evil, and far away from goodness.'

 (Then he showed him the great sign.)

This means that Musa showed him -- along with this truthful call -- a strong evidence and a clear proof of the truthfulness of what he had come up with from Allah.

(But he denied and disobeyed.)

meaning, he (Fir`awn) rejected the truth and opposed what Musa commanded him with of obedience. So what happened with him was that his heart disbelieved, and Musa (i.e., his call) could not internally or externally affect it. Along with this, his knowledge that what Musa had come to him with was the truth, did not necessitate his being a believer in it. This is because recognition is the knowledge of the heart, and faith is its action. And it (faith) is to comply with the truth and submit to it.

Concerning Allah's statement,

(Then he turned back, striving.)

meaning, in responding to the truth with falsehood. This was by his gathering the group of magicians in order to confront that which Musa had come up with of spectacular miracles.

(So he gathered (his people) and called out)

meaning, among his people.

 (Saying; I am your lord, most high.'')

Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid both said, "This is the word which Fir`awn said after he said,

(`I have not known of any other god for you all other than me) for the past forty years.'''[1][18] Allah then says,

 (So Allah seized him with a punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life).

meaning, Allah avenged Himself against him with a severe vengeance, and He made an example and admonition of him for those rebellious people in the world who are like him.

(And on the Day of Resurrection, evil indeed is the gift gifted [i.e., the curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in the Hereafter)].) (11:99)

This is as Allah says,

 (And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire: and on the Day of Resurrection, they will not be helped.) (28:41)

Allah said;

 (In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:15) Has *6 the story of Moses reached you? (79:16) Recall when his Lord called out to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa, *7

*6 As the denial of the Resurrection and Hereafter by the disbelievers of Makkah and their mockery of it was not, in fact, rejection of a philosophy but belying Allah's Messengers, and the tricks that they were employing against the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) were not against an ordinary man but were meant to frustrate the mission of Allah's Messenger, the story of the Prophet Moses and the Pharaoh is being related before giving additional arguments for the occurrence of the Hereafter so that they are warned of the consequences of fighting with the Messenger and resisting the God Who sent him.

(79:17) (saying), "Go to Pharaoh: he has become rebellious, (79:18) and say to him: Will you mind to adopt purity

*7 According to general opinion among the commentators "the sacred . valley of 'Tuwa" means "the sacred valley which was named Tuwa". But, besides this, two other meanings of it also have been given: (1) "The valley that was blessed and made sacred twice" . for it was first made sacred when Allah spoke to Moses in it for the first time, and it was blessed and made sacred for the second time when the Prophet Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt and brought them into it; and (2) "called out to him in the sacred valley in the night," and this is according to the meaning of tuwa in the Arabic idiom.

(79:19) that I may guide you to your Lord, so that you may have fear (of Him)?" *8

*8 Here, one should understand a few things well:
(1) The dialogue that took place between the Prophet Moses and Allah Almighty at the time of appointing him to the office of Prophethood has been related at some places briefly and at others in full detail in the Qur'an as the occasion demanded. Here; brevity was the need; therefore, only a resume has been given. Fuller details are found in Ta Ha: 9-48, Ash-Shua`ra': 10-17, An=Naml: 7-12, AI-Qasas: 29-35.
(2) The rebellion of the Pharaoh referred to here relates to his transgressing the bounds of service and rebelling both against the Creator and against His creatures. As for his rebellion against the Creator, it is being mentioned a little below when he gathered his people together and prolaimed: "I am your lord, the supreme." As against the creatures his rebellion was that he had divided his subjects into classes; he treated the weak classes tyrannically and had reduced his entire nation to slavery as has been mentioned in Al-Qasas: 4 and Az-Zukhruf: 54.
(3) The instruction given to Moses was: "Go, you and your brother Aaron, to Pharaoh for he has transgressed all bounds. Talk to him gently; maybe that he is convinced by admonition or is imbued with fear." (Ta Ha: 44). One model of the gentle speech has been given in these verses, which shows what right method a preacher should adopt when preaching to a perverted man. Other models are given in Ta Ha: 49-52, Ash-Shua`ra': 23-28, and Al-Qasas: 37. These verses are of those in which Allah has taught the correct methods of preaching Islam in the Qur'an.
(4) The Prophet Moses had not been sent to Pharaoh only for the deliverance of the children of Israel as some people seem to think but the primary object of his appointment was to show Pharaoh and his people the right way, and the second object was that if he did not accept the right way, the children of Israel (who in fact were a Muslim people) should be taken out of his slavery and from Egypt. This thing becomes plain from these verses too, for there is no mention whatever in these of the deliverance of the children of Israel, but the Prophet Moses has been commanded to present the message of the Truth before Pharaoh, and this is confirmed by those verses also in which the Prophet Moses has preached Islam as well as demanded freedom of the children of Israel, e.g. see Al-A`raf 104-105, Ta Ha: 47-52, Ash-Shua ara': 16-17, 23-28.
(5) Here, "to adopt purity" means to adopt purity of belief, morals and deeds, or, in other words, to accept Islam. Ibn Zaid says: "Wherever in the Qur'an the word tazakka (purity) has been use, it implies acceptance of Islam." As an example of this he has cited the following three verses: "And this is the reward of him who adopts purity", i.e. accepts Islam; "and what would make you know that he might adopt purity", i.e. becomes a Muslim (`Abasa:3); "And you would not be responsible if he did not adapt purity", i.e. did not become a Muslim (`Abasa: 7). (Ibn Jarir).
(6) "That I may guide you to your Lord so that you may have fear (of Him)" means: "When you recognize your Lord and come to know that you are His slave, and not a free man, you will inevitably have fear of Him in your heart, for fear of God is the thing on which depends the right attitude of man in the world. Without the knowledge and fear of God no purity of the self can be possible."

(79:20) Then Moses (went to Pharaoh and) showed him the great Sign, *9

*9 "The great Sign" : the turning of the staff into a serpent, as has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an. Obviously there could be no greater sign than that a lifeless staff should turn into a living serpent right in front of the eyes of the people, that it should devour the artificial serpents produced by the magicians out of their staffs and cords, and vKhen the Prophet Moses should pick it up, it should become a walking stick again. This was proof that it was Allah, Lord of the worlds, Who had sent Moses as a Prophet.

(79:21) but he belied it and disobeyed. (79:22) Then, he turned back to devise plots, *10

*10 According to the details given at other places in the Qur'an, he summoned skilful magicians from all over Egypt and made them produce serpents out of sticks and cords in front of the assembled people so that they were convinced that Moses (peace be upon him was not a Prophet but a magician, and that the miracle worked by him of turning a staff into a serpent, could also be worked by other magicians. But this device of his recoiled upon himself and the defeated magicians themselves admitted that what Moses (peace be on him) had displayed was no magic but a miracle.

(79:23) and gathering the people together, (79:24) proclaimed, *11 "I am your Lord, the highest."

*11 This proclamation of Pharaoh has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an. On one occasion he said to the Prophet Moses: "lf you took another one as a deity beside me, I would cast you in the prison." (Ash-Shua`ra': 29). On another occasion he had addressed his courtiers, saying: "O chiefs, I do not know of any other god of yours than myself. (Al-Qasas.: 38). By this Pharaoh did not mean, nor could he ever mean, that he himself was the creator of the universe and he had made the world, nor that he denied the existence of Allah and claimed to be lord of the universe, nor that he regarded only himself as a deity of the people in the religious sense. In the Qur'an itself there is a clear testimony that as regards religion he himself worshipped other gods. Once his courtiers said to him: "Will you leave Moses and his people free to spread chaos in the land, and let them discard you and your deities?" (Al A`raf: 127). And in the Qur'an itself this saying of the Pharaoh also has been cited: "Had Moses been sent by Allah, why were not bracelets of gold sent down to him, or a company of angels as attendants?" (AzZukhruf: 53). Thus, in fact, he called himself a god and supreme deity not in the religious but in the political sense. What he meant was that he possessed the sovereign rights: no one beside him had the right to rule in his kingdom and there was no superior power whose orders could be enforced in the land.

(79:25) Consequently, Allah seized him for punishment both in the Hereafter and in the world. (79:26) Indeed, there is a lesson in this for him who fears. *12

*12 "...who fears": who fears the consequences of denying God's Messenger, which the Pharaoh experienced in the past.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Have you heard the history of Moses? His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa, saying: "Go to Pharoah: he has tyrannised and transgressed bounds, and say to him: 'Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him.'" He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but Pharaoh cried lies and rebelled. He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made a proclamation to them: "I am your supreme Lord", he said. Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. Surely in this there is a lesson for the godfearing.

The rhythm then slows down a bit in order to suit the style of narration. For next we have an account of what had taken place between Moses and Pharaoh, and the end which Pharaoh met after he had tyrannised and transgressed all bounds: Have you heard the history of Moses? His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa, saying: 'Go to Pharaoh: he has transgressed all bounds, and say to him: 'Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may havefear of Him.' He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but he cried lies and rebelled. He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made to them a proclamation: 'I am your supreme Lord, 'he said . Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. Surely in this there is a lesson for the godfearing.'

The story of Moses is the most frequent and most detailed of the Qur'anic stories. It is mentioned in many other surahs, in different styles and with varying emphasis. At times, certain episodes are given greater prominence. This variation of style and emphasis aims at striking harmony between the historical account and the surah in which it occurs. Thus, the story helps to make the message of the surah clearer. This method is characteristic of the Qur'an. Here the historical account is given in quick successive scenes which open with the call Moses receives in the holy valley and end with the destruction of Pharaoh in this life and the life to come. Thus, it fits very well with the main theme of the surah, namely the hereafter. The part given here of Moses's history spans a long period, but it is covered by a few short verses, so that it may fit in well with the rhythm and message of the surah. These short verses include several stages and scenes of the story.

They start with an introductory question addressed to the Prophet, Have you heard the history of Moses?

The question serves to prepare us to listen to the history and contemplate its lessons. Moses's story is described here as history to emphasise that it has actually happened. It starts with the scene of Moses being called by Allah: His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa.

Towa is probably the name of the valley which lies to the right of the Mount Toor, as one comes up from Madian in North Hijaz. The moment when this call was made was awesome. The call from Allah Himself to one of His servants, great beyond description, embodies a secret of Divinity, and a secret of how Allah has made man susceptible to receiving His call. No one can comprehend what is involved here without inspiration from Allah Himself.

The communication between Allah and Moses is discussed in more detail elsewhere in the Qur'an. In this surah, however, it is touched upon briefly, before Allah's command to Moses is stated: Go to Pharaoh. He has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds, and say to him ' Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him.' Go to Pharaoh, he has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds.

Tyranny and transgression should not have taken place and must not go on. They lead to corruption and to what displeases Allah. So Allah (praised be He) selects one of His noble servants and charges him with the task of trying to put an end to them. They are indeed so hateful that Allah Himself commands one of His servants to go to the tyrant in an attempt to turn him away from his erring ways, so that he may have no excuse should Allah decide to exact His retribution. Go to Pharaoh: he has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds.

Allah then teaches Moses how to address the tyrant in the most persuasive manner, so that he may desist and try not to incur upon himself the dis pleasure of Allah: and say to him. 'Would you like to reform yourself?' The first question to be put to the tyrant is whether he would like to purify himself of the stains of tyranny and the filth of disobedience to Allah. Would he like to know the path of the pious, the blessed: I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him. The offer made here to Pharaoh is to be shown the way acceptable to Allah. Once he knows it, he will feel the fear of Allah in his heart. Man does not transgress and tyrannise unless he loses his way and finds himself taking a road which does not lead to Allah. His heart hardens as a result, and he rebels and tyrannises.

Moses has been told this in the scene of Allah's call to him. He of course puts these questions to Pharaoh when he encounters him. The surah, however, does not repeat them when it describes the encounter. It skips over what happens after Allah's call to Moses and deletes what Moses says when he conveys his message. It is as if the curtain falls after the scene of the call. When it is lifted again, we are presented with the end of the encounter scene: He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but Pharaoh cried lies and rebelled.

Thus, Moses conveys the message with which he has been entrusted in the manner Allah has taught him. This warm, friendly attitude, however, cannot win over a heart that has been hardened by tyranny and ignorance of the Lord of the universe. So Moses shows him the great miracles of the stick turning into a snake and Moses's hand becoming brilliant white in colour, (as they are explained in other surahs), "but he cried lies and rebelled." The scene of Moses's encounter with Pharaoh and his conveying the message to him ends with Pharaoh's rejection and rebellion. It is then followed by a scene in which Pharaoh turns away to mobilise his forces and bring forward his magicians for an encounter between magic and the truth.

Pharaoh adopted this course of action because he was determined not to accept the truth or submit to right.

He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made a proclamation to them: 'I am your supreme Lord, ' he said.

The surah does not give any details of Pharaoh's efforts to muster his magicians and sorcerers and summon all his men. It simply says that he went away to do that, and then boasted with his impertinent proclamation which betrays his infinite ignorance and conceit: I am your supreme Lord, he said.

Pharaoh's declaration betrays the fact that he was deceived by his people's ignorance and their submission to his authority. Nothing deceives tyrants more than the ignorance and the abject submission of the masses. A tyrant is in fact an individual who has no real power or authority. The ignorant, submissive masses simply bend their backs for him to ride, stretch out their necks for him to fit them with reins, hang down their heads to give him a chance to show his conceit, and forego their rights to be respected and honoured, thus giving him a chance to tyrannise. The masses do all this because they are deceived and afraid at the same time. Their fear has no real basis except in their imagination. The tyrant, an individual, can never be stronger than thousands or millions, should they attach the proper value to their humanity, dignity, self-respect and freedom. Every individual in the nation is a match for the tyrant in terms of power. No one could tyrannise in a nation which is sane, or which knows its true Lord, believes in Him and refuses to submit to any creature who has no power over its destiny.

Pharaoh, however, found his people so ignorant, submissive and devoid of faith that he was able to make his insolent, blasphemous declaration, 'I am your supreme Lord!' He would have never dared to make it had he found that his nation had the qualities of general awareness, self-respect and faith in Allah.

With such an intolerable insolence on Pharaoh's part coming on top of his grim tyranny, the Supreme Power moved in: Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. The scourge of the life to come is mentioned first because it is much harsher and perpetual. It is indeed the real punishment for the tyrants and the transgressors because of its severity and endlessness. It is also more appropriate to give it prominence since the life to come is the main theme of the surah. Besides, it fits perfectly with the general rhythm of the surah.

The scourge of this life is fearful and severe, but that of the life to come is much more so. Pharaoh had power, authority and glory, yet none of that was of any use to him. One can only imagine what will be the fate of the disbelievers who do not have similar power, authority or glory but still resist the call of Islam and try to suppress it.

Surely in this there is a lesson for the god fearing. Only those who know their true Lord and fear Him will benefit from the lessons of Pharaoh's history. Those who do not fear Allah will continue in their erring ways until they reach their appointed end, when they shall suffer the scourge of both this life and the life to come.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 15 September 2006 at 5:11am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (27-33)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(27. Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed) (28. He raised its hei- ght, and has perfected it.) (29. Its night He covers and He brings out its forenoon.) (30. And after that He spread the earth,) (31. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture.) (32. And the mountains He has fixed firmly,) (33. As provision and benefit for you and your cattle.) http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=79&tid=56986.htm -

 

Creating the Heavens and the Earth is more difficult than repeating Creation

In refutation of the claim rejecting resurrection due to the renewal of creation after its original state, Allah says;

 (Are you) `O people'

 (more difficult to create or is the heaven...)

meaning, `rather the heaven is more difficult to create than you.' As Allah said;

(the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind;) (40:57)

And His saying;

 (Is not the One Who created the heavens and the earth, capable of creating the similar to them. Yes, indeed! He is the Supreme Creator, the All-Knowing.) (36:81)

Then Allah says,

 (He constructed) He explains this by His statement,

 (He raised its height, and has perfected it.)

meaning, He made it a lofty structure, vast in its space, with equal sides, and adorned with stars at night and in the darkness. Then Allah says,

 (Its night He covers and He brings out its forenoon.)

meaning, He made its night dark and extremely black, and its day bright, luminous, shining and clear. Ibn `Abbas said, "He did Aghtasha of its night means that He made it dark.''[1][19] Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and a large group have said this as well.[2][20] In reference to Allah's statement,

 (And He brings out its forenoon.)

meaning, He illuminated its day. Then Allah says,

 (And after that He spread the earth,) He explains this statement by the statement that follows it,

 (And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture.)

It already has been mentioned previously in Surat Ha Mim As-Sajdah[3][21] that the earth was created before the heaven was created, but it was only spread out after the creation of the heaven. This means that He brought out what was in it with a forceful action. This is the meaning of what was said by Ibn `Abbas and others, and it was the explanation preferred by Ibn Jarir.[4][22]

In reference to the statement of Allah,

 (And the mountains He has fixed firmly,)

meaning, He settled them, made them firm, and established them in their places. And He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing. He is Most Kind to His creation, Most Merciful. Allah then says,

 (As provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)

meaning, He spread out the earth, caused its springs to gush forth, brought forth its hidden benefits, caused its rivers to flow, and caused its vegetation, trees, and fruits to grow. He also made its mountains firm so that it (the earth) would be calmly settled with its dwellers, and He stabilized its dwelling places. All of this is a means of beneficial enjoyment for His creatures (mankind) providing them of what cattle they need, which they eat and ride upon. He has granted them these beneficial things for the period that they need them, in this worldly abode, until the end of time and the expiration of this life.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:27) Are *13 you (O men,) harder to create, or is the heaven? *14

*13 Now arguments are being given for the possibility of Resurrection and life after death and their being the very demand and requirement of wisdom.
*14 Here, creation implies the recreation of men, and the heaven the entire firmament which contains countless stars and planets, and innumerable solar systems and galaxies. means to say: "You think that your resurrection after death is something extremely improbable and you express wonder saying: `How is it possible that when our very bones will have decayed and become rotten the scattered particles of our bodies will be reassembled and made living once again?' But have you ever also considered whether the great universe is harder to create or your own re-creation in the form in which you were created in the first instance? The God Who created you in the first instance cannot be powerless to create you once again." This same argument for life after death has been given at several places in the Qur'an. For example, in Surah Ya Sin it has been said: "Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like of them (again)? Why not, when He is the skilful Creator." (v. 81) And in Surah Al-Mu'min it was said: "Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater task than the creation of man, but most people do not know. (v. S7)

(79:28) Allah built it: He raised its vault high and gave it balance,

(79:29) and covered its night and brought forth its day. *15

*15 The night and the day have been attributed to the heaven, for the night falls when the sun of the heavens sets and the day dawns when it rises. The word "cover" has been used for the night in the sense that after the sun has set the darkness of the night so spreads over the earth as though it has covered it from above by a curtain.

(79:30) After that He spread out the earth: *16 from within it.

*16 "After that He spread out the earth" does not mean that Allah created the earth after the creation of the heavens, but it is a style of expression just like our saying after making mention of something: "Then this is noteworthy." The object is not to express the sequence of occurrence between the two things but to draw attention from the first to the second thing although both may exist together. Several instances of this style are found in the Qur'an, e.g. in Surah Al-Qalam it is said: "(He is) oppressive, and after that, ignoble by birth." This does not mean that first he became oppressive and then he turned ignoble by birth, but it means: "He is oppressive, and above all, ignoble by birth." Likewise, in Surah Al-Balad it is said: "Should free a slave...then be of those who believe." This also does not mean that first he should act righteously and then believe. But that along with doing righteous deeds he should also be characterised by belief. Here, one should also understand that at some places in the Qur'an the creation of the earth has been mentioned first and then the creation of the heavens, as in Al-Baqarah: 29, and at others the creation of the heavens has been mentioned first and then of the earth, as in these verses. There is, in fact, no contradiction in this. At no place the object is to tell what was created first and what afterwards, but wherever the context requires that the excellences of the power of AIlah be made prominent, the heavens have been mentioned first and then the earth, and where the context requires that the people be made to appreciate and acknowledge the blessings that they are benefiting by on the earth, the mention of the earth has been made before that of the heavens.

(79:31) He brought out its water and its pasture, *17

*17 "Pasture" here does not only imply pasture and fodder for the animals but all kinds of herbal produce suitable for consumption both by man and by animal. An example of the use of rat'. which is generally used in Arabic for the grazing animals, is found in Surah Yusuf: 12, signifying that this word is sometimes used for man also. The brothers of Joseph said to their father: "Send Joseph with us tomorrow that he may freely graze and enjoy sport. " Here, the word grace (rat`) for the child has been used in the meaning that he may move about freely in the jungle and pluck and eat fruit.

(79:32) and set the mountains in it,

(79:33) as a means of sustenance for you and your cattle. *18

*18 In these verses arguments have been given for the Resurrection and life after death from two aspects: first, that it is not at all difficult to establish these for the power of that God Who has made this vast and huge universe with such wonderful balance and this earth with such provisions. Second, that the pointers to the perfect wisdom of Allah which are clearly visible in the universe and the earth, point out that nothing is happening here purposelessly. The balance that exists between countless of the stars and planets and galaxies in the heavens testifies that all this has not happened haphazardly but there is a well thought-out plan working behind it. The regular alternation of the night and day is evidence that this system has been established with supreme wisdom and knowledge for making the earth a home and place of settlement. On this very earth are found regions where the alternation of the night and day takes place within 24 hours and also those regions where there are longer days and longer nights. A very large part of the earth's population lives in the first kind of the regions. Then as the days and nights go on becoming longer and longer, life goes on becoming harder and harder and population thinner and thinner. So much so that the regions where there are six-month-long days and six-month-long nights, are not at all fit for human settlement. Arranging both these types of the land on this very earth Allah has provided the evidence that this regular order of the alternation of night and day has not come about accidentally but has been brought about with great wisdom precisely in accordance with a scheme to make the earth a place fit for human settlement. Likewise, spreading out the earth so that it becomes a fit place to live in, providing in it that water which should be palatable for man and animal and a cause of growth for vegetation, setting in it mountains and creating all those things which may become a means of life for both man and animal- all these are a manifest sign that they are not chance happenings of the purposeless works of a care-free person but each one of these has been arranged purposefully by a Supreme, Wise Being. Now every sensible and intelligent man can consider for himself whether the necessity and occurrence of the Hereafter is the requirement of wisdom or its negation. The person who in spite of seeing all this says that there is no Hereafter, in fact, says that everything in the universe is happening wisely and purposefully, but only the creation of man on the earth as a being endowed with sense and power is meaningless and foolish. For there could be nothing more purposeless than delegating to man vast powers of appropriation in the earth and providing him an opportunity to do good as well as evil deeds but then failing to ever subject him to accountability.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it, and brought forth its pastures; and the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

Leaving history aside, the surah takes up the open book of the universe. It paints some of the great scenes of the universe which testify to the limitless power and careful planning of Allah, the Creator of the universe Who controls its destiny both in this life and in the life to come. These scenes are drawn here with powerful style and strong rhythm in harmony with the opening of the surah and its general cadence. Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it and brought forth its pastures; and the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

Having mentioned the end met by the tyrants who thought themselves very powerful, the surah turns to the present disbelievers who also depend on their own power. It directs their attention to some manifestations of the work of the Supreme Power in the universe.

Their power does not stand any comparison with that of Allah: Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from its depth, and brought forth its pastures; And the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

The question these verses start with:

Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? admits of one answer only: Heaven. So the question seems to infer another:

Why should you think so highly of your own power when heaven is much stronger in constitution than you and the Lord Who created it is much stronger than it? The question may also be carried forward in a different direction: Why do you think resurrection impossible? He has created heaven, the creation of which requires more power than your own creation? Resurrection is merely a repetition of creation. It follows that He who has built heaven will find your resurrection an easier proposition.

"He has built" heaven. The term "build" suggests strength and firm constitution. Heaven is so indeed. Its planets are held together in a perfect system. They neither scatter, nor fall away from their orbits.

"He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape." A glance is enough to recognise the perfect coherence and harmony in the building of heaven. Knowledge of the laws which govern the existence of the creatures in the sky above us and provide a perfect balance between their movements and between their mutual effects enhances awareness of the significance of this verse. It intensifies the feeling of the limitlessness of their very real world, of which human knowledge has uncovered only a small part. This part, however, is enough to make man overwhelmed with wonder and astonishment. He stands speechless at the infinite beauty of the universe. He can give no explanation for it except that a superhuman power has planned it and governs it. This explanation is now accepted even by those who profess not to believe in any religion. And gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight.

The Arabic words used in this verse add to the strength of the general tone. They also have stronger connotations than the translation suggests. They are used here because they are more fitting with the general context. The succession of darkness at night and light in the morning is a phenomenon recognised by all, but it may be overlooked because of its being so familiar. Here, the Qur'an reminds us of its permanent novelty. For it is repeated anew every day, producing the same effects and reactions. The natural laws governing this phenomenon are so precise and miraculous that they continue to impress and astonish man as his knowledge increases. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it, and brought forth its pastures, and the mountains He set firm.

Spreading out the earth is a reference to the levelling of its surface so that it becomes easy to walk on, and to the formation of a layer of soil suitable for cultivation. Setting the mountains firm is a result of the final shaping of the surface of the earth and its cooling down to a level suitable for the emergence of living organisms. Allah also brought out water from the earth. This applies to the springs that allow the deep waters to flow out on the surface of the earth. It applies also to the rain water, since it comes originally from the earth. He also brought forth the pastures, which is, in this context, a reference to all plants upon which man and animals feed, and which directly and indirectly sustain life.

All this happened after the heaven was built, the night darkened and the earth spread. The recent theories of astrology support this Qur'anic statement, for they assume that the earth was moving in its orbit, with day and night succeeding each other for hundreds of millions of years before it was levelled and spread out, became suitable for the growth of vegetation, and before its surface took its final, present shape of plains, valleys and mountains.

The Qur'an declares that all this is "for you and your cattle to delight in." This is a reminder for man of what Allah has made for him, and of His perfect and elaborate planning. It is not by chance that the heaven was built in this fashion and that the earth was spread out to take its present shape. Man's existence, as Allah's vicegerent, was taken into account. Man's existence and development depend on so many factors which operate in the universe generally, and in the solar system in particular, and more particularly in the earth itself. All these factors must be made to function in absolute harmony.

Following the Qur'anic approach of giving a short statement which embodies the basic fact, yet is rich with hints and inferences, the surah names just a few of these harmonised factors - the building of heaven, darkening of the night, bringing out the daylight, spreading out the earth, bringing out its waters and pastures and setting the mountains firm - for man and his cattle to delight in. This statement makes the idea of elaborate planning of the universe understood by everybody. It makes use of some of its manifestations which require no particular standard of education to appreciate. This enables the Qur'an to be a universal address, to all men, in all ages and societies, whether primitive or advanced. The reality of meticulous and elaborate planning of the whole universe, however, goes far beyond the level mentioned here. The very nature of this universe rules out any possibility of its formation by chance, for no chance could result in such perfect and absolute harmony on such an immeasurable scale.

The harmony starts with the fact that our solar system is unique among millions and millions of planetary systems, and our earth is also a unique planet with regard to its location in the solar system. It is this uniqueness which makes life on earth possible. We have not yet discovered among the many thousands of similar planets anyone which enjoys similar harmonisation of the essential factors which help the emergence and sustenance of life.

Life may appear on a certain planet if certain conditions are met: the planet must be of suitable size, at a medium distance from the sun, and it has to be of a composition which mixes the elements in the right proportion to permit the emergence of life. The suitable size is necessary because the atmosphere of the planet is conditioned by the force of its gravity. The medium distance is also a necessary condition because the planets which are near to the sun are so hot that nothing can solidify on them, and those that are far from the sun are so cold that nothing on them can have any measure of elasticity. The right composition of elements is necessary because such a composition in the right proportion is a must for the growth of vegetation which is, in turn, essential for the sustenance of life. The Earth has the ideal location to satisfy all these conditions which help the emergence of life in the only form which we now know.[A. M. Al Akkad, Beliefs of Twentieth Century Thinkers, p. 36]

The establishment of the fact of elaborate planning of the grand universe, and giving man a special place in it prepares man's heart and mind to receive and accept the statement of the realitv of the hereafter and its final judgement and rewards with a feeling of reassurance. If the origins of the universe and of man are so, then the cycle must be completed, and everyone must have his reward. It is inconceivable that the final end comes with the end of man's short life in this world, or that evil and tyranny can get away without retribution, or that good, justice and right can be left to suffer whatever hardship is visited on them in this life, without there being a chance to put matters right. Such an assumption is, its very essence, contrary to the fact of elaborate planning, so apparent everywhere in the universe. Hence the reality touched upon in this part of the surah serves as an introduction to the reality of the hereafter which is the main theme of the surah.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 22 September 2006 at 10:38pm

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (34-41)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(34. But when there comes the Greatest Catastrophe) (35. The Day when man shall remember what he strove for.) (36. And Hell shall be made apparent for whoever sees.) (37. Then for him who transgressed) (38. And preferred the life of this world,) (39. Verily, his abode will be the Hell;) (40. But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and forbade himself from desire.) (41. Verily, Paradise will be his abode.)

 

The Day of Judgement, its Pleasures and Hell, and that its Time is not known

Allah says,

 (But when there comes the Great Catastrophe)

This refers to the Day of Judgement. This has been said by Ibn `Abbas.[1][23] It has been called this because it will overcome every matter. It will be frightful and horrifying. As Allah says,

 (And the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.) (54:46)

Then Allah says,

 (The Day when man shall remember what he strove for.)

meaning, at that time the Son of Adam will reflect upon all of his deeds, both the good and the evil. This is as Allah says,

 (On the Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance avail him) (89:23)

Then Allah says,

(And Hell shall be made apparent for whoever sees.)

meaning, it will become apparent for the onlookers, so the people will see it with their own eyes.

 (Then for him who transgressed)

meaning, who rebels and behaves arrogantly.

 (And preferred the life of this world,)

meaning, he gives it precedence over the matters of his religion and his Hereafter.

 (Verily his abode will be the Hell;)

meaning, his final destination will be Hell, his food will be from the tree of Zaqqum, and his drink will be from Hamim.

(But as for him who feared standing before his Lord and forbade himself from desire.)

meaning, he fears the standing before Allah, he fears Allah's judgement of him, he prevents his soul from following its desires, and he compels it to obey its Master.

 (Verily Paradise will be his abode.)

meaning, his final abode, his destination, and his place of return will be the spacious Paradise.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:34) Then, when the great Disaster befalls *19

*19 This implies the Resurrection for which the words at-Taammat alkubra have been used. Taammah by itself is a grievous calamity which afflicts everybody. Then it has been further qualified by the word kubra (great), which shows that the mere word taammah is not enough to describe fully its intensity and severity.

(79:35) the Day when man shall remember whatever he had striven for *20

*20 That is, "When man will see that the same Day of accountability of which he was being foretold in the world, has come, he will start remembering each one of his misdeeds done in the world even before his records are handed over to him. Some people experience this even in the world. if at some time they come across a dangerous situation suddenly when death seems to be staring them in the face, their whole life-film flashes across their mind's eye all at once.

(79:36) and Hell shall be laid open for everyone to see, (79:37) then the one who had rebelled (79:38) and preferred the life of the world, (79:39) Hell shall be his home. (79:40) As for him who had feared to stand before his Lord and restrained himself from evil desires, (79:41) Paradise shall be his home. 

Here, in a few words, it has been told briefly what shall be the criterion of the final judgement in the Hereafter. One kind of the conduct of life in the world is that transgressing all bounds of service man should rebel against his God and should make up his mind that he would seek only the benefits and pleasures of this world in whatever way they could be sought and achieved. The other kind of conduct is that while man passes life in the world he should constantly keep in view the truth that ultimately one day he has to stand before his Lord, and should refrain from fulfilling the evil desires of the self only for the fear that if he earned an unlawful benefit in obedience to his self, or enjoyed an evil pleasure, what answer he would give to his Lord. The criterion of the judgement in the Hereafter will be which of the two kinds of conduct he adopted in the world. If he had adopted the first kind of conduct, his permanent abode would be Hell, and if he had adopted the second kind of conduct, his permanent home would be Paradise.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Then, when the Greatest Catastrophe comes on the day when man shall call to mind what he has done, When Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who tyrannised and transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before his Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

After all these introductory scenes and inspiring touches comes the statement concerning the "Greatest Catastrophe" accompanied by the distribution of rewards for actions alone in this life. The rewards are portrayed in scenes which fit in harmoniously with the Greatest Catastrophe: Then, when the Greatest Catastrophe comes, on the day when man will call to mind what he has done, when Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who has transgressed and chosen this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before His Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

Hence the reality touched upon in this part of the surah serves as an introduction to the reality of the hereafter which is the main theme of the surah.

Then, when the Createst Catastrophe comes, on the day when man will call to mind what he has done, when Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before his Lord and for bade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

This present life is a period of comfort and enjoyment which are given in precise and accurate measure. Its duration is determined according to the overall planning relating to the universe and human life. Its comfort and enjoyment will end at the time appointed for their expiry. When the Greatest Catastrophe comes it ravages all and overwhelms all. The fleeting comfort of this life is extinguished, the whole universe, its built heaven, spread out earth, firm mountains are overturned and all living creatures are overwhelmed. At that moment "man will call to mind what he has done." He might have been distracted by the events and comforts of this life and he might have overlooked what he had done. But he will recall it all then, when remembrance brings to him nothing but sadness and grief as he realises what miserable end he is facing.

When Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on. The term used here for "bringing in sight" is particularly powerful. It is rich in its connotations and makes the rhythm even stronger. The result is that the image is so vivid that we almost see the whole scene in front of us now.

Then, people will have different destinies and the aim of the earlier planning of the first life will be revealed:

Then, he who tyrannised and transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. The two verbs "tyrannise" and "transgress" are used here to render the meaning of one Arabic term, namely, "tyrannise" which is used here, as elsewhere in the Qur'an, in a much wider sense than strict despotism of rulers and dictators. "Tyranny" is used here as synonymous with exceeding the limits of right and truth. Hence these three verses refer to all those who transgress the boundaries of right, prefer this life to the future life, taking no heed of the latter.

Since consciousness of the hereafter defines the values and standards to be applied, he who prefers this present life will suffer a breakdown of values and standards which results in his adoption of faulty standards of behaviour. This puts him in the category of despots and transgressors. Thus, Hell which is brought in sight of everybody on the day of the Catastrophe will be "his dwelling place ". But he who feared to stand before his Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

The one who fears to stand in front of Allah does not indulge in sin. If he slips and commits a sin, in a moment of human weakness, his fear of facing Allah will lead him to repent and pray for forgiveness. Thus he remains within the area of obedience, the central point of which is the control of one's caprice and desires. Indulgence of desire and caprice is essentially the cause of all forms of tyranny and transgression. It is the spring of evil. Man hardly ever falls for any reason other than succumbing to caprice and desire. Ignorance is easy to cure. Desire, after ignorance has been cured, is the plague which requires a long and hard struggle to overcome. The fear of Allah is the solid defence against the violent attacks of desire. Indeed, there is hardly any other defence which can withstand such attacks. Hence, the surah mentions the fear of Allah and the control of caprice together in one verse. This fact is here asserted by Allah, the Creator of man and the only one Who knows the human soul, its weaknesses and their effective cure.

Allah does not ask man to suppress his desires, because He knows that it is not possible for him to do so. He simply asks man to control his desires and not to let them control him. He tells him that fear of standing before his Lord, the Almighty, should be of great help to him. He has fixed his reward for this hard struggle: Paradise as a dwelling place. For Allah knows perfectly well the hardships involved in this struggle and the high standards to which man is elevated by it. This struggle, self-control and elevation help man fulfil his humanity. Such fulfillment cannot be achieved by giving way to all distress, and following caprice wherever it leads, on the pretext that desire and caprice are part of human nature. Allah, who made man sensitive to certain urges, also gave him the ability to control such urges by self discipline. He also gives him Paradise as a reward when he wins and elevates himself to the high standard of humanity.

There are two types of freedom. The first is the one achieved through scoring a victory over one's desires and releasing oneself from the chains of caprice. When man achieves such a victory he finds himself able to fulfil these desires and caprices in a controlled and balanced way which emphasises man's freedom of choice. This type of freedom is the human type, the one which suits the honour Allah has bestowed on man. The other type is the animal freedom, represented in man's defeat, his enslavement by his desires, and his loss of control over himself. This type of freedom is advocated only by those who have lost their humanity, so they try to cover their slavery with a dress of deceptive freedom.

The first type is enjoyed by those who elevate and prepare themselves for the sublime and free life in their future dwelling place of Paradise. The second is indulged in by those who sink into the cesspool of desire, thus preparing themselves for Hell where they are deprived of their humanity. The end is the natural one, in both cases, according to Islam which gives everything its true and proper value.  

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 30 September 2006 at 5:10am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (42-46)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

42. They ask you about the Hour when will be its appointed time) (43. What do you have to mention of it.) (44. To your Lord it is limited.) (45. You are only a warner for those who fear it,) (46. The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning

 

(They ask you about the Hour -- when will be its appointed time What do you have to mention of it. To your Lord it is limited.)

Meaning, its knowledge is not with you, nor with any creature. Rather the knowledge of it is with Allah. He is the One Who knows the exact time of its occurrence.

 (Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden. They ask you as if you have a good knowledge of it. Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah.'') (7:187)

Allah says here,

 (To your Lord it is limited.) Thus, when Jibril asked the Messenger of Allah about the time of the last Hour he said,

 (The one questioned about it knows no more than the questioner

Allah said,

 (You are only a warner for those who fear it,)

Meaning, `I sent you to warn mankind and caution them to beware of the torment and punishment of Allah. So whoever fears Allah, fears standing before Him, and His threat, then he will follow you, and thus be successful and victorious. However, whoever denies you and opposes you, then he will only suffer loss and failure.' Allah then says,

 (The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning.)

meaning, when they stand up from their graves to go to the place of Gathering, they will feel that the period of the worldly life was short, it will seem to them that it was only the afternoon of one day. Juwaybir reported from Ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas:

 (The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning.)

"As for `Ashiyyah, it is the time between noon until the setting of the sun.

 (Or its (Duha) morning) what is between sunrise and midday (noon).'' Qatadah said, "This refers to the time period of the worldly life in the eyes of the people when they see the Hereafter.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:42) They ask you, "When will the Hour come to stay?" *22

*22 The disbelievers of Makkah asked this question of the Holy Prophet over and over again. By this they did not mean to know the time and date of the coming of Resurrection but to mock it. They did not ask this question in order to know the time and date of Resurrection so that if they were told the Year, the month, the day and time of its occurrence, they would accept it. But, in fact, they thought that Resurrection was impossible, and its occurrence remote from reason, and they asked this question in order to have an excuse for denying it. They meant to say, "When will this strange story of Resurrection and gathering together, that you are telling us, materialize? What for has it been put off? Why don't you make it appear forthwith so that we are assured of it?" In this connection, one should understand that one can be certain of Resurrection only by rational arguments, and these have been elaborated at many places in the Qur'an. As for the date of its occurrence only an ignorant person could raise such a question about it, for even if it is told, it does not make any difference. The unbeliever would say: "Well, when it dces occur on the date you tell, I shall then believe in it; how can I believe today that it will actually occur on that very day?"

(79:43) (But) it is not for you to tell its time. (79:44) Its knowledge rests only with your Lord. (79:45) You are only a warner to him who fears it. *23

*23 That is, "This I know that it will certainly come, and knowing this much only is enough for warning the people before its actual occurrence. As for the question when it will actually come, the knowledge of it is with Allah, not with me, and there is no need of this knowledge for administering the warning. This can be better understood by an example. As to the exact time when a person will die, it is only known to Allah; however, all know that everyone has to die one day. Our this knowledge is enough that we may warn a heedless friend of ours that he should look after himself and his interests before death. For this warning it is not necessary to know the exact day on which he will die. As for the words "you are only a Warner to him who fears it", they do not mean that it is not your duty to warn those who do not fear, but it means: "Your warning will benefit only him who fears the coming of that Day."

(79:46) The day these people see it, they will feel as though they had stayed (in the world or in the state of death) only for the afternoon of a day or its forenoon. 

A time will come when such people will, on the one hand, come face to face with the infinite life of the Hereafter, and on the other, they will took back at their past worldly life and realize how puny it was as compared to the life ahead. It is then that they will comprehend what folly they have committed by ruining their eternal future for the sake of ephemeral pleasures and benefits in this worldly life.

That is, from the time of death till Resurrection. Even if thousands of years might have elapsed since their death they will feel that they had gone to sleep a few hours earlier and then a sudden calamity had roused them froth sleep.
That is, "They used to make similar wrong estimates in the world, There also they lacked the realization of Reality, and therefore, used to assert there was going to be no Resurrection, no life-after-death, and no too. that accountability before God."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning.

At this point, when we are overwhelmed with the effects of the scenes of the Greatest Catastrophe, Hell brought near, the end of the transgressors who prefer this life to the next, and that of the godfearing who restrain themselves and do not give in to their own caprice, at this point, the surah turns to those who deny resurrection and ask the Prophet to fix its time. The rhythm here is superb: it adds to the feeling of awe produced by the account of the Hour of Doom. They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing. The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your duty is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning.

The last part of the surah is expressed in a rhythm which evokes awe.

They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning. Every time the die hards of the polytheists heard a description of the fearful events of the Day of Judgement, and the reckoning which takes place then, they used to ask the Prophet (peace be on him) to specify its time: " When will it come?" The answer given here to such questions is a rhetorical question, "But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? " It is an answer which suggests that the Hour of Doom, or the Day of Judgement, is so great and majestic that the questions put by the disbelievers concerning it sound stupid and pitiful. Moreover, such questions can be put forward only by the impudent. The great Prophet himself is asked, "Why should you be concerned with its exact timing?" It is so great that neither you nor anyone else should ask to be informed of its exact time. This knowledge belongs to Allah alone, not to anybody else. "The final word connecting it belongs to your Lord." He himself is the master of everything which relates to it. The Prophet's own duties, and the limits he should not, and need not exceed are well defined: "Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it." He is to warn those who will benefit by such warnings. Such people will feel that it is true and fear the out-come, so they conduct their lives according to their firm belief that it will arrive at the time appointed by Allah.

The majesty and awe of the Hour of Doom is explained through the description of its effects on men's feelings and the comparison they draw between its duration and the length of this present life.

On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning. It so grips the soul that our present life with all its epics, events and luxuries will seem to those who lived them shorter than a single day- just one evening or one morning. So, the whole world, its centuries and ages will shrink to nothing longer than one morning or one evening in the sight of the very people who quarrel and fight for it, preferring it to their share in the life to come, and who commit all sorts of sin, tyranny and transgression to achieve their ends in it, yielding to their desire and caprice. Yet for such a passing enjoyment they abandon the hereafter and forego the certain prospect of dwelling in Paradise. That is definitely the greatest stupidity of all, which no man who has ears and eyes to hear and see can ever perpetrate.

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at. And to Allah belongs all praise and thanks

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 06 October 2006 at 5:37am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter - 80)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Tafsir ibn kathir

(1. He frowned and turned away.) (2. Because there came to him the blind man.) (3. And how can you know that he might become pure) (4. Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him) (5. As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient,) (6. To him you attend;) (7. What does it matter to you if he will not become pure) (8. But as for him who came to you running,) (9. And is afraid.) (10. Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another.)

The Prophet being reprimanded because He frowned at a Weak Man

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir mentioned that one day the Messenger of Allah was addressing one of the great leaders of the Quraysh while hoping that he would accept Islam. While he was speaking in direct conversation with him, Ibn Umm Maktum came to him, and he was of those who had accepted Islam in its earliest days. He (Ibn Umm Maktum) then began asking the Messenger of Allah about something, urgently beseeching him. The Prophet hoped that the man would be guided, so he asked Ibn Umm Maktum to wait for a moment so he could complete his conversation. He frowned in the face of Ibn Umm Maktum and turned away from him in order to face the other man. Thus, Allah revealed,

 (He frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man. And how can you know that he might become pure)

meaning, he may attain purification and cleanliness in his soul.

 (Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him)

meaning, he may receive admonition and abstain from the forbidden.

 (As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient. To him you attend;)

meaning, `you face the rich person so that perhaps he may be guided.'

 (What does it matter to you if he will not become pure)

meaning, `you are not responsible for him if he does not attain purification.'

 (But as for him who came to you running. And is afraid.)

meaning, `he is seeking you and he comes to you so that he may be guided by what you say to him.'

 (Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another.)

meaning, `you are too busy.' Here Allah commands His Messenger to not single anyone out with the warning. Rather, he should equal warn the noble and the weak, the poor and the rich, the master and the slave, the men and the women, the young and the old. Then Allah will guide whomever He chooses to a path that is straight. He has the profound wisdom and the decisive proof.

Abu Ya`la and Ibn Jarir both recorded from `A'ishah that she said about,

 (He frowned and turned away.) ''This was revealed about Ibn Umm Maktum, the blind man. He came to the messenger of Allah and began saying Guide me. At the time the messeneger of Allah had a man with him who was one of the great leaders of the idolators. So the Prophet turned away from him (Ibn Umm Maktum) and faced the other man and said,

''Do you think that there is a problem with what I am saying? ''

The man said ''No!'' So it was about this that

 (He frowned and turned away.) was revealed.''[1][1]

At-Tirmirdhi recorded this Hadith but he did not mention that it was narrated by `A'ishah.[2][2] I say it is reported like this in Al-Muwatta'[3][3] as well.

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(80:1) He frowned and turned away his face (80:2) because there came up to him the blind man. *1

*1 The style of this first sentence is elegant and subtle. Although in the following sentences the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has been directly addressed, which by itself shows that the act of frowning and turning aside had issued forth from him, the discourse has been opened in a manner as though it was not he but some one else who had so acted. By this style the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), by a subtle method, has been made to realize that it was an act unseemly for him. Had somebody familiar with his high morals witnessed it, he would have thought that it was not he but some other person who had behaved in that manner. The blind man referred to here implies, as we have explained in the Introduction, the well-known Companion, Hadrat Ibn Umm Maktum. Hafiz Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Al-Isti'ab and Hafiz Ibn Hajar in AI-Isbah have stated that he was a first cousin of the Holy Prophet's wife, Hadrat Khadijah. His mother, Umm Maktum, and Hadrat Khadijah's father, Khuwailid, were sister and brother to each other. After one knows his relationship with the Holy Prophet, there remains no room for the doubt that he had turned away from him regarding him as a poor man having a low station in life, and attended to the high-placed people, for he was the Holy Prophet's brother-in-law and a man of noble birth. The reason why the Holy Prophet had shown disregard for him is indicated by the word a ma (blind man), which Allah Himself has used as the cause of the Holy Prophet's inattention. That is, the Holy Prophet thought that even if a single man from among the people whom he was trying to bring to the right path, listened to him and was rightly guided, be could become a powerful means of strengthening Islam. On the contrary, Ibn Umm Maktum was a blind man, who could not prove to be so useful for Islam because of his disability as could one of the Quraish elders on becoming a Muslim. Therefore, he should not interrupt the conversation at that time; whatever he wanted to ask or learn, he could ask or learn at some later time.

(80:3) And what would make you know that he might reform, (80:4) or heed the admonition, and admonishing might profit him? (80:5) As for him who is indifferent,  (80:6) to him you attend, (80:7) though you would not be responsible if he did not reform. (80:8) And the one 'who comes to you running, of his own will,  (80:9) and fears, (80:10) from him you turn away. *2

*2 This is the real point which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had overlooked in the preaching of Islam on that occasion, and for teaching him the same Allah first reproved him on his treatment of Ibn Umm Maktum, and then ' told him what really deserved to occupy his attention as preacher of the Truth and what did not. There is a man whose apparent state clearly shows that he is a seeker after truth: he fears lest he should follow falsehood and invite Allah's wrath; therefore, he comes all the way in search of the knowledge of the true faith. There is another man, whose attitude clearly reflects that he has no desire for the truth; rather on the contrary, he regards himself as self-sufficient, having no desire to be guided to the right way. Between these two kinds of men one should not see whose becoming a Muslim would be of greater use for Islam and whose becoming a believer could not be of any use in its propagation. But one should see as to who was inclined to accept the guidance and reform himself, and who was least interested in this precious bargain. The first kind of man, whether he is blind, lame, crippled. or an indigent mendicant, who might apparently seem incapable of rendering any useful service in the propagation of Islam, is in any case a .valuable man for the preacher to the Truth. To him therefore he should attend, for the real object of this invitation is to reform the people, and the apparent state of the person shows that if he was instructed he would accept guidance. As for the other kind of man, the preacher has no need to pursue him, no matter how influential he is in society. For his attitude and conduct openly proclaim that he has no desire for reform; therefore, any effort made to reform him would be mere waste of time. If he has no desire to reform himself, he may nor the loss would be his, the preacher would not at all be accountable for it.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him. How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself. He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him. But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in his heart him you ignore and busy yourself with tribes.

This surah discusses certain principles of grave importance. It is unique in its images and the impressions it leaves, combining its marked spiritual effect with superb musical rhythm.

Its first part treats a certain incident which took place in the early days of Islam. The Prophet (peace be on him) was busy with a few dignatories of the tribe of Quraish, explaining to them the message of Islam, when Ibn Umm Maktoom, a poor blind man, interrupted him. Unaware that the Prophet was busy with those people, the blind man asked him repeatedly to teach him some verses of the Qur'an.

The Prophet (peace be on him) was not very pleased at this interruption. He frowned and turned away from Ibn Umm Maktoom.

This surah opens by criticizing the Prophet's behaviour in this incident. It lays down clearly the values and principles upon which Islamic society is founded and states the true nature of the message of Islam.

 

In the following pages we will attempt to illustrate some of the very far reaching effects of certain parts of the surah which may not be immediately apparent. He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him. How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself: He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him. But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in his heart, him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles.

The Divine instructions which followed this incident are much more far reaching than appears at first sight. They are indeed a miracle. These instructions, the principles they seek to establish and the change they aim to accomplish in human society are, perhaps, the first and greatest miracle of Islam . But the instructions are made here as a direct comment on a single incident. It is part of the Qur'anic method to make use of isolated incidents in order to lay down fundamental and permanent principles. The principles established here and their practical effects, as seen in the early Islamic society, are indeed Islam itself. They constitute the truth which Islam and the earlier Divine religions seek to plant in human life.

The point at issue here is not merely how an individual or a class of people should be treated. This is indeed the significance of the Qur'anic comment on the incident itself, taken in isolation. The heart of the matter is, however, something far more important. It is: how should people evaluate everything in their lives? From where should they derive their values and their standards for such an evaluation.

What the Divine instructions contained in the opening part of the surah seek to establish is that men must base their values and standards on Divine considerations, laid down by Allah.

No social circumstances, traditions or practices, nor any concept of life derived from them should be allowed either to encumber or determine these values and standards. There is no denying the difficulties involved in conducting human life on the basis of values and standards laid down by the Divine Being, free from the pressure of all worldly considerations.

If we consider the heavy pressure of society on the individual's feelings and attitudes - traditional values, family and social ties, and environmental values, for example - we can appreciate the difficulty of carrying out these Divine instructions. We can appreciate such difficulty even better when we remember that in order to convey it to people, Muhammad himself (peace be on him) needed this special directive, or rather this censure. Reference to this is sufficient to convey the gravity of the matter. For Muhammad (peace be on him) has reached greater heights of sublimity and greatness than any man can aspire to. Yet the fact that special instructions were required for him to convey a certain principle makes that principle greater than greatness, unique in sublimity.

This is indeed, a true description of the principle established here, namely that mankind should derive their values and standards from the Divine Being, after they have freed themselves from the pressure of their social set-up with all its values and standards.

The basic standard Allah has, through His prophets, commanded mankind to adopt is: "The noblest of you in Allah's sight is he who fears Him most.(Al-Qur'an 49:13)" This is the standard by which all values, traditions and practices should be evaluated. It establishes a purely Divine criterion which has nothing to do with any worldly considerations. But people live on earth and establish a multitude of ties, each having its own weight and gravity. They have considerations of family relations, power and wealth. The distribution or concentration of these creates certain practical and economic results which determine the position of every man or every class of people in relation to others.

Thus some acquire a position superior to that of others, in worldly standards.

When Islam declares: "The noblest of you in Allah 's sight is he who fears Him most", it simply indicates that all these values and considerations are void, however important they seem to men. It substitutes for them a single value derived directly from Allah, the only value accepted by Him. The incident itself serves to establish this value in an actual situation. Thus the essential principle is established: the scales recognised are those of Allah; the supreme value which should govern man's life is the Divine one. Hence, all human values, standards, traditions and concepts must be abandoned by the Islamic nation.

Let us now consider the incident itself. Ibn Umm Maktoom, a poor blind man, comes to the Prophet (peace be on him) at a time when he is busy with a group of the most powerful and influential personalities in Makka, including Utbah and Shaibah, the two sons of Rabi'ah, Abu Jahl Amr ibn Hisham, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, Al-Waleed Ibn Al-Mogheerah. Also present is Al-Abbas ibn Abdel-Muttalib, the Prophet's uncle. It is a crucial meeting. The Prophet explains the message of Islam to them and hopes for a favourable response. He feels that the cause of Islam will gain a lot by such a response. The time is very hard for Islam in Makka. Those very people have been using all their wealth, power and influence to check its advancement, and to stop people from accepting it. They have managed to freeze Islam in Makka and hinder its progress elsewhere.

Outside Makka, the other tribes have adopted an attitude of wait and see. For they feel that that is their best stand in a tribal society such as theirs which gives to the tribe's attitude paramount importance.

They are aware that against Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, stand his own kinsmen, who, theoretically speaking, should be his most ardent supporters.

It must be emphasised that when we say that the Prophet is busy with those people, he has no personal interest with them. He is simply working for the interest of Islam. Acceptance of Islam by these influential and powerful people means the removal of all impediments from the path of Islam in Makka. It also ensures for Islam the freedom to progress outside Makka.

While this crucial meeting is in progress, a poor man comes and interrupts the Prophet (peace be on him) saying: Messenger of Allah! teach me some verses of what Allah has taught you.

Despite his awareness that the Prophet (peace be on him) is busy, he repeats his request several times. The Prophet dislikes this interruption. His face, which remains unseen by the blind man, expresses his aversion. He frowns and looks away from the poor man, who has interrupted the crucial meeting of which the Prophet has great hopes for his message. Indeed, the Prophet's motive has been his great enthusiasm to win badly-needed support for Islam.

Here, heaven intervenes to say the final word in this matter and to put the landmarks along the whole length of the road. Thus we are given the scales by which to weigh our values regardless of all considerations, including the consideration of what serves the interests of Islam, as seen by men, and even by the greatest man, Muhammad (peace be on him). This is why the Prophet who has been described elsewhere in the Qur'an as having "great and sublime nature", (Al-Qur'an 68:4) is strongly censured by Allah, the Most High. It is the only point in the Qur'an that the Prophet, who is very dear to Allah, is told "kalla" (inadequately translated as "no indeed"). Kalla is a term of censure and an order to desist. That is because the contravened principle is central to this religion.

The reproof is made in unique style, which defies translation into ordinary language. Written language has to apply certain rules and observe some well defined norms. These would dampen the effects of the very vivid style of the Qur'an, which is characterised in this instance by its rapid touches and short phrases which are more like feeling reactions and instant pictures. He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him.

The use of the third person form here is significant. It suggests that the subject-matter is so distasteful to Allah that He does not like to confront His beloved messenger with it. This in itself is a gesture of mercy and kindness to the Prophet. Thus, the action which necessitated the reproof has been disguised with great subtlety. The reproof then takes the form of direct address, starting somewhat mildly:

How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him.

How could you tell but that a great gain might have been made? That is to say that the poor, blind man who came to you seeking light might have profited by Allah's reminder and set about purifying himself. His heart might have brightened by Allah's light and he might become like a light house, guiding people to safety. This is exactly what happens every time a human being genuinely accepts the faith. It is, indeed, what carries real weight in Allah's scales.

The reproof then takes a stronger tone. It wonders at the action in question:

But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in hisheart - him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles!

The one who pretends that he can do without you and your religion, light goodness and purity is the one who receives your attention! You go to him yourself when he turns away, and you are at pains to try to persuade him to accept the faith.

Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. What is it to you if he chooses to remain in filth? You are not answerable for his sinful actions. He will not secure your victory. As to him who comes to you with zeal", out of his own free will, "and with a feeling of fear in his heart, " groping his way with outstretched hands, fearful of pitfalls, "him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles!" What a strong description of the act of not paying due attention to the man who came to seek the right guidance.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 20 October 2006 at 5:01am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter - 80, continued 11-16)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Tafsir ibn kathir

(11. Nay; indeed it is an admonition.) (12. So, whoever wills, let him pay attention to Him (it).) (13. In Records held in honor,) (14. Exalted, purified.) (15. In the hands of ambassadors (Safarah),) (16. Honorable and obedient.)

The Characteristics of the Qur'an

Allah says,

 (Nay; indeed it is an admonition.)

meaning, this Surah, or this advice in conveying knowledge equally among people, whether they are of noble or low class. Qatadah and As-Suddi both said,

 (Nay; indeed it is an admonition.) "This means the Qur'an.''

 (So, whoever wills, let him pay attention to Him (it).)

meaning, so whoever wills, he remembers Allah in all of his affairs. The pronoun could also be understood to be referring to the revelation since the conversation is alluding to it. Allah said:

 (In Records held in honor, exalted, purified.)

meaning, this Surah or this admonition. Both meanings are connected to each other. Actually, all of the Qur'an is in honored pages, meaning respected and revered.

 (exalted) meaning, elevated in status.

 (purified) meaning, from impurity, additions and deficiency.

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (In the hands of ambassadors (Safarah),)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd, all said, "These are the angels.''[1][4]

 Al-Bukhari said, "Safarah (ambassadors) refers to the angels. They travel around rectifying matters between themselves. The angels when they descend with the revelation of Allah, bringing it like the ambassador who rectifies matters between people.''[2][5]

Allah said,

 (Honorable and obedient.)

meaning, they are noble, handsome, and honorable in their creation. Their character and their deeds are righteous, pure and perfect. Here it should be noted that it is necessary for one who carries the Qur'an (i.e., the angel) to be following righteousness and guidance. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

 (He who recites the Qur'an proficiently, will be with the noble, righteous, ambassador angels, and the one who recites it with difficulty will receive two rewards.)[3][6]

This Hadith was reported by the group

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(80:11) By no means! *3 This is but an admonition. *4

*3 That is, "You should never do so: do not give undue importance to those who have forgotten God and become proud of their high worldly position. The teaching of Islam is not such that it should be presented solicitously before him who spurns it, nor should a man like you try to invite these arrogant people to Islam in a way as may cause them the misunderstanding that you have a selfish motive connected with them, and that your mission would succeed only if they believed, otherwise not, whereas the fact is that the Truth is as self-sufficient of them as they are of the Truth."
*4 The allusion is to the Qur'an.

(80:12) Let him who wills accept it. (80:13) It is written in scrolls, which are honoured, (80:14) exalted, purified, *5

*5 "Purified: free from all kinds of mixtures of false ideas and thoughts, and presenting nothing but the pure Truth. There is nothing whatever in these scrolls of the impurities with which the other religious books have boon polluted. They have been kept pure and secure from all kinds of human speculation and evil suggestions. 

(80:15) (and which) remain in the hands  (80:16) of noble *6 and virtuous scribes. *7

*6 This refers to the angels who were writing the scrolls of the Qur'an under the direct guidance of Allah, were guarding them and conveying them intact to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace). Two words have been used to qualify them: karim, i.e. noble, and barr, i.e. virtuous. The first word is meant to say that they are so honoured and noble that it is not possible that such exalted beings would commit even the slightest dishonesty in the trust reposed in them. The second word has been used to tell that they carry out the responsibility entrusted to them of writing down the scrolls, guarding them and conveying them to the Messenger with perfect honesty and integrity.
*7 If the context in which these verses occur, is considered deeply, it becomes obvious that here the Qur'an has not been praised for the sake of its greatness and glory but to tell the arrogant people, who were repudiating its message with contempt, plainly: "The glorious Qur'an is too holy and exalted a Book to be presented before you humbly with the request that you may kindly accept it if you so please. For it does not stand in need of you as you stand in need of it. If you really seek your well-being, you should clear your head of the evil thoughts and submit to its message humbly; otherwise you are not so self-sufficient of this Book as this Book is self-sufficient of you. Your treating it with scorn and contempt will not affect its glory and greatness at all, rather your own pride and arrogance will be ruined on account of it. 

Fi Zilal al Quran

No indeed ! This is an admonition; let him who will, bear it in mind. It is written on honoured pages, exalted, purified, by the hands of noble and devout scribes.

The tone gets even stronger and the reproof becomes outright censure: "kalla" or "No indeed", this must never be the case.

There follows a statement affirming that Islam is an honourable and noble call. It has no need for anybody's support. It cares only for the one who accepts it on its merits, regardless of his position in human society!

This is an admonition; let him who will, bear it in mind. It is written on honoured pages, exalted, purified, by the hands of noble and devout scribes.

It is a noble and honoured message in every respect. Its pages are purified and exalted, entrusted to "noble and devout" angel ambassadors who convey it to those human beings selected for the task of conveying it to their people. It is also dignified. No one who pretends that he is self sufficient need be approached about accepting this message of Islam. It is only for those who know its value and seek to be purified by it.

So this is the Divine standard by which all values and considerations should be evaluated, and all men should be judged. This is also Allah's word, which is the final judgement in all situations.

 

Sayyid Qutb then looks into islamic history to show how the implication of this approach helped create a successful islamic state. Just thought some one might want to read this but did not want to bore people who want simple explanation.

But where and when was this laid down? The answer is in Makka when the Muslims were few in number, and Islam was the weaker side in an unequal battle. The attempt to win a group of powerful and influential men was not motivated by any personal interest. Ignoring the poor blind man was not occasioned by any personal consideration. All was for the sake of the new message. But the message itself calls for the adoption and application of this very standard and these very values. For Islam can never acquire any real power or achieve any true victory except through the establishment of these values and standards.

As stated earlier, the essential principle involved is far greater and wider in scope than this single incident. It is that man should derive his values and standards from Allah, not from any worldly source The noblest of you in Allah's sight is he who fears Him most.

Indeed; the one whom Allah considers noble is the one who deserves to he attended to and looked after, even if he is completely lacking in family relations, power and wealth, the assets highly valued according to worldly standards. These and all other worldly values become worthless when they part ways with faith and the fear of Allah. This is the great issue which the Divine instructions in this surah seek to settle.

The Prophet was deeply and powerfully touched by these Divine instructions and by Allah's reproof. Throughout his life, he worked tirelessly for the establishment of this great principle in Islamic society.

The first action taken by him was to announce these instructions and the reproof in public. This in itself is something very great Taken from any point of view, no person other than a Messenger of Allah could have announced in public that he had been censured so strongly, in such a singular manner, for a slip he had made. It would have been enough for any other great man to recognise his mistake and to avoid a repetition in future. With the Messenger of Allah however, things acquire different proportions. No person other than Allah's messenger could have had the courage, in such circumstances as Islam was facing, to make this declaration, challenging with it the masters of Qur'aish, who were very proud of their lineage, power and wealth.

These were at the time the only considerations of any importance in Makkan society, where people wondered: Why was this Quran not revealed to some great man from the two towns? (Al-Qur'an 43:31)

They were, of course, aware of Muhammad's lineage, and that he was the descendant of the noblest family in Arabia. His ancestors were masters of Makka. Nevertheless they asked such a question simply because Muhammad himself did not occupy a position of power in Makka before prophethood.

In such a society, at that particular time, such a great principle could have never been the product of any earthly factor, or host of factors. It could have had only one source: Allah. No power could have pushed it through other than the Divine will. The Islamic society received it directly from the Prophet. It was soon well established and it acquired depth and momentum, which helped it to continue its operation in the Islamic nation over the centuries.

The establishment of this principle was, indeed, a rebirth of humanity. It was greater in importance than the first birth of man.

Man was able to free himself from all worldly bonds and standards, and substitute for them a set of heavenly values which are independent of all earthly considerations. The new values were soon understood and accepted by everybody. Soon the grave matter which necessitated that Muhammad him self be issued with a special directive in order to convey it became the operative principle of the Islamic conscience and the basic code of the Islamic society. It remained so for a very long period.

Perhaps we cannot appreciate fully the true nature of the rebirth of humanity. The reason for our inability is that we cannot conceive the practical significance of our release from the pressures of society, its values, standards, traditions and practices. In order to appreciate the magnitude of these pressures we have only to remember that the advocates of the materialistic view of history consider that the economic condition of a certain society determines the beliefs, arts, literature, laws, customs of that society, as well as its view of life and its destiny. What a narrow and mistaken view of the true nature of man! With this basic principle, Islam accomplished the miracle of the rebirth of man.

Since then the values attached to this great principle have become supreme. Their ascendancy, however, was by no means easy, neither in the Arabian society, nor in the minds of the Muslims themselves.

Through his actions and directives, coloured by the profound effect the Divine instructions in this surah left on him, the Prophet was able to implant this basic principle of Islam in the consciences of his companions and in the life of the Islamic society he had established. He looked after his new plant with unfailing care until it had established deep roots and spread its branches wide. This was why this principle remained for centuries the guiding principle of the Muslim community, in spite of a multitude of opposing factors.

After this incident the Prophet always gave Ibn Umm Maktoom a warm welcome. Whenever he met him, he said: "Welcome to the man for whose sake my Lord reproved me." He appointed him twice as his deputy governor of Medina when he had to be away.

The Prophet married his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh of the Assad clan to his former slave Zaid ibn Harithah. Marriage has always been a very delicate issue, and it was particularly so in the Arabian Peninsula at that time. The Prophet's motive was to deal a deadly blow to all the social values and standards based on worldly considerations .

Soon after the Makkan Muslims settled in Medina the Prophet established a bond of brotherhood between every two Muslims. He made his own uncle, Hamza, a brother to his former slave, Zaid; and Khalid ibn Rowaiha of the Khath'am tribe and Bilal, the former slave, were made brothers.

He appointed Zaid as Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim army which fought the battle of Mu'tah. Zaid's first deputy was the Prophet's own cousin Ja'afar ibn Abu Talib. The second deputy was Abdullah ibn Rawaha of Al Ansar. A number of well-known personalities from Makka and Medina were in that army of three thousand men, including the most famous Muslim commander of all time, Khalid ibn Al-Waleed. The Prophet himself went out to bid them farewell. It is also worth mentioning that Zaid and his two deputies were killed in that battle.

The last action of the Prophet was to appoint Usamah ibn Zaid, a young man in his teens, as commander of an army he raised to fight the Romans. In the army was a large number of the early Muslims, of both Al-Muhajireen (the Makkans) and Al-Ansar (the Medinans), including his two most distinguished companions and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and Umar, as well as his own relative Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas, one of the very earliest people to embrace Islam. Some people grumbled about the fact that Usamah was made commander, because he was so young. Abdullah ibn Umar takes up the story: "When some people complained about giving the army command to Usamah, the Prophet said: 'You are deprecating his appointment as commander in the same way as you previously deprecated his father's appointment. By Allah, his father was a worthy commander, and one of the dearest people to me. Usamah is also one of the dearest people to me."

Some people spoke in derogatory terms about the Prophet's companion, Salman, the Persian. They took a narrow nationalistic view and spoke of the inferiority of Persians in relation to Arabs. The Prophet took a decisive step to put down all such narrow tendencies. He declared: "Salman belongs to the Prophet's family." The Prophet's statement transcends all lineage, tribal and national considerations, which were of immense weight in Arabia. Some disagreement occurred between two of the highly esteemed companions of the Prophet, Abu Tharr and Bilal. Out of temper, Abu Tharr called Bilal "you, son of a black woman". The Prophet was extremely upset by what Abu Tharr said. He rebuked him saying: "That is too much, Abu Tharr. He who has a white mother has no advantage which makes him better than the son of a black mother." Thus the Prophet put the dispute in its proper perspective.

What distinguishes people is their faith, not their colour. This is the Islamic criterion, which is so unlike the worldly criteria of Ignorant' societies. The Prophet's rebuke had a profound effect on Abu Tharr, who was a very sensitive person. He wanted to atone for his mistake, so he put his head on the ground swearing that he would not raise it until Bilal had put his foot over it.

Bilal achieved a position of great distinction in the Islamic society. What made his achievement possible was the application of Heaven's values. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet once said to Bilal: "Tell me what action of yours you hope to be most rewarding to you, for last night I heard your footsteps as you drew near to me in heaven." Bilal answered: "I don't think that since becoming a Muslim I have ever done anything which I hope to be more rewarding than that every time I have ablution at any time of day or night I pray whatever I can."

Once Ammar ibn Yassir asked permission to see the Prophet. The Prophet said: "Let him come in, welcome to the cleansed good man." He also said of Ammar: "Ammar is full of faith to the top of his head." Huthaifa related that the Prophet said: "I do not know how long I shall be with you, so accept the leadership of the two who will follow me (and he pointed to Abu Bakr and Umar), and follow the guidance of Ammar. Believe whatever Ibn Massoud tells you."

Ibn Massoud was so close to the Prophet that any stranger in Medina would have thought him a member of the Prophet's household. Abu Mussa said: "I came to Medina from the Yemen with my brother. We were for quite sometime under the impression that Ibn Massoud and his mother belonged to the Prophet's household, an impression we had formed because of the frequency of their coming in and out of the Prophet's homes, and their long companionship with him."

The Prophet himself sought the hand of an Ansari woman in marriage for Julaibeeb, a former slave. Her parents were reluctant to sanction such a marriage. She, however, said to them: "Do you mean to reject the Prophet's suit? If the Prophet thinks that this man is suitable for us, then Id this marriage go through." So they gave their consent. Soon after his marriage, Julaibeen took part in an armed expedition. After the battle, which resulted in a victory for the Muslims, the Prophet asked his companions: "Is anybody missing?" They named a few people. He repeated the question and they named a few others. He asked the same question for the third time and they answered in the negative. He said: "I think Julaibeeb is missing." They looked for him and found his body next to seven enemy soldiers whom he had killed. The Prophet came over, stood near him, and said: "He killed seven people before he was killed. This man belongs to me and I belong to him." He lifted him on his arms until a grave was dug for him. He then put him in his grave. The tradition does not say whether Julaibeeb was given a death wash.

With this Divine instruction and the guidance of the Prophet, the rebirth of humanity was accomplished in a unique manner. Thus a new society came into existence, which imported its values and standards from heaven, and lives on earth, unhampered by earthly restrictions. This is the greatest miracle of Islam, a miracle which could not have happened except by the will of Allah, and through the actions of the Prophet. This miracle is in itself a proof that Islam is a religion revealed by Allah, and that the man who conveyed it to us is His messenger.

It was the Divine will that the leadership of the Islamic society, after the death of the Prophet, should be assigned successively to Abu Bakr and Umar, the two persons who were most keenly aware of the true nature of Islam and most vividly impressed by the guidance of the Prophet. Indeed, Abu Bakr and Umar surpassed everybody else with their love of the Prophet and determination to follow very closely in his footsteps.

Abu Bakr was well aware of the Prophet's object in assigning the army command to Usamah. His first action after he became Caliph was to send the army raised by the Prophet and commanded by Usamah on its original mission. Abu Bakr, the Caliph, went along with the army to the outskirts of Medina to bid it farewell. It was a strange scene: Abu Bakr the old Caliph walking, and Usamah the young commander on his horse. Usamah felt ashamed and begged Abu Bakr to ride or else he would walk alongside him. Abu Bakr refused saying: "You shall not walk and I shall not ride. It will do me no harm to walk for an hour if my walking is for the cause of Allah."

Abu Bakr felt that he needed Umar to help him shoulder the responsibilities of government. Umar, however, was a soldier in Usamah's army, so he had to ask Usamah's permission to discharge him. Hence, the Caliph, the Head of the State, said to his army commander: "If you think you could spare me Umar to help me, then please do so"! What a request! It is the height of magnanimity, attainable only with Allah's will, by individuals well taught by Allah's Messenger.

A few years go by and we see Umar assuming the leadership of the Islamic society, as its second Caliph. One of his actions was to appoint Ammar ibn Yassir, who formerly belonged to the lower classes of Makka, as governor of the Kufa region in Iraq.

One day a number of dignatories from Qur'aish, including Suhail ibn Amr and Abu Sufian, sought to see Umar. He let them wait and admitted first Suhaib and Bilal, two former slaves, on grounds of their early acceptance of Islam and their taking part in the battle of Badr. Abu Sufian felt very angry and said: "I have never seen a day like this. These slaves are admitted and we are kept waiting!" Suhail, who was more keenly aware of the true nature of Islam, said: "Gentlemen! I see in your faces an expression of what you feel, but I say to you that if you are angry you should be angry with yourselves. Both they and you were called upon to accept Islam at the same time. They were quick to respond but you were slow. What will you do if on the Day of Judgement you find that they are included among the chosen people and you are left behind?"

Umar allotted Usamah ibn Zaid a larger share of the spoils of war than he allotted his own son Abdullah. When Abdullah queried his father's decision Umar said: "Son, the Prophet used to love Zaid more than he loved your father, and he loved Usamah more than he loved you. What I did was simply to attach to the Prophet's love higher value than I attached to my own love." As he said this Umar was, of course, fully aware that the Prophet measured his love by the Divine standards.

Umar sent Ammar to question Khalid ibn Al-Waleed, the victorious commander of the Muslim army and the descendant of a noble family, about certain charges. Ammar tied Khalid's robes round his neck Some reports add that he tied Khalid's hands throughout the interrogation with the cloth of his own turban. When the investigation proved Khalid's innocence Ammar untied him and put Khalids turban back on his head with his own hand. Khalid did not object to this treatment. He knew that Ammar was one of the early companions of the Prophet. Khalid also knew what the Prophet used to say about Ammar.

It was Umar himself who used to say about Abu Bakr and Bilal: "Abu Bakr is our master and he freed our master." This refers to the days when Bilal was a slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, who used to torture him mercilessly, in order to turn him away from Islam. Abu Bakr bought Bilal from Umayyah and set him free. This former slave, Bilal, is described by Umar, the Caliph, as "our master".

Umar was the one who said, "Had Saalim, the former slave of Abu Huthaifa, been alive I would have nominated him to succeed me."

This statement must be taken against the background that Umar did not nominate anyone to succeed him, not even Othman, Ali, Talha or Zubair. He only appointed a consultative committee of six, so that the next Caliph should be chosen from among them.

Ali ibn Abu Talib sent Ammar and Al-Hassan, his own son, to Kufa to seek their support against Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her). His message said, "I know that she is your Prophet's wife in this life and in the here after. You are, however, faced with a test which will prove whether you follow your Prophet or his wife."' The people of Kufa accepted his case against Aisha, mother of the believers and Abu Bakr's daughter, (may Allah be pleased with them all).

Bilal was asked by his brother in Islam, Abu Ruwaiha of Khath'am, to speak for him to the family of a Yemeni woman he wished to marry. Bilal went to them and said: "I am Bilal ibn Rabah and this is my brother. Abu Ruwaiha. He lacks good manners and firm belief. You may please yourselves whether you give him your daughter in marriage or not." He did not deceive them by hiding the truth, nor did he behave as a mediator, unmindful of his answer ability to Allah.

The family concerned were pleased with such honesty. They married their daughter to Abu Kuwaiha, the noble Arab whose advocate was Bilal, the former slave from Abyssinia.

This fundamental principle remained for centuries firmly established in the Islamic society, despite the various factors working for the bringing about of a setback to that society. "Abdullah ibn Abbas was always remembered with his slave Ikrimah, while Abdullah ibn Umar was remembered with his slave Nafi'. Anas ibn Malik was always associated with his slave Ibn Sirin, as was Abu Huraira with his slave Abdurrahman ibn Hormuz. The most distinguished men of learning were Al-Hassan in Basra, Mujahid ibn Jabr, Attaa ibn Rabah and Tawoos ibn Kaissan'. In Egypt, Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb a black slave from Dengla, was the grand Mufti (holder of the highest position of religious authority) during the reign of Umar ibn Abdulaziz."

This Divine standard continued to win high respect for the pious and god fearing, even when they were deprived of all things to which worldly considerations attached great value. It was only recently that this Divine standard ceased to operate after the whole world had been over whelmed by the tide of Ignorance. In the United States, the leading country of the West, a man is valued according to the size of his bank balance. In the Soviet Union, the leading country of the East, where materialism reigns supreme, a man is worth less than a machine. The land of Islam, on the other hand, has sunk back into Ignorance, from which Islam had saved it a long time ago. Ignorant creeds which Islam had rooted out have been revived. The Divine standard has been abandoned in favour of Ignorant values which are completely alien to Islam.

The only hope that remains is that the new Islamic movement will be able to rescue mankind once again from the clutches of Ignorance and bring about a second rebirth of humanity, similar to the one announced by the decisive verses at the opening of this surah.

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 27 October 2006 at 11:39am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter 80, Continued 17-20)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(17. Qutila mankind! How ungrateful he is!) (18. From what thing did He create him) (19. From a Nutfah He created him and then set him in due proportion.) (20. Then He made the path easy for him.)

 

The Refutation against Whoever denies Life after Death

Allah rebukes those who deny the Resurrection and the Final Gathering.

 (Qutila mankind!) Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

 (Qutila mankind!) "May man be cursed.''[1][8] Abu Malik also made a similar statement. He said, "This refers to the rejecting type of man, due to his abundant denial without any supporting argument. Rather he denies simply because he thinks it is farfetched and because he lacks knowledge of it.'' Ibn Jurayj said,

 (How ungrateful he is!) "This means none is worse in disbelief than he is.'' Qatadah said,

(How ungrateful he is!) "This means none is more cursed than he is.''[2][9]

Then Allah explains how He created him from something despised and that He is able to bring him back to life just as He created him initially. Allah says,

(From what thing did He create him From a Nutfah He created him, and then set him in due proportion.)

meaning, He decreed his life span, his sustenance, his deeds, and whether he would be miserable or happy.

 (Then He made the path easy for him.) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Then He made his coming out of his mother's belly easy for him.''[3][10] This was also said by `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Qatadah, As-Suddi, and it was the explanation preferred by Ibn Jarir.[4][11] Mujahid said, "This is similar to Allah's statement,

(Verily, We guided him on the path, he is either grateful or ungrateful.) (76:3)

meaning, We explained it to him, clarified it, and made it easy for him to act upon.'' Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd both said the same.[5][12] This is the most correct view and Allah knows best.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(80:17) Cursed *8 be man! *9 What a perverse disbeliever he is! *10

*8 From here the rebuke turns directly against the disbelievers, who were treating the message of the Truth with scant attention. Before this, from the beginning of the Surah to verse 16, the address though apparently directed to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), was actually meant to reprimand the disbelievers, as if to say: "O Prophet, why are you ignoring a seeker after truth and paying all your attention to those who are worthless from your mission's point of view? They do not deserve that a great Prophet like you should present a sublime thing like the Qur'an before them."
*9 At all such places in the Qur'an, "man" does not imply every individual of the human race but the people whose evil traits of character are intended to be censured. At some places the word "tnan" is used because the evil traits are found in most of human beings, and at others for the reason that if the particular people are pin-pointed for censure, it engenders stubbornness. Therefore, admonition is given in general terms so as to be more effective
*10 Another meaning also can be: "What caused him to be inclined to kufr?" Or, in other words: "On what strength does he commit kufr?' Kufr?" here means denial of the Truth as well as ingratitude for the favours of one's benefactor and also rebellious attitude against one's Creator,
Providence and Master.

 

(80:18) Out of what has Allah created him? (80:19) Out of a spermdrop. *11 Allah created him, then set him his destiny, *12

*11 That is, let him first consider out of what he was created, where he was nourished and developed, by what way he came into the world, and from what helpless state he began his life in the world. Why does he forget his such beginning and becomes involved in conceit and haughtiness and why does he feel so puffed up as to resist his Creator and stand before Him as an adversary? The same theme has been expressed in Ya Sin 77-78, (36:77) Does not man see that We created him from a sperm-drop, and yet he stands forth as a manifest adversary? Here the disbelievers' question is being answered by reason and argument. The question, "When will the threat of Resurrection be carried out?" had not been asked with a view to find out the exact date of the coming of the Hereafter. But they asked it because they thought it was impossible, rather irrational, that human beings would be raised back to life after death. That is why, in reply to their question, arguments are being given for the possibility of the Hereafter.
According to the traditions related by Ibn 'Abbas, Qatadah and Said bin Jubair, one of the chiefs of Makkah, on this occasion, came up with a rotten bone of a dead person, from the graveyard. He broke and crushed it into pieces before the Holy Prophet and acattering its particles in the air, said.-"O Muhammad, you say that the dead will be raised back to life. Tell us who will give life to these decayed and rotten bones?" The answer was given immediately in the form of these verses.
That is, "We caused the sperm-drop which contained nothing but the basic germ of life to develop to an extent that it started moving and eating like the animals. Furthermore, it has developed such powers of intellect and reasoning and disputation and speech, which arc not possessed by any animal; so mu ch so that now he dares stand up as an adversary before his Creator !"
(36:78) Now he strikes out likenesses for Us and forgets his own creation.  He says, "Who will give life to these bones when they are rotten?"  That is, "He regards Us powerless and weak like the creation, and flunks that just as man cannot raise the dead back to life, so also can't We." "Forgets his own creation": "Forgets that We created the basic germ of life from dead matter, which became the means of his creation; then We caused the germ to develop to such an extent that now he stands before Us as a disputant."


*12 That is, he was yet developing and taking shape in his mother's womb when his destiny was set for him. It was determined what would be his sex, his colour, his size; the extent and volume of his body, the extent to which his limbs would be sound or unsound, his appearance and voice, the degree of Physical strength and mental endowments, what would be the land, the family, the conditions and environments in which he would take birth, develop and be moulded into a specific person, what would be the hereditary influences and effects of the surroundings and the role and impact of his own self in the make-up of his personality, the part he would play in his life of the world, and how long he would be allowed to function on the earth. He cannot swerve even a hair-breadth from his destiny, nor can effect the slightest alteration in it. Then, how strange is his daring and stubbornness! He commits disbelief of the Creator before Whose destiny he is so helpless and powerless!

 

(80:20) then made the way of life easy for him *13

*13 That is, He created all those means and provisions in the world, which he could utilize, otherwise all the capabilities of his body and mind would have remained useless, had not the Creator provided the means and created the possibilities on the earth to employ them. Furthermore, the Creator also gave him the opportunity to choose and adopt for himself whichever of the ways, good or evil, of gratitude or ingratitude, of obedience or disobedience, that he pleased. He opened up both the ways before him and made each way smooth and easy so that he could follow any way that he liked.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Perish man! How ungrateful he is! Of what did Allah create him? Of a little germ. He created him and proportioned him. He makes his path smooth for him.

 

Man's ungrateful attitude to Allah and his denial of Him come up for discussion in the second part. Here man is reminded of his origin of how his life is made easy; of how Allah determines his death and resurrection; and of how, after all, he fails to carry out His orders: Perish man! how ungrateful he is! Of what did Allah create him? Of a little germ. He created him and proportioned him. He makes his path smooth for him.

The second part of the surah wonders at man's conceited attitude as he turns his back to the true faith, despite his being called upon to adopt it. It wonders how man forgets his humble origin and is totally oblivious of the care Allah has taken of him and of His complete power over every stage of his existence, both in this life and in the hereafter. In his attitude of utter ungratefulness man fulfils nothing of his duties towards his Lord, Who has created and sustained him and Who will hold him to account for his actions: Perish man! How ungrateful he is! Of what did Allah create him? Of a little germ. He created him and proportioned him. He makes his path smooth for him.

"Perish man!" He deserves to be killed for his abominable attitude. The mode of expression adds to the sense of horror excited by this attitude. "How ungrateful he is!" He strongly denies the claims of his creation. Had he been mindful of these claims he would have shown humble gratitude to His Lord who created him; he would have shown no conceit and would have remembered the end he will have to meet. Indeed, how can man be so arrogant and conceited? What are his origins: "Of what did Allah create him?" It is a very humble origin, worthless indeed except for the grace of Allah. "Of a little germ. He created him and proportioned him." A little germ of no significance; that is man's beginning. Allah, the Creator, has then proportioned him. The Arabic verb used here denotes precise and meticulous proportioning. It also denotes bestowing weight and value This is how man has been created, honoured and raised from his humble origin to a high position in which the whole world has been put at his disposal.

"He makes his path smooth for him": The path of life has been smoothed for him. He has also been given the ability to recognise and follow the right path.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 03 November 2006 at 4:23am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter 80, Continued 21-23)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(21. Then He causes him to die and puts him in his grave.) (22. Then when it is His will, He will resurrect him.) (23. Nay, but has not done what He commanded him.)

 

The Refutation against Whoever denies Life after Death

(Then He causes him to die and puts him in his grave.)

After creating man, Allah causes him to die and makes him the inhabitant of a grave. Allah said;

 (Then when it is His will, He will resurrect him.)

meaning, He resurrects him after his death and this is called Al-Ba`th (resurrection) and An-Nushur (resuscitation).

 (And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then behold, you are human beings scattered.) (30:20)

 (And look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.) (2:259)

 In the Two Sahihs it is narrated by way of Al-A`mash from Abu Salih, from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

 (All of the Sons of Adam (men) will decay except for the bone of coccyx (tailbone). From it he (man) was created and by it he will be reconstructed.)''[1][13]

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (Nay, but has not done what He commanded him.)

Ibn Jarir said, "Allah is saying, `Nay, the matter is not as this disbelieving man says. He claims that he has fulfilled Allah's right upon him regarding himself and his wealth.

 (But he has not done what He commanded him.)

Allah is saying that man has not fulfilled for his Lord the obligations that were imposed upon him.''[2][14] What seems apparent to me of its actual meaning -- and Allah knows best -- is that the Ayah

 (Then when it is His will, He will resurrect him.) means, He will resurrect him.

 (Nay! But he has not done what He commanded him.)

means, He has not done it (resurrected them) as of yet, until the time period has expired and the extent of the earthly life of humanity is complete, according to the lives of all whom Allah has written it to exist from the time they are brought into existence into the world. Verily, Allah has decreed the existence of mankind, and its duration, therefore, when that is finished with Allah, He resurrects the creatures and repeats their creation just as He initially created them.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(80:21) then caused him to die, and brought. him to the grave. *14

*14 That is, not only in the matter of birth and destiny but in the matter of death also he is absolutely helpless before his Creator. Neither he can take birth by his choice nor die by his choice, nor can defer his death even by a moment. He dies precisely at the appointed time, in the appointed place, under the appointed circumstances that have been decreed for his death, and he is deposited in the type of grave destined for him whether it is the belly of the earth, the depths of the sea, a bonfire. Or the stomach of a beast. Nothing to say of the man, even the whole world together cannot change the Creator's decree in respect of any person.

 

(80:22) Then whenever He wills, He will raise him up again to life *15

*15 That is, he does not either have the power to refuse to rise up when the Creator may will to resurrect him after death. When he was first created, he was not consulted: he was not asked whether he wanted to be created or not. Even if he had refused, he would have been created. Likewise, his resurrection also is not dependent upon his will and assent that he may rise from death if he so likes, or refuse to rise if he does not like. In this matter also he is absolutely helpless before the Creator's will. Whenever He wills He will resurrect him, and he will have to rise whether he likes it or not.

 

(80:23) Nay, but he has not fulfilled the duty that Allah-had assigned to him *16

*16 "Duty" implies the duty that Allah has enjoined on every man in the form of natural guidance as well as the duty to which man's own existence and every particle of the universe, from the earth to the heavens, and every manifestation of Divine power are pointing, and that duty also which Allah has conveyed in every age through His Prophets and Books and disseminated through the righteous people of every period. It is similar to Allahs statement in Surah Al-insaan: (76:3) We showed him the way, whether to be grateful or disbelieving. 

That is, "We did not just leave him to himself after giving him the powers of knowledge and reason, but We also guided him so that he knows which is the path of gratefulness and which of ungratefulness, so that whichever path he chooses in his later life, he himself is responsible for it. In Surah Al-Balad, the same subject has been expressed, thus "And We showed him both the conspicuous ways (of good and evil)." And in Surah Ash-Shams, thus "By the human self, and by Him Who balanced it (with all the external and internal powers), then inspired it with its wickedness and its piety " When all these explanations are kept in view and also those detailed statements of the Qur'an in which it has been stated what arrangements Allah has made for man's guidance in the world, it becomes evident that in this verse "showing the way" does not imply any one form of guidance but many forms of it which are limitless and countless. For example (1) Along with the faculties of knowledge and reason man has also been endowed with a moral sense by which he discerns between good and evil, regards some acts and qualities as evil even if he himself is involved in them, and regards some other acts and qualities as good even if he himself is avoiding them. So much so that even those people who for the satisfaction of their selfish motives and desires have invented philosophies by which they have justified many evils for themselves, protest loudly when they are themselves treated with the same evils by others, and then it becomes known that in spite of their false philosophies they actually regard them as evil. Likewise, when a man himself is benefited by a good treatment from another person, he is from within forced to commend and appreciate it even though he might be looking upon good acts and qualities as ignorance folly and antiquated things, (2) In every man Allah has placed the faculty of Conscience (the lawwamah), which checks and pricks him every time he is about to commit an evil, or is in the process of committing it, or has already committed it. However hard man may try to silence his Conscience or make it insensitive, he does not have the power to destroy it completely. He may become shameless and prove himself to be absolutely devoid of the Conscience, he may also try to deceive the world by argumentation, he may even invent a thousand excuses to justify his acts in order to deceive himself, but despite all this the censor that Allah has placed in his nature is so active and powerful that it does not let remain hidden from an evil person what he actually is. This same thing has been stated in Surah Al-Qiyamah, thus: "Man knows his own self best even though he may offer many excuses." (v. 15), (3) In man's own self and outside him, from the earth to the heavens, there lie scattered in the universe countless such signs which clearly show that all this could not happen without a God, nor could there be many gods to create this life and control and administer it. Likewise, these very signs, inside man and outside him, clearly point also to the Resurrection and Hereafter. If man shuts down his eyes on them, or refuses to ponder over them intelligently, or avoids admitting the truths which they point out, he himself would be to blame. For Allah has shown no negligence in laying out every possible sign of the truth for the guidance of man. (4) Man does come across in his own life, and in the contemporary world and in the experiences of past history, countless such incidents which prove that a supreme power is ruling over him and the entire universe before whom he is absolutely powerless, whose Will is dominant over everything and whose help he needs at every moment. These experiences and observations which point to the truth do not exist only outside him but in man's own nature as well there exists the evidence of the existence of the supreme power on the basis of which even the most confirmed atheist spreads out his hands in prayer before God when in distress and the most hardened polytheist abandons all false gods and starts invoking One God only for help.
(5) Man's intellect and his nature assert positively that crime ought to be punished and good deeds ought to be rewarded. On this very basis in every society of the world a system of the courts is established in one form or another and the services and works, which are regarded as commendable are also rewarded in one way or another. This is a clear proof of the fact that there is a necessary relationship between morality and the law of retribution, which man cannot possibly deny. Now, if it is admitted that in this world there are countless such crimes which cannot be punished at all. to say nothing of punishing them fully and adequately, and there are also countless such virtues, which cannot be rewarded at all, to say nothing of rewarding them fully and adequately, there is no alternative but to acknowledge the Hereafter, unless, of course, a foolish person may assume, or a stubborn person may insist on having the opinion, that man who has been endowed with the concept of justice, has taken birth in a world which in itself is devoid of the concept of justice; and then it remains for him to answer the question as to how and wherefrom this man, who was born in such a world, obtained this concept of justice. To reinforce these means of guidance Allah sent Messengers and revealed Books in the world for the purpose of giving clear and definite guidance to man; in these Books it was clearly explained what is the way of gratefulness and what is the way of ungratefulness and unbelief and what will be the consequences of following either way. The teaching brought by the Prophets and the Books has spread throughout the world in countless perceptible. and imperceptible ways, on such a large scale that no section of human population has remained unaware of the concept of God and the Hereafter, of the distinction between good and evil, and of the moral principles and legal rulings presented by them, whether it knows or does not know that it has obtained this knowledge only through the teachings of the Prophets and the Books they brought. Even those who disbelieve in the Prophets and the Books today, or are unaware of them, also are following many of those things which have reached them actually through their teachings while they do not know what is the real source of these teachings.

 

In the present context the object is to express the meaning that on the basis of the truths stated in the above verses, it was man's duty to have obeyed his Creator, but, contrary to this, he adopted the way of disobedience and did not fulfil the demand of his being His creature.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

He then causes him to die and puts him in his grave. He will surely bring him back to life when He pleases. But by no means has man fulfilled His bidding.

 

When the journey of life is over, when every living being meets the inevitable end, "He then causes him to die and puts him in his grave" So in the end the case is just the same as in the beginning: man submits to his Lord Who brings him to life when He wills and ends his life when He wills. He honours him by making the earth his last abode, rather than leaving him as food to wild animals. He has made it part of human nature to bury the dead. When the time He has appointed arrives, He brings him back to life for the reckoning: "He will surely bring him back to life when He pleases." So man will not be left without reward or retribution. But has man prepared himself for this reckoning? "But by no means has man fulfilled His bidding." Mankind as a whole, and all human generations, from the very first man created up to the last breath of the last human being, will not have fulfilled Allah's bidding. This is the inference of the Arabic expression used here. Man will always remain negligent of his duties. He will never remember his origin and creation as he should, nor will he thank and praise his Creator Who has guided him and looked after him as He should be thanked and praised. He does not prepare himself in this life for the day of reward and retribution. This applies to humanity as a whole. In addition, the great majority of men turn their backs arrogantly on the Divine guidance.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 10 November 2006 at 2:51am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter 80, Continued 24-32)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(24. Then let man look at his food:) (25. We pour forth water in abundance.) (26. And We split the earth in clefts.) (27. And We cause therein Habb to grow,) (28. And grapes and Qadb,) (29. And olives and date palms,) (30. And Ghulb Hada'iq,) (31. And fruits (Fakihah) and herbage (Abb).) (32. A provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)

 

The Growth of the Seed and Other Things is a Proof of Life after Death

 (Then let man look at his food) This is a call to reflect upon Allah's favour. It also contains evidence in the vegetation's coming to life from the lifeless earth, that the bodies can be brought to life after being decayed bones and scattered dust.

 (We pour forth water in abundance.)

meaning, `We sent it down from the sky to the earth.'

 (And We split the earth in clefts.)

meaning, `We cause it (the water) to settle in it (the earth), and it enters into its boundaries, and mingles with the parts of the seeds that are left in the earth. From this the seeds grow, rise up and appear on the surface of the earth (in the form of vegetation).'

 (And We cause therein Habb to grow. And grapes and Qadb,)

Al-Habb refers to all types of seeds (or grains). Grapes are well-known. Al-Qadb are the moist (green) herbal plants that animals graze on. It is also called Al-Qat. Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi, all said this.[1][15] Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "Al-Qadb is fodder.''

 (And olives) It is well-known, and it is a food just as its juice is a food. It is eaten for breakfast and used as oil.

 (And date palms,) It (i.e., its fruit) is eaten as Balah, Busr, Rutab and Tamr, Niya' and Matbukh, all of which are varieties of dates that range from unripe, ripe and dried in their textures. Its juice is also extracted to make pulpy fruit drinks and vinegar.

 (And Ghulb Hada'iq,)

meaning, gardens. Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, "Ghulb are gardens of date palms that are thick and handsome.''[2][16] Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid both said, "It means everything that is gathered and collected.''[3][17]

Allah said,

 (And fruits (Fakihah) and herbage (Abb).) Fakihah includes every type of fruit. Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Fakihah is everything that is eaten ripe, and Al-Abb is what the earth grows that is eaten by grazing animals and not people.''[4][18] In one narration reported from him he said, "It is the grass for the livestock animals.''[5][19]

Abu `Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Sallam reported from Ibrahim At-Taymi that he said, "Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was asked about Allah's statement,

 (And fruits (Fakihah) and herbage (Abb).) and he said, `What sky would shade me and what earth would carry me if I said about the Book of Allah that which I did not have knowledge of.' ''[6][20]

In reference to what Ibn Jarir recorded from Anas, that he said, "Umar bin Al-Khattab recited

 (He frowned and turned away.) then when he reached this Ayah

 (And fruits (Fakihah) and herbage (Abb).) he said, `We already know what Al-Fakihah is, but what is Al-Abb' Then he said, `By your life, O Ibn Al-Khattab, this is something over burdensome (i.e., unnecessary to ask about).'''[7][21]

This report has an authentic chain of narration. More than one person has narrated it from Anas. The meaning of the narration is that `Umar wanted to know how it looks, its type and its exact description, because he (`Umar) and everyone who reads this Ayah knows that it is one of the plants that grows from the earth. This is clear due to the Allah's saying,

 (And We cause therein the Habb to grow. And grapes and Qadb, and olives and date palms. And Ghulb Hada'iq. And fruits (Fakihah) and herbage (Abb).)

And then He says,

 (A provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)

meaning, a means of livelihood for you all and your cattle in this life until the (coming of) the Day of Judgement.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(80:24) Then let man look at his food. *17

*17 That is, let him consider the food, which he regards as an ordinary thing, how it is created. Had God not provided the means for it, it was not in the power of man himself to have created the food on the earth in any way.

 

(80:25) We poured down water in abundance, *18

*18 This refers to rainwater: water vapours are raised in vast quantities from the oceans by the heat of the sun: then they are turned into thick clouds; then the winds blow and spread them over different parts of the earth; then because of the coolness in the upper atmosphere the vapours turn back to water and fall as rain in every area in a particular measure. The water not only falls as rain directly on the earth but also collects underground in the shape of wells and fountains, flows in the form of rivers and streams, freezes on the mountains as snow and melts and flows into rivers in other seasons as well than the rainy season. Has man himself made all these arrangements? Had his Creator not arranged this for his sustenance, could man survive on the earth?

 

(80:26) then cleft the' earth asunder, *19

*19 "Cleaving the earth asunder" implies cleaving it in a way that the seeds, or seed-stones, or vegetable seedlings that man sows or plants in it, or which are deposited in it by winds or birds, or by some other means, should sprout up. Man can do nothing more than to dig the soil, or plough it, and bury in it the seeds that God has already created. Beyond this everything is done by God. It is He Who has created the seeds of countless species of vegetable; it is He Who has endowed these seeds with the quality that when they are sown in the soil, they should sprout up and from every seed vegetable of its own particular species should grow. Again it is He Who has created in the earth the capability that in combination with water it should break open the seeds and develop and nourish every species of vegetable with the kind of food suitable for it. Had God not created the seeds with these qualities and the upper layers of the earth with these capabilities, man could not by himself have arranged any kind of food on the earth.

 

(80:27) then caused to grow in it (80:28) corns and grapes and Vegetables (80:29) and olives and dates (80:30) and lush gardens (80:31) and fruits of every kind and fodder (80:32) as a means of sustenance for you and your cattle. *20

*20 That is, "A means of sustenance not only for you but also for those animals from which you obtain items of food like meat, fat, milk, butter, etc. and which perform countless other services also for your living. You benefit by all this and yet you disbelieve in God Whose provisions sustain you."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Let man reflect on the food he eats: how We pour down the rain in torrents, and cleave the earth in fissures; how We bring forth the corn, the grapes, and the fresh vegetation, the olive and the palm, the dense tree'd gardens. the fruit-trees and the green pastures, for you and your cattle to delight in.

 

The third part directs man to reflect upon things of immediate concern to him, namely, his food. Absolute perfection of creation is obvious in the provision of food for man as it is obvious in the creation, proportioning and development of man himself. Let man reflect on the food he eats: how We pour down the rain in torrents, and cleave the earth in fissures; how We bring forth the corn, the grapes, and the fresh vegetation, the olive and the palm, the dense-tree'd gardens, the fruit-trees and the green pastures, for you and your cattle to delight in.

 

Next the surah invites man to reflect upon his food and the food of his cattle, which is one of the great many things Allah has provided for him. This is the full story of man's food, related here stage by stage. Let man reflect: does he play any significant role in it? Can he determine or change its course? Indeed, the same hand which has brought him to life has brought forth the food to sustain him. "Let man reflect on the food he eats." Food, the first necessity of human life, deserves a few thoughts. It is made readily available day after day. But it has a simple and wonderful story. Yet its simplicity makes man forget its wonder. Nevertheless, it is as miraculous as man's own creation. Every step is determined by the Supreme Will which has created man.

"How we pour down the rain in torrents." Pouring down the rain is a fact known to every human being, wherever he lives, regardless of his level of experience or knowledge. It is, therefore, taken up in this address to all human beings. As man's knowledge has increased, he is now able to appreciate the meaning of this verse more fully. He knows that something happened a long time before the daily phenomenon of rain came to be established. Perhaps the theory closest to the truth concerning the formation of the oceans, whose water evaporates and then falls down as rain, claims that they were formed somewhere above the earth and then were poured down in torrents. A contemporary scientist says on this subject:

If it is true that the temperature of the earth at the time of its separation from the sun was about 12,000 degrees or that of the surface of the sun, then all the elements were free and, therefore, no chemical combination of importance could exist. Gradually, as the earth, or the earth-forming fragments, cooled, combinations would take place and a nucleus of the world as we know it is formed. Oxygen and hydrogen could not combine until the temperature was reduced to 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this point these elements would rush together and form water. What we know as the atmosphere must have been enormous at that time. All the oceans were in the sky and all those elements not combined were in the air as gases. Water, having formed in the outer atmosphere, fell towards the earth but could not reach it, as the temperature near the earth was higher than it was thousands of miles out. Of course, the time came when the deluge would reach the earth only to fly up again as steam. With whole oceans in the air, floods that would result as cooling progressed are beyond calculation. [A Cressy Morrison, Man Does not Stand Alone, London, 1962, pp 35-6]

Although we do not claim any definite link between this theory and this particular Qur'anic statement, we acknowledge that the theory gives us a better understanding of what it means and the period of history it refers to, i.e., the period of pouring water down in torrents. The theory may be proved right. On the other hand, other theories may be put forward to explain the origins of water. The Qur'anic statement, however, remains valid for all ages and societies.

This is how the production of food starts: "We pour down the rain in torrents". No one can claim either to have produced water, at any stage of its formation, or to have poured it down, so that the process of food production may be set in motion.

"And cleave the earth in fissures". All human societies may be asked to reflect on this second stage, which follows the pouring down of rain. The primitive man sees the rain falling and realizes that he has no power over it. He sees the water splitting the earth and penetrating the soil. He also sees the plant cleaving the earth with the Creator's will and growing over its surface. He notices that the plant is thin and the earth heavy yet the Creator's hand enables the plant to split the earth and move through it. Anyone who contemplates how plants grow can recognise the miracle involved here. He can feel the operation of the latent power inside the gentle, little plant.

As human knowledge expands, a new understanding of this statement may be developed. The cleaving of the earth so that it becomes suitable for the growth of vegetation may have taken place long time ago. The Qur'anic statement may refer to the multiple break up of the rocks of the surface of the earth caused by the great floods and by the various climatic factors which, according to modern scientists contributed to the formation of a soil layer where vegetation can grow. This interpretation fits more closely with the sequence of events as it is reported here.

In either case, the third stage is that of the growth of all kinds of vegetation. The kind mentioned here is the best known to the people immediately addressed by the Qur'an, and the kind most common in the food of man and animal. "How we bring forth the corn", "The corn" refers to all cereals and grains used for human or animal food. "The grapes, and the fresh vegetation". The reference here is to the well-known vine fruits and to all vegetables which can be eaten raw and can be picked time after time. "The olive and the palm, the dense-tree'd gardens, the fruit trees and the green pastures." The olive and the palm fruits are well-known to all Arabs. "The gardens" refer to the fenced fields of fruit trees. They are described here as being dense with trees. The Arabic term "abb" translated here as "green pastures" refers in all probability to the herbage used for cattle. As mentioned in the commentary on the preceeding surah, Umar asked what the "abb" meant and then blamed himself for asking. So we follow Umar's suit and add nothing to what has been already mentioned.

This is the story of food, the provision of which is carefully planned by the hand which created man. Man plays no role in any of its stages. Even the seeds and grains he may throw in the earth are not of his making. The miraculous aspect here lies in the original production of these seeds and grains, which is beyond man's comprehension. Various seeds may be planted in the same piece of land, irrigated by one kind of water; yet each one produces its own fruit. It is the hand of the Creator which makes this infinite collection of plants and their fruits, and preserves in the little seed the characteristics of its mother plant so that they may reappear in the plant which issues from it. Man remains ignorant of the secrets of this process. He has no power over it. It is Allah's own production: "For you and your cattle to delight in". This delight is, however, for a limited period. There follows something totally different which needs to be carefully considered by man before it actually arrives.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 17 November 2006 at 4:31am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter 80, Continued 33-37)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(33. Then when there comes As-Sakhkhah) (34. That Day shall a man flee from his brother.) (35. And from his mother and his father.) (36. And from his wife and his children.) (37. Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others.)

 

The Day of Judgement and the fleeing of the People from Their Relatives during it

Ibn `Abbas said, "As-Sakhkhah is one of the names of the Day of Judgement that Allah has magnified and warned His servants of.''[1][22] Ibn Jarir said, "Perhaps it is a name for the blowing into Trumpet.''[2][23] Al-Baghawi said, "As-Sakhkhah means the thunderous shout of the Day of Judgement. It has been called this because it will deafen the ears. This means that it pierces the hearing to such an extent that it almost deafens the ears.''[3][24]

 (That Day shall a man flee from his brother. And from his mother and his father. And from his wife and his children.)

meaning, he will see them and then flee from them, and seek to get away from them because horror will be so great and the matter will be so weighty. There is an authentic Hadith related concerning the intercession that states that every one of the great Messengers of firm resolve will be requested to intercede with Allah on behalf of the creation, but each of them will say, "O myself! O myself! Today I will not ask You (O Allah) concerning anyone but myself.'' Even `Isa bin Maryam will say, "I will not ask Him (Allah) concerning anyone but myself today. I will not even ask Maryam, the woman who gave birth to me.''[4][25] Thus, Allah says,

 (That Day shall a man flee from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his children.)

Qatadah said, "The most beloved and then the next most beloved, and the closest of kin and then the next closest of kin -- due to the terror of that Day.'' Allah said,

 (Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others.)

meaning, he will be preoccupied in his business and distracted from the affairs of others. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said,

 (You will all be gathered barefoot, naked, walking and uncircumcised.)

So his wife said, "O Messenger of Allah! Will we look at or see each other's nakedness'' The Prophet replied,

 (Every man among them on that Day will have enough (worries) to make him careless of others) -- or he said: (he will be too busy to look.)[5][26]

Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Prophet said,

 (You will all be gathered barefoot, naked and uncircumcised.)

So a woman said, "Will we see or look at each others nakedness'' He replied,

(O so-and-so woman! Every man among them on that Day will have enough (worries) to make him careless of others.)

At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.''[6][27]

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(80:33) At last, when the deafening blast is sounded, *21 .

*21 The final terrible sounding of the Trumpet at which all dead men shall be ressurected to life.

 

(80:34) that Day shall man flee from his brother (80:35) and his mother and his father (80:36) and his wife and his children. *22

*22 A theme closeay resembling this has already occurred in AI-Ma'arij: 10-14. (70:10) And no close friend shall ask after his close friend, (70:11) though they will be shown to each other. To save himself from the torment of that Day, the culprit shall wish to give his children, (70:12) his wife, his brother, (70:13) his kinsfolk who gave him shelter, (70:14) and all the people of the earth, in ransom that this device might rescue him.

"Fleeing" may also mean that when he sees those nearest and dearest to him in the world, involved in distress, instead of rushing forth to help them, he will run away from them lest they should call out to him for help; and it may also mean that when they see the evil consequences of committing sin for the sake of one another and misleading one another, fearless of God and heedless of the Hereafter, in the world, each one would flee from the other lest the other should hold him responsible for his deviation and sin. Brother will fear brother, children their parents, husband his wife, and parents their children lest they should become witnesses in the case against them.

 

(80:37) Each one of them, on that' Day, shall have enough to occupy him so as to make him heedless of others. *23

*23 A tradition has been reported in the. Hadith by different methods and through different channels, saying that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "On the Day of Resurrection all men will rise up naked." One of his wives (according to some reporters, Hadrat `A'ishah, according to others, Hadrat Saudah, or a woman) asked in bewilderment: "O Messenger of Allah, shall we (women) appear naked on that Day before the people ? The Holy prophet recited this very verse and explained that on that Day each one will have enough of his own troubles to occupy him, and will be wholly unmindful of others. (Nasa'i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Jarir, Tabarani Ibn Marduyah, Baihaqi, Hakim).

 

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

But when the stunning blast is sounded, on that day each man will forsake his brother, his mother and his father, his wife and his children: for each one of them will on that day have enough preoccupation's of his own.

 

The final part touches upon "the stunning blast" and its fearful effects. The very sound of the words gives an impression of horror. It makes people unaware of anything around them.  But when the stunning blast is sounded, on that day each man will forsake his brother, his mother and his father, his wife and his children: for each one of them will on that day have enough pre occupations of his own. This is the end of all delight and enjoyment. It fits perfectly with the long planning and comprehensive designing which include every stage in the development of man. The end portrayed in this scene comes into perfect harmony with the scene portrayed at the beginning of the surah which shows someone coming forward with zeal and with a feeling of fear in his heart, and another considering himself self-sufficient and turning away from the Divine guidance. Here we have an exposition of their standing in Allah's view.

"The stunning blast" is the nearest translation of an Arabic term which carries a very sharp tone; it almost pierces through the ears. This effect simply prepares us for the following scene in which we see "each man will for sake his brother, his mother and his father, his wife and his children." These ties between the man and his nearest relations cannot be severed in the normal course of events. Yet the stunning blast destroys these very links and ties and throws them into the air.

The fearfulness depicted in this scene is purely psychological. It strikes the soul, isolates it and holds it in its grip. The result is that each one will think only of himself. He shall have no time or power to think of others: "for each one of them will on that day have enough preoccupation's of his own ". The description is vivid; yet there could not be a shorter and more comprehensive statement to describe the general condition of worried minds and souls: "for each one of them will on that day have enough preoccupation's of his own. This condition is universal when the stunning blast takes place.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 24 November 2006 at 3:59am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter 80, Continued 38-42)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(38. Some faces that Day will be bright,) (39. Laughing, rejoicing at good news.) (40. And other faces that Day will be dust-stained.) (41. Darkness will cover them.) (42. Such will be the disbelieving, the wicked evil doers.)

 

The Faces of the People of Paradise and the People of the Fire on the Day of Judgement

Allah says;

 (Some faces that Day will be bright (Musfirah), laughing, rejoicing at good news.)

meaning, the people will be divided into two parties. There will be faces that are Musfirah, which means bright.

 (Laughing, rejoicing at good news.)

meaning, happy and pleased due to the joy that will be in their hearts. The good news will be apparent on their faces. These will be the people of Paradise.

 (And other faces that Day will be dust-stained. Darkness (Qatarah) will cover them.)

meaning, they will be overcome and covered with Qatarah, which is darkness. Ibn `Abbas said,

 (Darkness (Qatarah) will cover them.)

"This means that they (the faces) will be overcome with darkness.''[1][28]

Allah said,

 (Such will be the disbelieving, the wicked evildoers.)

meaning, they are disbelievers in their hearts, evildoers in their actions. This is as Allah says,

 (And they will beget none but wicked disbelievers.) (71:27)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(80:38) Some faces on that Day shall be shining- (80:39) rejoicing and joyful. (80:40) And some faces on that Day shall be dusty, (80:41) and darkness shall be covering them. (80:42) These will be the disbelievers and the sinners.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Some faces on that day shall be beaming, smiling and joyful. Some other faces on that day shall be covered with dust, veiled with darkness. These shall be the faces of the disbelievers, the hardened in sin.

 

Then follows a description of the condition of the believers and that of the disbelievers after the two groups have been assigned their values by the Divine standards: "some faces on that day shall be beaming, smiling and joyful." These faces are beaming with happiness overflowing with delight, lit up with a broad smile. They are hopeful and reassured because they feel that the Lord is pleased with them.

The people of this class are spared the terror of the stunning blast, so they can afford to smile and show their happiness. Or probably the smiles and manifestations of happiness are seen after these people have realized the good end awaiting them.

Some other faces on that day shall be covered with dust, veiled with darkness. These shall be the faces of the disbelievers, the hardened in sin.

These faces are covered with the dust of sadness and misery, darkened with humiliation and depression. They know what they have done in this life and they await their inevitable punishment. These shall be the faces of the disbelievers, the hardened in sin.

The people of this class are devoid of faith. They do not believe in Allah or in the Divine message. Moreover, they are hardened in their erring and sinful ways. They persistently violate the Divine commandments.

The destiny of each group is portrayed in their faces. It is a vivid portrait drawn with words and expressions - a fact which testifies to the immense power characteristic of the Qur'anic style.

The opening and the close of the surah are in perfect harmony. The opening lays down a fundamental principle and a general standard, and the close shows us the results of applying this standard. The surah is a short one; yet it states a number of major facts and principles, portraying a large number of scenes, utilising different rhythms. The style brings out all the images in full relief.

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat `Abasa, and to Allah all praise and thanks are due.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 01 December 2006 at 4:30am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter - 81)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

What has been narrated about This Surah

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever wishes to look at the Day of Judgement as if he is seeing it with his own eyes, then let him read, (When the sun is wound round.) (81:1) (and; (When the heaven is cleft asunder.) (82:1) (and; (When the heaven is split asunder.) (84:1))[1][1]

Likewise, At-Tirmidhi has also recorded this Hadith.[2][2]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 (1.When the sun is Kuwwirat.) (2. And when the stars Inkadarat.)

 

What will happen on the Day of Judgement, and that is the rolling up of the Sun

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas:

 

(When the sun is Kuwwirat.) "This means it will be darkened.''[3][3] Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas; "It will go away.'' Qatadah said, "Its light will go away.''[4][4] Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Kuwwirat means it will sink in.''[5][5] Abu Salih said, "Kuwwirat means it will be thrown down.'' At-Takwir means to gather one part of something with another part of it (i.e., folding). From it comes the folding of the turban (`Imamah) and the folding of clothes together. Thus, the meaning of Allah's statement,

 (Kuwwirat) is that part of it will be folded up into another part of it. Then it will be rolled up and thrown away. When this is done to it, its light will go away.

Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

(The sun and the moon will be rolled up on the Day of Judgement.)[6][6]

Al-Bukhari was alone in recording this Hadith and this is his wording of it.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57212.htm -  Dispersing the Stars

(And when the stars Inkadarat.)

meaning, when they are scattered. This is as Allah says,

(And when the stars have fallen and scattered.) (82:2)

The basis of the word Inkidar is Insibab, which means to be poured out. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas reported from Abu Al-`Aliyah, who reported from Ubayy bin Ka`b that he said, "Six signs will take place before the Day of Judgement. The people will be in their marketplaces when the sun's light will go away. When they are in that situation, the stars will be scattered. When they are in that situation, the mountains will fall down upon the face of the earth, and the earth will move, quake and be in a state of mixed up confusion. So the Jinns will then flee in fright to the humans and the humans will flee to the Jinns. The domestic beasts, birds and wild animals will mix together, and they will surge together in a wave (of chaos).

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:1) When the sun is folded up, *1

*1 This is a matchless metaphor for causing the sun to lose its light. Takwir means to fold up; hence takwir al- `amamah for folding up the turban on the head. Here, the light which radiates from the sun and spreads throughout the solar system has been likened to the turban and it has been said that on the Resurrection Day the turban will be folded up about the sun and its radiation will fade.

 

(81:2) and when the stars scatter, *2

*2 That is, when the force which is keeping them in their orbits and positions is loosened and alI the stars and planets will scatter in the universe. The word inkidar also indicates that they will not only scatter away but will also grow dark.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

When the sun is darkened, when the stars fall and disperse,

 

This surah may be divided into two parts, each of them treating one major principle of faith. The first is the principle of Resurrection accompanied by a great upheaval in the universe, which affects the sun and the stars, the mountains and the seas, heaven and earth, wild and domestic animals, as well as man. The second principle, discussed in the second half of the surah, is the principle of revelation. The surah has something to say about the angel carrying the Divine revelation, the Prophet receiving it, the people addressed by it, and the Supreme Will which has shaped their nature and sent down to them this revelation.

The rhythm of the surah is one of violent movement which leaves nothing in its place. Everything is thrown, smashed or scattered away. The movement is so violent that it excites and frightens. It alters every familiar situation and shakes men's hearts violently for a long period so that they feel deprived of both shelter and reassurance. In such a violent destructive storm the human heart is no more than a little feather, blown in every direction. No protection and, indeed, no safety can then be found except what is Granted by Allah, the Eternal Being. Thus, the rhythm of the surah has on its own, the effect of pulling man's heart and soul away from every thing associated with safety and security, in order to seek peace, safety and protection in Allah.

 

The surah is also a gem of striking images drawn from the universe in both its present beautiful condition which is familiar to us and its condition on the Day of Resurrection when every familiar thing is changed beyond recognition. The surah is, moreover, rich in fine expressions which add colour to the images portrayed. As the surah is so short, the rhythm, images and fine expressions combine together to produce a very strong and lasting effect.

 

Had it not been for the fact that the surah contains some words which are no longer familiar to us today, I would have preferred not to comment on it. Its rhythm and images leave a far stronger effect than any human interpretation can aspire to achieve. When the sun is darkened, when the stars fall and disperse, when the mountains are made to move away, when camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended, when the wild beasts are brought together, when the seas are set alight, when men 's souls are paired (like with like), when the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain, when the records are laid open, when the sky is stripped bare, when Hell is made burn burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near, every soul shall know what it has put forward.

 

These verses sketch a scene of a great upheaval which envelops the whole universe. It is an event which reveals every guarded secret and leaves nothing hidden away. Every human being faces what he has put forward for the clay of reckoning and judgment.

The great events mentioned indicate that the present familiar state of the universe, with its perfect harmony, measured movement, controlled relations, perfected by a meticulous and able Maker will suffer a break down of its system. It will have completed its role. Along with all creation, it will move into a new predetermined phase of life, unlike anything known to us in this world.

 

The surah aims to get this idea of the inevitable upheaval well established in men's hearts and minds so that they may attach little or no importance to the values and riches of this world, though these may seem to be of lasting consequence. The hearts and minds of people should establish a firm bond with the everlasting truth, i.e. the truth of Allah the Eternal, Who never changes when everything else changes and disappears. They should break the chains of what is familiar in this life in order to recognise the absolute truth which admits no restrictions of time, place, finite faculties or temporal standards.

As one goes through the events of this universal upheaval, one cannot fail to observe an inner feeling for this affirmation.

 

As to what exactly happens to all these types of creation during the Resurrection we can only say that it is known to Allah alone. We can only comprehend what we have experienced. When we think of a great upheaval in the world our imagination cannot stretch beyond a violent earthquake or volcano, or, perhaps, the fall of a bomb.

Floods are perhaps the most destructive manifestation of the power of water known to us. The most powerful events in the universe we have monitored were some limited explosions in the sun, which is millions of miles away from us. All these events, great as they may be, seem so small when they are compared to that universal upheaval which will take place on the Day of Resurrection that they may be considered akin to children's play. If we really want to know what will happen then, we can do no more than attempt to draw some sort of comparison with what we have experienced in this life.

The darkening of the sun probably means that it will cool down and its flames which stretch out for thousands of miles in space will dwindle and die down. As the sun is now in gas form because of its intense heat, which reaches a maximum of 12,000 degrees, its darkening probably means its transformation by freezing to a form similar to that of the surface of the earth. It may adopt a circular shape without becoming stretched out.

This is probably the meaning of the opening verse, but it could also mean something different. As to how it will happen, or what will cause it to happen, we can only say that this is known only to Allah.

The falling of the stars probably means that they will break away from the system which holds them together and lose their light and brightness. Only Allah knows which stars will be affected by this event: will it affect only a small group of stars, say, our own solar system, or our galaxy, which comprises hundreds of millions of stars, or will it affect all the stars in their millions of millions? It is a well known fact that the universe comprises an almost infinite number of galaxies, each with its own space.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 08 December 2006 at 12:38pm

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 3-5)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

(3. And when the mountains are made to pass away;) (4. And when the pregnant she-camels are neglected;) (5. And when the wild beasts are gathered together.)

 

Moving of the Mountains, abandoning of the Pregnant She-Camels, and the gathering of the Wild Beasts

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (And when the mountains are made to pass away;)

meaning, they will not remain in their places and they will be destroyed. Then the earth will be left as a flat, level plain. Then Allah says,

 (And when the pregnant she-camels (`Ishar) are neglected (`Uttilat);)

`Ikrimah and Mujahid said, "`Ishar are (pregnant she-) camels.''[1][8] Mujahid said, "`Uttilat means abandoned and left.''[2][9] Ubayy bin Ka`b and Ad-Dahhak both said, "Their owners will neglect them.''[3][10] Ar-Rabi` bin Khuthaym said, "They will not be milked or tied up. Their masters will leave them abandoned.''[4][11] Ad-Dahhak said, "They will be left with no one to tend to them.''[5][12] And the meaning of all of these statements is similar.

What is intended is that the `Ishar is a type of camel. It is actually the best type of camel, and particularly the pregnant females of them when they have reached the tenth month of their pregnancies. One of them is singularly referred to as `Ushara', and she keeps that name until she gives birth. So the people will be too busy to tend to her, take care of her or benefit from her, after she used to be the most important thing to them. This will be due to what will suddenly overtake them of the great, terrifying and horrible situation. This is the matter of the Day of Judgement, the coming together of its causes, and the occurrence of those things that will happen before it.

 (And when the wild beasts are gathered together.)

meaning, gathered. This is as Allah says,

 (There is not a moving creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they shall be gathered.) (6:38)

Ibn `Abbas said, "Everything will be gathered, even the flies.'' This statement was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.[6][13] Allah also says,

 (And (so did) the birds assembled.) [38:19] meaning, gathered.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:3) and when the mountains are set in motion, *3

*3 In other words, the earth also will lose its force of gravity because of which the mountains have weight and are firmly set in the earth. Thus, when there is no more gravity the mountains will be uprooted from their places and becoming weightless will start moving and flying as the clouds move in the atmosphere.

 

(81:4) and when the ten month pregnant she-camels are left untended, *4

*4 This was by far the best way of giving an idea of the severities and horrors of Resurrection to the Arabs. Before the buses and trucks of the present day there was nothing more precious for the Arabs than the she-camel just about to give birth to her young. In this state she was most sedulously looked after and cared for, so that she is not lost, stolen, or harmed in any way. The people's becoming heedless of such she-camels, in fact, meant that at that time they would be so stunned as to become unmindful of their most precious possessions.

 

(81:5) and when the beasts are gathered together *5

*5 When a general calamity befalls the world, all kinds of beasts and animals gather together in one place. then neither the snake bites, nor the tiger kills and devours.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

when the mountains are made to move away, when the camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended, when the wild beasts are brought together,

 

The forcing away of the mountains probably means that they will be crushed and blown away as indicated in other surahs: They ask you about the mountains. Say: 'My Lord will crush them to fine dust and leave them a desolate waste. (Al-Qur'an 20:105) When the mountains crumble away and scatter into fine dusts. (Al-Qur'an 56:5) And the mountains shall pass away as if they were mirage. (Al-Qur'an 78:20)

All these verses refer to a certain event which will affect the mountains and do away with their firm foundation and stability. This may be the beginning of the quake which will shake the earth violently, and which is mentioned in surah 99 "The Earthquake". When the Earth is rocked in her last convulsion, when the earth shakes off her burdens. (Al-Qur'an 99:1-2)

All these events will take place on that very long day. When the camels, ten months pregnant, are left untended.

The Arabic description of the camel here specifies that she is in her tenth month of pregnancy. When in this state, she is to the Arab his most valuable possession because she is about to add to his wealth by a highly valued young camel, and to give him a lot of milk which he and his family will share with the new born animal. However, on that day, which will witness such overwhelming events, such priceless camels will be left without care, completely untended. The Arabs who were the first to be addressed by this verse never left such camels untended, except for the gravest of dangers. When the wild beasts are brought together.

The great terror which overwhelms the wild beasts in their jungles is the cause of their coming together. They forget their mutual enmities, and move together, unaware of their direction. They neither seek their homes nor chase their prey as they usually do. The overwhelming terror changes the character of even the wildest of beasts. What would it do to man?

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 15 December 2006 at 3:02pm

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 6-7)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

(6. And when the seas become as blazing fire.) (7. And when the souls are joined with their mates.)

 

The Blazing of the Seas

Allah says,

 (And when the seas become as blazing fire.) Ibn Jarir recorded from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib that `Ali said to a Jewish man, "Where is the Hell'' The man said, "The sea.'' `Ali then said, "I think he is truthful, as Allah says

 (And by the seas kindled (Masjur).) (52:6) and;

 (And when the seas become as blazing fire.)''[1][14]

It will be kindled with fire and become a raging fire that surrounds the people in the gathering area, this was reported by Said bin Al-Musayyib from Ali bin Abi Talib. http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57245.htm -

 It was also reported from Ibn Abbas and it is the view of many of the scholars  that Masjur is the filled sea. Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation saying The sea is not lit with fire now, so it is filled.

 

 Joining the Souls

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (And when the souls are joined with their mates.)

meaning, every type (of soul) will be gathered with its peer (or mate). This is as Allah says,

 (It will be said to the angels): "Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions (from the devils).) (37:22)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from An-Nu`man bin Bashir that the Messenger of Allah said,

(And When the souls are joined with their mates.)( Those who are alike. Every man will be with every group of people who performed the same deeds that he did. (This is because Allah says, (And you (all) will be in three groups. So those on the Right Hand - how (fortunate) will be those on Right Hand! And those on the Left Hand - how (unfortunate) will be those on the Left Hand!) (56: 7-10) (They are those who are alike.)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:6) and when the oceans are set ablaze, *6

*6 The word sujjirat as used in the original in passive voice from tasjir in the past tense. Tasjir means to kindle fire in the oven. Apparently it seems strange that on the Resurrection Day fire would blaze up in the oceans. But if the truth about water is kept in view, nothing would seem strange. It is a miracle of God that He combined oxygen and hydrogen, one of which helps kindle the fire and the other gets kindled of itself and by the combination of both He created a substance like water which is used to put out fire. A simple manifestation of Allah's power is enough to change this composition of water so that the two gases are separated and begin to burn and help cause a blaze, which is their basic characteristic.

 

(81:7) and when *7 the souls are re-united (with the bodies), *8

*7 From here begins mention of the second stage of Resurrection.
*8 That is, men will be resurrected precisely in the state as they lived in the world before death with body and soul together.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

when the seas are set alight, when men's souls are paired (like with like),

 

When the seas are set alight.

The Arabic term used here may mean that the seas will be over-filled with water, from floods similar to those which characterised the early stages of life on earth. On the other hand, earthquakes and volcanoes may remove the barriers now separating the seas so that the water of one will flow into the other.

The Arabic expression may also mean that the seas will experience explosions which set them ablaze, as mentioned elsewhere in the Qur'an: When the oceans are made to explode. (Al-Qur'an 81:3) The explosions may result from separating the oxygen and the hydrogen which make the sea water. They could also be atomic explosions of some sort. If the explosion of a limited number of atoms in a hydrogen or atom bomb produces such dreadful consequences as we have seen, then the atomic explosion of the waters of the oceans, in whatever manner it may occur, will produce something much too fearful for our minds to visualise. Similarly, we cannot conceive the reality of Hell, which stands beyond these vast oceans.

When men 's souls are paired (like with like).

The pairing of souls may mean the reunion of body and soul at the time of resurrection. It may also mean their grouping, like with like, as mentioned elsewhere in the Qur'an: "You will be divided into three groups" (56:7) the chosen elite, the people of the right, and the people of the left. It may also mean some other way of grouping.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 22 December 2006 at 5:34am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 8-9)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 
{8}
{9}

(8. And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive is questioned (Su'ilat):) (9. For what sin was she killed)

 

Questioning the Female Infant Who was buried Alive

Allah says,

(And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive is questioned: For what sin was she killed)

The majority have recited it as Su'ilat (she is questioned), as it is here. Al-Maw'udah is the female infant that the people of the pre-Islamic time of ignorance would bury in the dirt due to their hatred of girls. Therefore, on the Day of Judgement, the female infant will be asked what sin she committed that caused here to be murdered. This will be a means of frightening her murderer. For verily, if the one who was wronged is questioned, what does the wrongdoer (the one who is guilty of the oppression) think then `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

(And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive Su'ilat:)

"This means that she will ask.'' Abu Ad-Duha made a similar statement when he said, "She will ask, meaning she will demand restitution for her blood.''[1][17] The same has been reported from As-Suddi and Qatadah.

Hadiths have been reported concerning the Maw'udah. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A'ishah, who reported from Judamah bint Wahb, the sister of `Ukkashah, that she said, "I was in the presence of the Messenger of Allah when he was with some people, and he said,

(I was about to prohibit sexual relations with breast feeding women, but then I saw that the Romans and the Persians have sexual relations with their women who breast feed their children and it does not harm the children at all.)

Then they asked him about interruption of sexual intercourse to prevent the male discharge from entering the womb of the woman, and he said,

(That is the minor infanticide and it is the female infant buried alive (Maw'udah) that will be questioned.)''[2][18]

Muslim, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, all recorded this Hadith as well.[3][19]

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57266.htm -

 

The Atonement for burying Infant Girls Alive

`Abdur-Razzaq said that Isra'il informed them from Simak bin Harb, from An-Nu`man bin Bashir, who reported from `Umar bin Al-Khattab that he said concerning Allah's statement,

(And when the female infant buried alive is questioned.)

"Qays bin `Asim came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Verily, I buried some daughters of mine alive in the period of pre-Islamic ignorance.' The Messenger of Allah said,

(Free a slave for each one of them.)

Then Qays said, `O Messenger of Allah! Verily, I am an owner of camels.' The Prophet said,

(Then sacrifice a camel for each one of them.)''[4][20]

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57274.htm -

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(81:8) and when the infant girl, buried alive, (81:9) is asked for what crime she was slain, *9

*9 The style of this verse reflects an intensity of rage and fury inconceivable in common life. The parents, who buried their daughters alive, would be so contemptible in the-sight of Allah that they would not be asked: "Why did you kill the innocent infant?" But disregarding them the innocent girl will be asked: "For what crime were you slain?" And she will tell her story how cruelly she had been treated by her barbarous parents and buried alive. Besides, two vast themes have been compressed into this brief verse, which though not expressed in words, are reflected by its style and tenor. First that in it the Arabs have been made to realize what depths of moral depravity they have touched because of their ignorance in that they buried their own children alive; yet they insist that they would persist in the same ignorance and would not accept the reform that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) was trying to bring about in their corrupted society. Second that an express argument has been given in it of the necessity and inevitability of the Hereafter. The case of the infant girl who was buried alive, should be decided and settled justly at some tune, and there should necessarily be a time when the cruel people who committed this heinous crime, should be called to account for it, for there was none in the world to hear the cries of complaint raised by the poor soul. This act was looked upon with approval by the depraved society; neither the parents felt any remorse for it, nor anybody in the family censured them, nor the society took any notice of it. Then, should this monstrosity remain wholly unpunished in the Kingdom of God?
This barbaric custom of burying the female infants alive had become widespread in ancient
Arabia for different reasons. One reason was economic hardship because of which the people wanted to have fewer dependents so that they should not have to bear the burden of bringing up many children. Male offspring were brought up in the hope that they would later help in earning a living, but the female offspring were killed for the fear that they would have to be reared till they matured and then given away in marriage. Second, the widespread chaos because of which the male children were brought up in order to have more and more helpers and supporters; but daughters were killed because in tribal wars they had to be protected instead of being useful in any way for defence. Third, another aspect of the common chaos also was that when the hostile tribes raided each other and captured girls they would either keep them as slave-girls or sell them to others. For these reasons the practice that had become common in Arabia
was that at childbirth a pit was kept dug out ready for use by the woman so that if a girl was born, she was immediately cast into it and buried alive. And if sometimes the mother was not inclined to act thus, or the people of the family disapproved of it, the father would rear her for some time half-heartedly, and then finding time would take her to the desert to be buried alive. This tyranny and hard-heartedness was once described by a person before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) himself. According to a Hadith related in the first chapter of Sunan Darimi, a man came to the Holy Prophet and related this incident of his pre-lslamic days of ignorance: "I had a daughter who was much attached to me. When I called her, she would come running to me. One day I called her and took her out with me. On the way we came across a well. Holding her by the hand I pushed her into the well. Her last words that I heard were: Oh father, oh father!!" Hearing this the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) wept and tears started falling from his eyes One of those present on the occasion said: O man, you have grieved the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet said: Do not stop him, let him question about what he feels so strongly now. Then the Holy Prophet asked him to narrate his story once again. When he narrated it again the Holy Prophet wept so bitterly that his beard became we with tears. Then he said to the man: "Allah has forgiven that you did in the days of ignorance: now turn to Him in repentance.'
It is not correct to think that the people of
Arabia had no feeling of the baseness of this hideous, inhuman act. Obviously, no society, however corrupted it may be, can be utterly devoid of the feeling that such tyrannical acts are evil. That is why the Holy Qur'an has not dwelt upon the vileness of this act, but has only referred to it in awe-inspiring words to the effect: "A time will come when the girl who was buried alive, will be asked for what crime she was slain?" The history of Arabia
also shows that many people in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance had a feeling that the practice was vile and wicked. According to Tabarani, Sa`sa'ah bin Najiyah al-Mujashi`i, grandfather of the poet, Farazdaq, said to the Holy Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah, during the days of ignorance I have done some good works also among which one is that I saved 360 girls from being buried alive: I gave two camels each as ransom to save their lives. Shall I get any reward for this?" The Holy Prophet replied; "Yes, there is a reward for you, and it is this that Allah has blessed you with Islam."
As a matter of fact, a great blessing of the blessings of Islam is that it not only did put an end to this inhuman practice in
Arabia
but even wiped out the concept that the birth of a daughter was in any way a calamity, which should be endured unwillingly. On the contrary, Islam taught that bringing up daughters, giving them good education and enabling them to become good housewives, is an act of great merit and virtue. The way the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) changed the common concept of the people in respect of girls can be judged from his many sayings which have been reported in the Hadith. As for example, we reproduce some of these below:
"The person who is put to a test because of the birth of the daughters and then he treats them generously, they will become a means of rescue for him from Hell." (Bukhari, Muslim).
"The one who brought up two girls till they attained their maturity, will appear along with me on the Resurrection Day ... Saying this the Holy Prophet jointed and raised his fingers. (Muslim).
"The one who brought up three daughters, or sisters, taught then good manners and treated them with kindness until they became self-sufficient. AIlah will make
Paradise
obligatory for him. A man asked: what about two, O Messenger of Allah? The Holy Prophet replied: the same for two." Ibn `Abbas, the reporter of the Hadith, says: "Had the people at that time asked in respect of one daughter, the Holy Prophet would have also given the same reply about her. " (Sharh as-Sunnh).
"The one who has a daughter born to him and he does not bury her alive, nor keeps her in disgrace, nor prefers his son to her, Allah will admit him to
Paradise
." (Abu Da'ud).
"The one who has three daughters born to him, and he is patient over them, and clothes them well according to his means, they will become a means of rescue for him from Hell. " (Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Majah).
"The Muslim who has two daughters and he looks after them well, they will lead him to
Paradise
." (Bukhari: Al-Adab al-Mufrad).
The Holy Prophet said to Suraqah bin Ju'sham: "Should I tell you what is the greatest charity (or said: one of the greatest charities)? He said: Kindly do tell, O Messenger of Allah. The Holy Prophet said: Your daughter who (after being divorced or widowed) returns to you and should have no other bread-winner." (Ibn Majah, Bukhari Al-Adab al-Mufrad).
This is the teaching which completely changed the viewpoint of the people about girls not only in
Arabia but among all the nations of the world, which later become blessed with Islam. br>

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

When the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain,

When the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain.

The value of human life must have sunk very low in pre Islamic Arabian society. There existed a convention of burying young girls alive, for fear of shame or poverty. The Quran describes this practice in order to portray its horror and record its Ignorance i.e. Jahiliyyah. Its condemnation fits in perfectly with the declared aim of Islam, to destroy Ignorance and save mankind from sinking to its depth. In surah 16 "The Bee" we read in translation: When the birth of a girl is announced to one of them, his face grows dark and he is filled with rage and inward gloom. Because of the bad news he hides himself from every body; should he keep her with disgrace or bury her under the dust? How will they judge. (Al-Qur'an 16:58-9)

And in surah 17 "The Night Journey" we read You shall not kill your children for fear of want. We will provide for them and for you. (Al-Qur'an 17:31)

Girls were killed in an extremely cruel way. They were buried alive! Those Arabs who did not kill their young daughters or send them to mind cattle, had different methods of ill treating women. If a man died, the head of the clan would throw his gown over the widow. This was a gesture of acquisition which meant that the widow could not re-marry anyone except the owner of the gown. If he fancied her, he would marry her, paying no regard whatso ever to her feelings in the matter. If he did not marry her, he would keep her until she died so as to inherit her wealth.

Such was the attitude of the Ignorant society in Arabia to women Islam condemns this attitude and spurns all these practices. It forbids the murder of young girls and expresses its horrifying nature. It makes it one of the subjects of reckoning on the Day of Judgment. Here, the surah mentions it as one of the great events which overwhelm the universe in a total upheaval. We are told that the murdered girl will be questioned about her murder. The surah leaves us to imagine how the murderer will be brought to account.

The Ignorant social order of the pre-Islamic period would never have helped women to gain a respectable, dignified position. That had to be decreed by Allah. The way of life Allah has chosen for mankind secures a dignified position for both men and women who share the honour of having a measure of the Divine spirit breathed into them. Women owe their respectable position to Islam, not to any factor of environment or social set-up.

When the new man with heavenly values came into 'being, women became respected and honoured. The woman's weakness of being a financial burden to her family was no longer of any consequence in determining her position and the respect she enjoyed. These considerations have no weight in the scales of heaven. Real weight belongs to the noble human soul when it maintains its relationship with Allah. In this man and woman are equal.

When one puts forward the arguments in support of the fact that Islam is a Divine religion, and that it has been conveyed to us by Allah's Messenger who has received His revelations, one should state the change made by Islam in the social status of women as one of the irrefutable arguments. Nothing in the social set-up of Arabia at the time pointed to such an elevation of the woman's position. No social or economic consideration made it necessary or desirable. It was a deliberate move made by Islam for reasons which are totally different from those of this world and from those of the Ignorant society in particular.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 29 December 2006 at 2:24am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 10-14)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -

 

(10. And when the pages are laid open.) (11. And when the heaven is Kushitat;) (12. And when Hell is Su`irat.) (13. And when Paradise is brought near.) (14. Every person will know what he has brought.)

 

The Distribution of the Pages

Allah says,

[ ]

(And when the pages are laid open.) Ad-Dahhak said, "Every person will be given his paper in his right hand or in his left hand.'' Qatadah said, "O Son of Adam ! It (your paper) is written in, then it is rolled up, then it will be distributed to you on the Day of Judgement. So let each man look at what he himself dictated to be written in his paper.''[1][21]

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57278.htm -  Removing the Heavens, kindling Hellfire, and Paradise being brought near

Allah says,

[ ]

(And when the heaven is Kushitat;) Mujahid said, "It drawns away.''[2][22] As-Suddi said, "Stripped off.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And when Hell is Su`irat.) As-Suddi said, "It is heated.'' In reference to Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And when Paradise is brought near.) Ad-Dahhak, Abu Malik, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Khuthaym, all said, "This means it will be brought near to its inhabitants.''

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57286.htm -  Everyone will know what He has brought on the Day of Judgement Concerning

Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Every person will know what he has brought.)

This is the conclusive response of the previous statements, meaning at the time these matters occur, every soul will know what it has done, and that will be brought forth for it, as Allah says,

[ ]

(On the Day when every person will be confronted with all the good he has done, and all the evil he has done, he will wish that there were a great distance between him and his evil.) (3:30)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (75:13)

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57274.htm -  

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:10) and when the records are unfolded, (81:11) and when the veil of heaven is removed, *10

*10 That is, everything which is hidden from view now will become visible. Now one can only see empty space, or the clouds, hanging dust, the moon, the sun or stars, but at that time the Kingdom of God will appear in full view before the people, without any veil in between, in its true reality.

 

(81:12) and when Hell is set blazing, (81:13) and when Paradise is brought near, *11 (81:14) then each person shall know what he has brought with him.

*11 That is, in the Plain of Resurrection, when the hearing of the cases of the people will be in progress, the blazing fire of Hell also will be in full view, and Paradise also with all its blessings will be visible to all, so that the wicked should know what they are being deprived of and where they are going to be cast, and the righteous as well should know what they are being saved from and with what being blessed and honoured.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

when the records are laid open, when the sky is stripped bare, when Hell is made to burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near, Every soul shall know what it has put forward.

 

When the records are laid open. This is a reference to the records of people's deeds. They are laid open in order that they may be known to everybody. This, in itself, is hard to bear. Many a breast has closely hidden a secret, the remembrance of which brings a feeling of shame and a shudder to its owner. Yet all secrets are made public on that eventful day. This publicity, representative of the great upheaval which envelops the whole universe, is part of the fearful events which fill men's hearts with horror on the day. When the sky is stripped bare.

This image corresponds closely to throwing open people's secrets. When the word "sky" is used, our first thoughts reach to the blue cover hoisted over our heads. Its stripping means the removal of that cover. How this would happen remains to us a matter of conjecture. It is enough to say that when we look up we will no longer see our familiar blue dome. This may be brought about by any change affecting the status quo in the universe which causes this phenomenon to exist. The last scene of that fearful day is portrayed by the next two verses: When Hell is made to burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near.

Where is Hell? How does it burn? What fuel is used in lighting and feeding its fire? The only thing we know of that is that it "has fuel of men and stones." (Al-Qur'an 66:6) This is, of course, after they have been thrown in it. Its true nature and its fuel prior to that is part of Allah's knowledge.

Every soul shall know what it has put forward. In the midst of all these overwhelming events, every soul shall know for certain what sort of deeds it has brought with itself. Every soul shall also know that it cannot change, omit from or add to what it has done.

People will find themselves completely separated from all that has been familiar to them, and from their world as a whole. Everything will have undergone a total change except Allah. If man turns to Allah he will find that His support is forthcoming when the whole universe is overwhelmed by change.

Thus ends the first part of this surah which fills both mind and heart with a vivid impression of the universal upheaval on the Day of Resurrection.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 05 January 2007 at 3:58am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 15-18)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -

(15. But nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas.) (16. Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas.) (17. And by the night when it `As`as.) (18. And by the day when it Tanaffas.)

 

The Explanation of the Words Al-Khunnas and Al-Kunnas

Muslim recorded in his Sahih, and An-Nasa'i in his Book of Tafsir, in explaining this Ayah, from `Amr bin Hurayth that he said, "I prayed the Morning prayer behind the Prophet , and I heard him reciting,

[ - - - ]

(But nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas, Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas, and by the night when it `As`as, and by the day when it Tanaffas.)''[1][23]

Ibn Jarir recorded from Khalid bin `Ar`arah that he heard `Ali being asked about the Ayah;

( . )

(Nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas, Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas.)

and he said, "These are the stars that withdraw (disappear) during the day and sweep across the sky (appear) at night.''[2][24]

Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And by the night when it `As`as.) There are two opinions about this statement. One of them is that this refers to its advancing with its darkness. Mujahid said, "It means its darkening.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "When it begins.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When it covers the people.''[3][25] This was also said by `Atiyah Al-`Awfi.[4][26] `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi both reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[ ]

(when it `As`as) "This means when it goes away.''[5][27] Mujahid, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, all said the same.[6][28] Zayd bin Aslam and his son `Abdur-Rahman also made a similar statement, when they said,

[ ]

(when it `As`as) "This means when it leaves, and thus it turns away.''[7][29] I believe that the intent in Allah's saying,

[ ]

(when it `As`as) is when it approaches, even though it is correct to use this word for departing also. However, approachment is a more suitable usage here. It is as if Allah is swearing by the night and its darkness when it approaches, and by the morning and its light when it shines from the east. This is as Allah says,

[ - ]

(By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness) (92:1-2)

and He also says,

[ - ]

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens.) (93:1-2)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed night for resting.) (6:96)

And there are other similar Ayat that mention this. Many of the scholars of the fundamentals of language have said that the word `As`as is used to mean advancing and retreating, with both meanings sharing the same word. Therefore, it is correct that the intent could be both of them, and Allah knows best. Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And by the day when it Tanaffas.)

Ad-Dahhak said, "When it rises.'' Qatadah said, "When it brightens and advances.''[8][30]

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:15) But not so! *12 I swear by the retreating

*12 That is, "You are not correct that what is being presented in the Qur'an is the bragging of an insane person, or the evil suggestion of a devil."

 

(81:16) and hiding stars, (81:17) and the night when it departed, (81:18) and the dawn when it breathed up, *13

*13 That for which the oath has been sworn, has been stated in the following verses. The oath means: "Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) has not seen a vision in darkness, but when the stars had disappeared, the night had departed and the bright morning had appeared, he had seen the Angel of God in the open sky. Therefore, what he tells you is based on his own personal observation and on the experience that he had in full senses in the full light of day."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and by the dawn as it starts to breathe,

 

The second part of the surah opens with a certain form of oath by some very beautiful scenes in the universe. The oath, in fine expressions, is made to assert the nature of revelation, the angel carrying it, and the messenger receiving and conveying it as well as people's attitudes to it all in accordance with Allah's will: I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on and by dawn as it starts to breathe,

The stars referred to here are those which turn in their orbit, and are characterized by their swift movement and temporary disappearance. In translating the text we have to forego the sustained metaphor used in Arabic which draws an analogy between these stars and the deer as they run at great speed towards their homes, disappear for a while and then reappear at a different point. The Arabic metaphor adds considerable liveliness and beauty to the description of the movement of the stars, which corresponds to the rhythmic beauty of the expression.

Again, the rhythm of the Arabic verse translated as "and by the night as it comes darkening on" gives a feeling of life, depicting the night as a living being. The beauty of the Arabic expression is of surpassing excellence.

The same applies to the next verse: "and by dawn as it starts to breathe". This verse is indeed more effective in portraying dawn as alive, breathing. Its breath is the spreading light and the life that begins to stir in everything. I doubt whether the Arabic language, with its inexhaustible wealth of fine imagery and vivid expressions, can produce an image portraying dawn which can be considered equal to this Qur'anic image in aesthetic effect. After a fine night, one can almost feel that dawn is breathing.

Any aesthete will readily perceive that the Divine words of the first four verses of this second part of the surah constitute a gem of fine expression and vivid description: I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hid themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and by dawn as it starts to breathe.

This descriptive wealth adds power to man's feelings as he responds to the natural phenomena to which the verses refer.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 23 January 2007 at 9:51am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 19-21)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

 

(19. Verily, this is the Word a most honorable messenger.) (20. Dhi Quwwah, with the Lord of the Throne -- Makin,) (21. Obeyed there, trustworthy.)

Jibril descended with the Qur'an and it is not the Result of Insanity Concerning

Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Verily, this is the Word of a most honorable messenger.)

meaning, indeed this Qur'an is being conveyed by a noble messenger, which is referring to an honorable angel, who has good character and a radiant appearance, and he is Jibril.

Ibn `Abbas, Ash-Sha`bi, Maymun bin Mihran, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak and others have said this.[1][31]

[ ]

(Dhi Quwwah) This is similar to Allah's statement,

[ ]

(He has been taught by one mighty in power, Dhu Mirrah.) (53:5-6)

meaning, mighty in creation, mighty in strength and mighty in actions.

[ ]

(with the Lord of the Throne Makin,)

meaning, he has high status and lofty rank with Allah.

[ ]

(Obeyed there,)

meaning, he has prestige, his word is listened to, and he is obeyed among the most high gathering (of angels). Qatadah said,

[ ]

(Obeyed there) "This means in the heavens. He is not one of the lower ranking (ordinary) angels. Rather he is from the high ranking, prestigious angels. He is respected and has been chosen for (the delivery of) this magnificent Message.''

Allah then says,

[]

(trustworthy.) This is a description of Jibril as being trustworthy. This is something very great, that the Almighty Lord has commended His servant and angelic Messenger, Jibril, just as He has commended His servant and human Messenger, Muhammad by His statement,

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:19) that this indeed is the Word of a noble Messenger, *14

*14 "A noble messenger": the Angel who brought down Revelation, as becomes explicit from the following verses. "The word of a noble messenger" dces not mean that the Qur'an is the word of the Angel himself, but, as the context shows, of Him Who appointed him a messenger. In Al-Haaqqah: 40, likewise, the Qur'an has been called the word of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), and there too it dces not mean that it is the Holy Prophet's own composition, but describing it as "the word of an honorable messenger", it has been made clear that the Holy Prophet is presenting it in his capacity as the Messenger of God and not as Muhammad bin `Abdullah. At both places, the Word has been attributed to the Angel and to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) on the ground that the message of AIIah was being delivered to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) by the Angel and to the people by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace).

 

(81:20) who has great power, *15 and has high ranks with the Owner of the Throne:

*15 Surah An-Najm: 45, deals with the same theme, thus "It is but a Revelation which is sent down to him. One, mighty in power, has taught him. " As to what is implied by the mighty powers of the Angel Gabriel (peace be upon him) is ambiguous. In any case it at least shows that he is distinguished even among the angels because of his extraordinary powers. In Muslim (kitab- al-iman) Hadrat `A'ishah has reported the Holy Prophet's saying to the effect: "I have twice seen Gabriel in his real shape and form: his glorious being was encompassing the whole space between the earth and the heavens." According to the tradition reported from Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud in Bukhari. Muslim, Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had seen Gabriel with his six hundred wings. From this one can have an idea of his mighty powers.

 

(81:21) there he is obeyed *16 and held as trustworthy. *17

*16 That is, he is the chief of the angels and alI angels work under his command.
*17 That is, he is not one who would tamper with Divine Revelation, but is so trustworthy that he conveys intact whatever he receives from God.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

this is truly the word of a noble and mighty messenger, who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne. He is obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust.

 

As the Qur'an makes this brief, full-of-life description of these phenomena it establishes a spiritual link between them and man, with the result that, as we read, we feel the power which created these phenomena, and the truth which we are called upon to believe. This truth is then stated in a manner which fits in superbly with the general theme of the surah: This is truly the word of a noble and mighty messenger, who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne. He is obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust.

This Qur'an with its description of the Day of Judgment is the word of a noble messenger, i.e. Jibril, the angel who carried and conveyed it to Muhammad (peace be on him).

The surah then gives a description of this chosen messenger. He is "noble", honoured by Allah who says that he is "mighty", which suggests that considerable strength is required to carry and convey the Qur'an. "Who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne." What a great honour for Jibril to enjoy such a position with the Lord of the universe. "He is obeyed in heaven", i.e. by the other angels. He is also "faithful to his trust", carrying and discharging the message.

These qualities add up to a definite conclusion: that the Qur'an is a noble, mighty and exalted message and that Allah takes special care of man. It is a manifestation of this care that He has chosen an angel of the calibre of Jibril to convey His revelation to the man He has chosen as His Messenger. As man reflects on this Divine care he should feel humble. For he himself is worth very little in the kingdom of Allah, were it not for the care Allah takes of him and the honour He bestows on him.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 28 January 2007 at 8:42am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 22-24)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

وَمَا صَـحِبُك 15;مْ بِمَجْنُ 08;نٍ وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْب 16; بِضَنِين 13;

 

(22. And your companion is not a madman.) (23. And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.) (24. And he withholds not a knowledge of the Unseen.)

 

[وَمَا صَـحِبُك 15;مْ بِمَجْنُ 08;نٍ ]

(And your companion is not a madman.) Ash-Sha`bi, Maymun bin Mihran, Abu Salih and others who have been previously mentioned, all said, "This refers to Muhammad .''[1][32] Allah said,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ ]

(And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.)

meaning, indeed Muhammad saw Jibril, who brought him the Message from Allah, in the form that Allah created him in (i.e., his true form), and he had six hundred wings.

[ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ]

(in the clear horizon. )

meaning, clear. This refers to the first sighting which occurred at Al-Batha' (Makkah). This incident is mentioned in Allah's statement,

[عَلَّمَه 615; شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى - ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَو 14;ى - وَهُوَ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الاٌّعْل 14;ى - ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلّ 14;ى - فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْ 06;ِ أَوْ أَدْنَى - فَأَوْحَ 09; إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى ]

(He has been taught by one mighty in power (Jibril). Dhu Mirrah, then he rose. While he was in the highest part of the horizon. Then he approached and came closer. And was at a distance of two bows' length or less. So (Allah) revealed to His servant what He revealed.) (53:5-10)

It seems apparent -- and Allah knows best -- that this Surah (At-Takwir) was revealed before the Night Journey (Al-Isra'), because nothing has been mentioned in it except this sighting (of Jibril), and it is the first sighting. The second sighting has been mentioned in Allah's statement,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى - عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَى - عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى - إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى ]

(And indeed he saw him (Jibril) at a second descent. Near Sidrah Al-Muntaha. Near it is the Paradise of Abode. When that covered the lote tree which did cover it !) (53:13-16)

And these Ayat have only been mentioned in Surat An-Najm, which was revealed after Surat Al-Isra' (The Night Journey).

 

The Prophet is not Stingy in conveying the Revelation

(وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْب 16; بِظَنِين 13;)

(He is not Zanin over the Unseen)[2][33]

meaning Muhammad is not following false conjecture about what Allah revealed. Others have recited this Ayah with the `Dad' in the word Danin, which means that he is not stingy, but rather he conveys it to everyone.

Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, "Zanin and Danin both have the same meaning. They mean that he is not a liar, nor is he a wicked, sinful person. The Zanin is one who follows false supposition, and the Danin is one who is stingy.''[3][34]

Qatadah said, "The Qur'an was unseen and Allah revealed it to Muhammad , and he did not withhold it from the people. Rather he announced it, conveyed it, and offered it to everyone who wanted it.''[4][35] `Ikrimah, Ibn Zayd and others have made similar statements. Ibn Jarir preferred the recitation Danin.[5][36]

I say that both of recitations have been confirmed by numerous routes of transmission, and its meaning is correct either way, as we have mentioned earlier.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:22) And (O people of Makkah), your Companion *18 is not mad.

*18 "Your Companion": the Holy Messenger of Allah (upon whom be peace). Here, making mention of the Holy Prophet as the companion of the people of Makkah, they have been made to realize that the Holy Prophet was no.stranger for them. He was not an outsider but a man of their own clan and tribe; he had lived his whole life among them; even their children knew that he was a very wise man. They should not be so shameless as to call such a man a mad man.

 

(81:23) He has seen that Messenger on the clear horizon; 

This is as mentioned in (53:7) He stood poised in front when he was on the uppermost horizon. *7

*7 The horizon means the eastern edge of the sky where the sun rises and the day dawns. The same has been referred to as ufuq mubin (bright horizon) in Surah Takvir: 23. Both the verses make it explicit that when the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) saw Gabriel (peace be upon him) for the first time, he had appeared on the eastern horizon of the sky; and there are several authentic Traditions which show that at that time he was in his real shape in which Allah has created him.

 

(81:24) and he is not stingy in the matter of conveying the (knowledge of the) unseen (to the people). *20

*20 That is, "The Holy Messenger of Allah dces not conceal anything from you. Whatever of the unseen realities are trade known to him by Allah, whether they relate to the essence and attributes of Allah, the angels, life-afterdeath and Resurrection, or to the Hereafter, Heaven and Hell, he conveys everything to you without change.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Your old friend is not mad. He saw him on the clear horizon. He does not grudge the secrets of the unseen.

 

There follows a description of the Prophet who conveys this revelation to the people. The surah seems to say to them: You have known Muhammad very well over a considerable length of time. He is your old honest, trusted friend. Why, then, are you fabricating tales about him, when he has been telling you the simple truth which he has been entrusted to convey to you: Your old friend is not mad. He saw him on the clear horizon. He does not grudge the secrets of the unseen. They knew the Prophet perfectly well. They knew that he was a man of steady character, great sagacity and complete honesty. But in spite of all this they claimed that he was mad.  

 

The surah counters this attitude by a reference to the surpassing beauty of Allah's creation, noticeable everywhere in the universe, and by portraying some universal scenes, as they appear, full of life. This method of reply suggests that the Qur'an comes from the same creative power which endowed the universe with matchless beauty. It also tells them about the two messengers entrusted with the Qur'an, the one who brought it down and the one who conveyed it to them, i.e. their own friend whom they know to be sane, not mad. The surah tells them that he has indeed seen the other noble messenger, Jibril, with his own eyes, on the clear horizon where no confusion is possible. He is faithful to his trust and cannot be suspected of telling anything but the truth. After all, they have never associated him with anything dishonest.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 02 February 2007 at 3:56am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 25-29)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

 

(25. And it is not the word of the outcast Shaytan.) (26. Then where are you going) (27. Verily, this is no less than a Reminder for the creatures.) (28. To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.) (29. And you cannot will unless that Allah wills -- the Lord of all that exists.)

 

The Qur'an is a Reminder for all the Worlds and It is not the Inspiration of Shaytan

Allah says,

[ ]

(And it is not the word of the outcast Shaytan.)

meaning, this Qur'an is not the statement of an outcast Shaytan. This means that he is not able to produce it, nor is it befitting of him to do so. This is as Allah says,

[ - - ]

(And it is not the Shayatin who have brought it down. Neither would it suit them nor they can. Verily, they have been removed far from hearing it.) (26:210-212)

Then Allah says,

[ ]

(Then where are you going)

meaning, where has your reason gone, in rejecting this Qur'an, while it is manifest, clear, and evident that it is the truth from Allah. This is as Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said to the delegation of Bani Hanifah when they came to him as Muslims and he commanded them to recite (something from the Qur'an). So they recited something to him from the so called Qur'an of Musaylimah the Liar, that was total gibberish and terribly poor in style. Thus, Abu Bakr said, "Woe unto you! Where have your senses gone By Allah, this speech did not come from a god.'' Qatadah said,

[ ]

(Then where are you going)

meaning, from the Book of Allah and His obedience. Then Allah says,

[ ]

(Verily, this is no less than a Reminder to the creatures.)

meaning, this Qur'an is a reminder for all of mankind. They are reminded by it and receive admonition from it.

[ ]

(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.)

meaning, whoever seeks guidance, then he must adhere to this Qur'an, for verily it is his salvation and guidance. There is no guidance in other than it.

[ ]

(And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills -- the Lord of all that exists.)

This means that the will is not left to you all, so that whoever wishes to be guided, then he is guided, and whoever wishes to be astray, then he goes astray, rather, all of this is according to the will of Allah the Exalted, and He is the Lord of all that exists. It is reported from Sulayman bin Musa that when this Ayah was revealed,

[ ]

(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.)

Abu Jahl said, "The matter is up to us. If we wish, we will stand straight, and we do not wish, we will not stand straight.'' So Allah revealed,

[ ]

(And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the all that exists.)[1][37]

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:25) And this is not the word of an accursed satan. *21

*21 That is, "You are wrong in thinking that some satan comes and whispers these words into the ear of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). It does not suit Satan that he should divert man from polytheism, idolworship, atheism and sin and turn him to God-worship and Tauhid, make tnan realize that he should live a life of responsibility and accountability to God instead of living an irresponsible, care-free life, should forbid man to adopt practices of ignorance, injustice, immorality and wickedness and lead him to a clean life of justice, piety and high morals."

 

(81:26) Whither then are you going? (81:27) This is 'an Admonition to all the people of the world, (81:28) to each one of you, who wishes to follow the Straight Path; *22

*22 In other words, although this is an Admonition for all mankind, only such a person can benefit by it, who is himself desirous of adopting piety and righteousness. Man's being a seeker after truth and a lover of right is the foremost condition of his gaining any benefit from it.

 

(81:29) but your willing is of no avail unless Allah, Lord of the worlds, wills so

It is similar to what Allah said in (74:56) But they will never take heed unless Allah so wills. *41 That is, a person's taking heed dces not wholly depend upon his own will, but he takes heed only when Allah also wills to grant him the grace to take heed. In other words, the truth that has been expressed here is that no act of man takes a concrete shape solely by his own will, but each act is implemented only when the will of God combines with the will of the man. This is a very delicate question, failure to understand which has often made human thought falter. Briefly it can be understood thus: If in this world every man had the power to accomplish whatever he wanted to accomplish, the system of the world would be disturbed. This system continua to hold only because the will of Allah is .dominant over all other wills. Man can accomplish whatever he wants to accomplish only when Allah also wills that he be allowed to accomplish it. The same is also the case with guidance and error. Only man's own desiring to have guidance is not enough for him to have guidance; he receives guidance only when Allah also takes a decision to fulfil his desire. Likewise, only man's desiring to go astray by itself is also not enough, but when Allah in view of his desire decides that he be allowed to wander into evil ways, then he wanders into the evil ways in which Allah allows him to wander. As for example, if a person wants to become a thief, only his desire is not enough that he may enter into any house he likes and matte away with whatever he likes, but he can fulfil his desire only at the time and to the extent and in the form that AIlah allows him to fulfil it, according to His supreme wisdom and expedience.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

It is not the word of an accursed devil. Whither then are you going? This is only a reminder to all men, to those of you whose will is to be upright. Yet, you cannot will except by the will of Allah, Lord of all the Worlds.

 

"It is not the word of an accursed devil". Devils, by nature, cannot provide such a straight forward and consistent code of conduct. Hence the surah asks disapprovingly: "Whither then are you going?" How far can you err in your judgment. And where can you go away from the truth which stares you in the face wherever you go?

"This is only a reminder to all men." It reminds them of the nature of their existence, their origin and the nature of the universe around them. The reminder is "to all men ". Islam here declares the universal nature of its call right from the start, in Makka, where it was subjected to an unabating campaign of persecution.

The surah then reminds us that it is up to every individual to choose whether to follow the right path or not. Since Allah has granted everyone his or her free will, then every human being is responsible for himself: "To those of you whose will is to be upright", that is to say, to follow Allah's guidance. All doubts have been dispelled, all excuses answered by this clear statement of all the relevant facts. The right path has been indicated for everyone who wishes to be upright. Anyone who follows a different path shall, therefore, bear the responsibility for his action.

There are, in the human soul and in the universe at large, numerous signs which beckon every man and woman to follow the path of faith. These are so clearly visible and so powerful in their effect that one needs to make a determined effort to turn one's back on them, especially when one's attention is drawn to them in the stirring, persuasive manner of the Qur'an. It is, therefore, man's own will which leads him away from Allah's guidance. He has no other excuse or justification.

The surah concludes by stating that the operative will behind everything is the will of Allah: "You cannot will except by the will of Allah, Lord of all the Worlds." We notice that the Qur'an makes a statement of this type whenever the will of human beings or creatures generally is mentioned. The reason for this is that the Qur'an wants to keep the fundamental concepts of faith absolutely clear. These include the fact that everything in the universe is subject to the will of Allah. No one has a will which is independent from that of Allah. That He grants man a free will is part of His own Divine Will, like everything else. The same applies to His granting the angels the ability to show complete and absolute obedience to Him and to carry out all His commandments.

This fundamental fact must be clearly understood by the believers, so that they may have a clear concept of the absolute truth. When they acquire such a concept they will turn to the Divine Will for guidance and support, and regulate their affairs according to this Will.

 

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 09 February 2007 at 4:26am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter - 82)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=82&tid=57366.htm -

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

The Virtues of Surat Al-Infitar

An-Nasa'i recorded from Jabir that Mu`adh stood and lead the people in the Night prayer, and he made the recitation of his prayer long. So the Prophet said,

«أَفَتَّا&# 1606;ٌ أَنْتَ يَا مُعَاذُ؟ أَيْنَ كُنْتَ عَنْ [سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الاّعْلَى ] [وَالضُّحَى ] وَ [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]»

(Are you putting the people to trial O Mu`adh Why don't you recite (Glorify the Name of your Lord the Most High) (87), (By the forenoon) (93), and (When the heaven is cleft asunder) (82))''[1][1]

The basis of this Hadith is found in the Two Sahihs,[2][2] however the mentioning of

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]

(When the heaven is cleft asunder.) has only been mentioned by An-Nasa'i. It has been previously mentioned in a narration from `Abdullah bin `Umar that the Prophet said,

«مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى الْقِيَا 05;َةِ رَأْيَ عَيْنٍ فَلْيَقْ 85;َأْ: [إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ ] و [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ] و [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انشَقَّتْ ]»

(Whoever would be pleased to look at the Day of Resurrection with his own eyes, then let him recite, (When the sun is Kuwwirat.) (81) and; (When the heaven is cleft asunder) (82) and; (When the heaven is split asunder) (84).)[3][3]

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْم 14;ـنِ الرَّحِي 05;ِ

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69; انفَطَرَ 78;ْ- وَإِذَا الْكَوَا 03;ِبُ انتَثَرَ 78;ْ- وَإِذَا الْبِحَا 85;ُ فُجّرَتْ- وَإِذَا الْقُبُو 85;ُ بُعْثِرَ 78;ْ- عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَت 18; وَأَخَّر 14;تْ[

(1.    When the heaven is cleft asunder (Infatarat).) (2. And when the stars Intatharat.) (3. And when the seas Fujjirat.) (4. And when the graves Bu`thirat.) (5. A person will know what he has sent forward and left behind.)

What will happen on the Day of Judgement

Allah says,

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]

(When the heaven is cleft asunder (Infatarat).)

meaning, it splits. This is as Allah says,

[ السَّمَآ 69;ُ مُنفَطِرٌ بِهِ]

(Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder (Munfatir)) (73:18)

Then Allah says,

[وَإِذَا الْكَوَا 03;ِبُ انتَثَرَتْ ]

(And when the stars Intatharat.)meaning, fallen.

[وَإِذَا الْبِحَا 85;ُ فُجِّرَتْ ]

(And when the seas Fujjirat.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Allah will cause some of it to burst forth over other parts of it.''[4][4] Al-Hasan said, "Allah will cause some parts of it to burst forth over other parts of it, and its water will go away.''[5][5] Qatadah said, "Its fresh water will mix with its salt water.''[6][6]

[وَإِذَا الْقُبُو 85;ُ بُعْثِرَتْ ]

(And when the graves Bu`thirat.) Ibn `Abbas said, "searched.''[7][7] As-Suddi said, "Tub`athiru means that they will be moved and those who are in them will come out.''

[عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَت 18; وَأَخَّر 14;تْ ]

(A person will know what he has sent forward and left behind.)

meaning, when this happens then this will occur.

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -  

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:1) When the heaven splits asunder, (82:2) and when the stars scatter, (82:3) and when the seas are torn apart,  *1

*1 In Surah At-Takwir it has been said: "When the oceans are set ablaze," and here: "When the oceans are torn apart." When the two verses are read together, and this fact also is kept in view that even according to the Qur'an a terrible earthquake will occur on the Resurrection Day, which will shake up the entire earth all at once, the state of the splitting of the oceans and their being set ablaze ' seems to be as follows: first, because of the terrible convulsion, the bottom of the oceans will split asunder and their water will start sinking into the interior of the earth where an intensely hot lava is constantly boiling up. Coming into contact with the lava, water will dissolve into its two constituent parts, oxygen which helps combustion, and hydrogen, which is itself combustible. Thus, in the process of dissolution and combustion, a chain reaction will start, which will set all the oceans 'of the world ablaze. This is our conjecture, the correct knowledge is only with Allah.

 

(82:4) and when the graves are laid open,  *2

*2 In the first three verses, the first stage of the Resurrection has been mentioned, and in this verse the second stage is being described. "Opening of the graves" implies resurrection of the dead then.

 

(82:5) then every person shall know all his works, the former and the latter.  *3

*3 The words ma qaddamat wa akhkharat can have several meanings and all are implied here: (1) Ma qaddamat is the good or evil act which man has sent forward, and ma akhkharat is what he refrained from doing. Thus, these Arabic words correspond to the acts of commission and omission in one's life. (2) Ma qaddamat is what one did earlier and ma akhkharat what one did later; i.e. the whole life-work of man will appear before him date-wise and in proper sequence (3) Whatever good and evil deeds a man did in his life is ma qaddamat and whatever effects and influences of his acts he left behind for human society is ma akhkharat.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

When the heaven is left asunder, when the stars are scattered, when the oceans are made to explode, when the graves are hurled about, each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones.

 

This short surah refers to the great upheaval discussed in the previous surah "The Darkening", but gives it a special colour. It has a different rhythm, deep and calm. It adds a touch of expostulation coupled with an implicit threat. Hence, it does not detail the scenes of the great upheaval as in the previous surah, where these scenes are dominant. The scenes here are shorter, in order to suit its quieter atmosphere and slower rhythm.

At the opening the surah mentions the cleaving of the sky, the scattering of the stars, the bursting of the oceans and the hurling of the graves as simultaneous with every soul's knowledge of its earlier and later actions, on that solemn day.

So the surah represents yet another way of portraying the same basic principles stressed in this thirtieth part of the Qur'an in various methods and styles. When the heaven is cleft asunder, when the stars are scattered when the oceans are made to explode, when the graves are hurled about, each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones. In the commentary on the previous surah we described the feelings generated in people when they visualise the universe undergoing a change so violent that it leaves nothing in its familiar shape and condition. We also said that such feelings tend to pull man away from anything which gives him a sense of security, with the exception of Allah, the Creator of the universe, the One Who lives on after everything has died and withered away. Man's heart is thus made to turn to the only true being Who neither changes nor dies, to seek His support and security in the face of the general upheaval which destroys everything that seemed once to be permanent. For nothing lives for ever except the Creator Who is the only one worthy of being worshipped.

The first aspect mentioned here of the universal upheaval is the cleaving or rending of the sky, which is mentioned in other surahs: When the sky is split asunder and becomes rose red, like stained leather. (Al-Qur'an 55:37) When sky will be rent asunder, for on that day it is frail and tottering. (Al-Qur'an 69:16) When the sky is rent asunder. (Al-Qur'an 84:1) That the sky will be split or rent asunder on that hectic day is certain. What is meant exactly by such rending, and how the sky will look after it has been rent are difficult to say. All that we are left with is a feeling of violent change which overwhelms the universe, as we see it, and a realisation that its perfect system will no longer be in operation.

The violent upheaval in the universe causes the stars to scatter after they have been held together by a system which makes every star keep to its orbit, along which it may move fearfully fast, without swerving out of it. If the system is broken at any time, as will happen when the life of the stars comes to its end, they will just disappear in the wide space, as does a particle of dust running loose. The explosion of the oceans may refer to their being overfull to the extent that they drown the dry land and swallow the rivers. It may, alternatively, mean an explosion which separates oxygen from hydrogen, the two gases which form water. Thus water returns to its original gas condition. The verse may also be taken to refer to a nuclear explosion of the atoms of the two gases. If this is the case, then the explosion would be so fearful that our nuclear devices of today would seem, in comparison, like children's toys. The explosion may also take a different form, totally unknown to us. One thing, however, we know for certain is that there will be horror far greater than any man could have ever experienced. The hurling about of the graves may be a result of one of the events mentioned above. It may also be a separate event which occurs on that eventful day. As the graves are hurled about people are resurrected and stand up again, back in life, to face the reckoning and receive their reward or punishment. This is complemented by the verse which follows the description of these events: Each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones. That is, each soul shall come face to face with what it has done and what it left behind of the consequences of its actions; or, what it has enjoyed in this present life and what it has saved for the hereafter. The knowledge, however, will accompany these horrific events. It will indeed be one of them, for it terrifies the soul no less than any of the other events mentioned earlier.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 11 March 2007 at 10:15am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 6-8)

Which was revealed in Makkah

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=82&tid=57366.htm -

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -] http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=81&tid=57191.htm -

(6. O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous) (7. Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) (8. In whatever form He willed, He put you together.)

 

[ ]

(O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous) This is a threat. It is not an attempt to get a reply as some people mistakenly think. They consider it as if the Most Generous is asking them so that they will say, "His honor deceived him (or made him careless of his Lord).'' rather the meaning of this Ayah is, "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you from your Lord, the Most Generous -- meaning the Most Great -- so that you went forth disobeying Him, and you met Him with that which was unbefitting.'' This is similar to what has been reported in the Hadith,

:

(Allah will say on the Day of Judgement: "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you concerning Me O Son of Adam What was your response to the Messengers'') Al-Baghawi mentioned that Al-Kalbi and Muqatil said, "This Ayah was revealed about Al-Aswad bin Shariq who struck the Prophet and he was not punished in retaliation. So Allah revealed,

[ ]

(What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous)'' Then Allah said,

[ ]

(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `what has deceived you concerning the Most Generous Lord'

[ ]

(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `He made you complete, straight, and perfectly balanced and proportioned in stature. He fashioned you in the best of forms and shapes.' Imam Ahmad recorded from Busr bin Jahhash Al-Qurashi that one day the Messenger of Allah spat in his palm and placed his finger on it. Then he said,

: :

(Allah the Mighty and Sublime says: "O Son of Adam! How can you escape Me when I created you from something similar to this (spit) Then I fashioned you and made your creation balanced so that you walked between the two outer garments. And the earth has a burial place for you. So you gathered (wealth) and withheld it until your soul reached your collarbone (i.e., death comes). Then, at that time you say, `I will give charity now.' But how will there be time for charity'') This Hadith has also been recorded by Ibn Majah . Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(In whatever form He willed, He put you together.) Mujahid said, "In which resemblance: the father, the mother, the paternal uncle, or the maternal uncle.'' In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Abu Hurayrah that a man said, "O Messenger of Allah! Verily, my wife has given birth to a black boy.'' The Prophet said,

(Do you have any camels) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet then said,

ǻ

(What color are they) The man said, "Red.'' The Prophet said,

޻

(Do any of them have patches of gray) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet asked him,

߻

(How did this happen to them) The man replied, "It is probably an inherited genetical strain.'' The Prophet then said,

޻

(Likewise, this (with your son) is probably an inherited genetical strain.)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:6) O man, what has beguiled you concerning your Lord, the gracious, (82:7) Who created you, fashioned you, proportioned you, (82:8) and put you together in whatever form He pleased?  *4

*4 That is, "In the first place, the bounty and favour of your Beneficent Sustainer required that you should have acknowledged his bounties and become an obedient servant and should have felt shy of disobeying Him, but you were deluded into thinking that you have become whatever you are by your own effort, and you never thought that you should acknowledge that favour of Him Who gave you life. Secondly, it is your Lord's bounty and kindness that you can freely do whatever you like in the world and it never so happens that whenever you happen to commit an error, He should punish you with paralysis, or blind your eyes, or cause lightning to strike you. But you took His bountifulness for weakness and were beguiled into thinking that the Kingdom of your God was devoid of justice "

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape? He can give you whatever form He wills.

 

After this opening which alerts men's senses and consciences, the surah, by means of gentle remonstrance coupled with an implicit threat, touches the hearts of men who busy themselves with trivialities. It reminds man of Allah's very first act of grace towards him, namely, his moulding in such an upright perfectly proportioned shape. Allah could have easily given him any form He wished. Yet man is ungrateful: O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape? He can give you what ever form He wills. The address appeals to man's most noble quality, his humanity, which distinguishes him from all creatures and assigns to him the highest position among them. This quality represents Allah's gracious blessing to man and His abundant generosity to him.

This appeal is immediately followed by a gentle remonstrance: "What has lured you away from your gracious Lord?" What makes you neglect your duties to your Lord and behave impudently towards Him when He has given you your humanity which raises you above all His creation and provides you with the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. A few details of Allah's generosity are then added: "O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape." It is an address which appeals straight to man's heart. He listens to the remonstrance of Allah when He reminds him of His grace while he continues with his erring ways and impudent behaviour towards Him.

Indeed, man should reflect deeply over his creation, his physically and physiologically perfect constitution. Reflection should prompt him to show his genuine gratitude, deep respect and real love to Allah, his gracious Lord, Who has blessed him with such constitution, perfect, upright and handsome. The miraculous aspects in man's constitution are far greater than what he sees all around him and what he can imagine. Perfection and the right balance are easily evident in man's physical, mental and spiritual constitution. Full volumes have been written on the perfection of creation as evidenced by man. It is perhaps useful to include here one or two quotations from such works.

The human body is composed of a number of specialised systems: the skeleton, the muscular system, the skin, the digestive system, the blood circulation system, the respiratory system, the procreative system, the lymphatic system, the nervous system, the urinal system and the senses of tasting, smelling, hearing and seeing. Everyone of these systems is miraculous and far more wonderful than any scientific achievement which makes man possessed with wonder. Yet man tends to overlook the wonders of his own constitution ! A contributor to the British Scientific Journal writes:

Man's hand is one of the most remarkable wonders of nature. It is extremely difficult, indeed impossible, to invent a device which can match the human hand for simplicity, efficiency, ability and instant adaptability. When you read a book you take it in your hand, then you hold it in the position most suitable for your reading. The same hand will automatically correct the position of your book whenever a correction of position is necessary. When you turn a page you place your finger underneath the paper and apply the amount of pressure needed for turning the page. When the page is turned no more pressure is applied. You also use your hand to hold a pen and to write. With your hand you use all the tools you need such as a spoon, a knife or a pen. You use it to open or close the window and to carry anything you wish to carry ... Man's hand has 27 pieces of bone in addition to 19 groups of muscles. [A. Nawfal, Allah and Modern Science, Cairo, 1957 Arabic]

 

A part of the human ear is a series of some four thousand minute but complex arches graduated with exquisite regularity in size and shape. These may be said to resemble a musical instrument, and they seem adjusted to catch, and transmit in some manner to the brain, every cadence of sound or noise, from the thunderclap to the whisper of the pines and the exquisite blending of the tones and harmonies of every instrument in the orchestra. If in forming the ear the cells were impelled to evolve strict efficiency only that man might survive, why did they not extend the range and develop a superacutness? Perhaps the power behind these cells' activities anticipated man's coming need of intellectual enjoyment, or did they by accident build better than they knew?' [A.C Morrison, Man Does Not Stand Alone, London, 1962, pp. 63-4]

The visual functions are carried out mainly by the eye with its 130 million retinal light receptors. The eyelids with the eyelashes at their tips protect the eyes day and night. Their movement, which is involuntary, keeps out dust particles and other alien bodies. The eye lashes throw their shades over the eye to lessen the intensity of light. Furthermore, by their movement the eyelids prevent the eyes from becoming dry. The fluid around the eye, which we call tears, is a highly effective, most powerful disinfectant ...

In human beings, the taste function is carried out by the tongue, through groups of the taste cells which are located in the taste buds of the mucosal surface of the tongue. These buds are of different shapes: some are filamentary, some mushroom-shaped and others are lenticular. They are supplied by fine branches of the glosso-pharangeal nerve as well as the nerve which carries the taste sense. When we eat, these fine branches of the taste nerve are stimulated and convey the impulses of the taste sensation to the brain. This system is located at the front of the tongue, so that we may reject what we sense to be harmful. It is this system which helps us sense whether what we eat is bitter or sweet, hot or cold, sour or salty, etc. The tongue contains nine thousand of these fine taste buds, each of which is linked with the brain by more than one nerve. Hence we may wonder: 'How many nerves have we? What are their sizes? How do they function individually and how do they combine to give the brain their various types of sensation? The nervous system, which effectively controls the body, is composed of fine neurons which cover every part of the body. The neurons are linked to larger nerves which are, in turn, linked to the central nervous system. Whenever any part of the body feels any sensation, even the slightest change of temperature, the neurons convey this sensation to the peripheral nerves which, in turn, convey it to the brain so that it may order the necessary action. The signals are carried through the nerves at the speed of 100 metres per second. [Allah and Modern Science, Cairo]

If we think of digestion as a process in a chemical laboratory and of the food that we eat as raw materials, we immediately discover that it is a wonderful process which will digest anything edible except the stomach itself. First into this laboratory we put a variety of food as a raw material without the slightest regard for the laboratory or how the chemistry of digestion will handle it. We eat steak, cabbage, corn and fried fish, wash it down with any quantity of water, and top it off with alcohol, bread, and beans. We may add sulfur and molasses as spring medicine. Out of this mixture the stomach selects those things which are useful by breaking down into its chemical molecules every item of food, discarding the waste, and reconstructs the residue into new proteins, which become the food of the various cells. The digestive tract selects calcium, sulfur, iodine, iron and any other substances which are necessary, takes care that the essential molecules are not lost, that the hormones can be produced and that all of the valid necessities of life are on hand in regulated quantities, ready to meet every necessity. It stores fat and other reserves to meet such an emergency as starvation, and does all this in spite of human thought or reason. We pour this infinite variety of substances into this chemical laboratory with almost total disregard of what we take in, depending on what we consider the automatic process to keep us alive. When these foods have been broken down and are again prepared, they are delivered constantly to each of our billions of cells, a greater number than all the human beings on earth. The delivery to each individual cell must be constant, and only those substances which the particular cell needs to transform them into bones, nails, flesh, hair, eyes, and teeth are taken up by the proper cell. Here is a chemical laboratory producing more substances than any laboratory which human ingenuity has devised. Here is a delivery system greater than any method of transportation or distribution the world has ever known, all being conducted in perfect order.' [Man Does Not Stand Alone, pp. 88-89]

A lot may be said about every other system of the human body. But wonderful as these systems are, man may have them in common with animals. He, however, is privileged to possess his unique mental and spiritual qualities which are regarded in this surah as a special favour from Allah. After the surah has dealt with the humanity of man, it mentions the perfection of his creation and the right proportioning of his mould: O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape.

Let us reflect on our powers of comprehension, the nature of which is unknown to us. The mind is the medium of comprehension but the working of our minds and how they function remain to us incomprehensible. If we suppose that what we grasp is transmitted to the brain through the nerves, where and how does the brain store its information? If we compare the brain to a magnetic recording tape, every man needs in his average lifetime of sixty years a great many' billion metres on which to record such a huge multitude of pictures, words, meanings, feelings and responses so that he may, as he actually does, remember them several decades later. Furthermore, how does man sort out individual words, meanings, events and pictures to mould them together in a sort of coherent education? How does he transform information and experiences into knowledge? Yet this is by no means the most significant of man's distinctive qualities. There is that wonderful ray of Allah's spirit which provides a link between man and the beauty of the universe and its Creator. As this link is established, man can experience at clear, bright moments a sense of communion with the infinite, the absolute, which prepares him for a blissful eternal life in Allah's paradise. Yet man has no power to comprehend the nature of his spirit, which is Allah's greatest favour to him and which makes him a man. Hence Allah addresses him by this quality of his "O man! " then remonstrates with him directly: "What lures you away from your gracious Lord?" Thus man is reminded of Allah's greatest favour, but he stands impudent, negligent of his duties to Allah, unashamed and ungrateful. But man does not need more than to realise the source of this remonstrance and what attitude he adopts when he stands before his Lord to be absolutely overwhelmed by shame: "O man! what lures you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape. He can give you what ever form He wills."

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 18 March 2007 at 10:48am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 9-12)

Which was revealed in Makkah

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=82&tid=57366.htm -

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

كَلاَّ بَلْ تُكَذّبُ 08;نَ بِالدّين 16;- وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُ 05;ْ لَحَـفِظ 16;ينَ- كِرَاماً كَـتِبِي 06;َ- يَعْلَمُ 08;نَ مَا تَفْعَلُ 08;نَ

(9. Nay! But you deny (the Day of) Ad-Din.) (10. But verily, over you to watch you) (11. Kiraman Katibin,) (12. They know all that you do.)

 

The Cause of Deception and alerting to the Fact that Angels record the Deeds of the Children of Adam

Concerning Allah's statement,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ ]

(Nay! But you deny (the Day of) Ad-Din.)

meaning, `you are only compelled to oppose the Most Generous and meet Him with disobedience, by your rejection in your hearts of the Hereafter, the recompense and the reckoning.' Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُ 05;ْ لَحَـفِظِينَ - كِرَاماً كَـتِبِينَ - يَعْلَمُ 08;نَ مَا تَفْعَلُ 08;نَ ]

(But verily, over you to watch you (are) Kiraman Katibin, they know all that you do.) (82:10-12)

meaning, `indeed there are noble guardian angels over you, so do not meet them with evil deeds, because they write down all that you do.'

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:9) Indeed not!  *5But (the fact is that) you (O men) deny (the meting out of) rewards and punishments,  *6

*5 That is, "There is no reasonable ground for you to be deluded. Your own physical existence itself tells that you did not come into being by yourself; your parents also did not make you. Man also did not come about as a result of the elements combining together by themselves accidentally; but a Wise and Powerful God has composed you into this perfect human shape and form. There are other kinds of animals in the world compared with which your excellent form and structure and your superior powers and faculties stand out in sharp contrast. Reason demanded that in view of all this you should have submitted gratefully and should never have dared commit disobedience of your beneficent Sustainer. You also know that your Lord and Sustainer is not only Compassionate and Bountiful but Almighty and Omnipotent as well. When an earthquake, cyclone or flood occurs by His Command, all your devices and measures tail to be effective. You also know that your Lord and Sustainer is not ignorant and foolish but Wise and knowing, and the necessary demand of wisdom and knowledge is that whoever is given intellect should also be held responsible for his acts; whoever is given powers should also be held accountable as to how he used those powers; and whoever is given the choice to do good or evil on his own responsibility, should also be rewarded for his good act and punished for his evil act. All these truths are clearly and plainly known to you; therefore, you cannot say that there exists a reasonable ground for you to be deluded concerning your Lord. Your own nature is sufficient evidence that the beneficence of the Master should never cause the servant to be fearless of Him, and be involved in the misunderstanding that he may do whatever he pleases, no one can harm him in any way.
*6 That is,"You have not been deluded and beguiled by any good reason but by your foolish concept that there is going to be no meting out of rewards and punishments after the life of this world. It is this wrong and baseless concept which has made you heedless of God, fearless of His justice and irresponsible in your moral attitude. "

 

(82:10) although watchers have been appointed over you, (82:11) honourable scribes, (82:12) who know whatever you do.  *7

*7 That is, "whether you deny the meting out of rewards and punishments, belie it, or mock it, the reality cannot change. The reality is .that your Lord has not left you to your self in the world, but has appointed over each one of you honest and upright guardians, who are recording objectively and faithfully all your good and evil acts, and none of your acts is hidden from them, whether you commit it in darkness, or in private, or in far off jungles, or in secret when you are fully satisfied that whatever you have done bas remained hidden from human eye. For these guardian angels Allah has used the words kiram-an katibin, i.e. writers who are honorable and noble They are neither attached in personal love with somebody, nor are inimical to anybody, so that they would prepare a fictitious record on the basis of their favouring one man and disfavouring another unduly. They are neither dishonest that without being present on duty they would make wrong entries by themselves; nor are they bribable so that they would take bribes and make false reports in favour of or against somebody. They are far above these moral weaknesses. Therefore, both the good and the bad people should be fully satisfied that each man's good acts will be recorded without any omission, and no one will have an evil act recorded in his account which he has not done. Then the second quality that has been mentioned of these angels is: "They know whatever you do " That is, they are not like the secret, intelligence agencies of the world, from which, despite all their search and scrutiny, many things remain hidden. They are fully aware of everyone's deeds. They accompany every person, at all places, under all conditions, in such a way that he himself does not know that someone is watching him, and they also know with what intention has somebody done a certain thing. Therefore the record prepared by them is a complete record in which nothing has been left un-recorded. About this very thing it has been said in Surah Al-Kahf 49: "Woe to us! What sort of a book it is, it has left mothing unrecorded of our doings, small or great. They will see before them everything, whatever they had done."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Shun it ! but you deny the Last Judgement. Yet there are guardians watching over you, noble recorders, who know all your actions.

 

The English expression "shun it" is used here to render the meaning of the Arabic word "kalla" which is a command to desist and an indication of a change of subject and style. Hence the following verses are in the form of a statement. "Shun it! but you deny the Last Judgement." You think that reckoning and accountability are falsehoods, and this is precisely the cause of your impudence and negligence of your duties. How can any person disbelieve in the Judgement and still lead a life based on goodness and right guidance? Some people may achieve a higher degree of faith: they worship Allah because they love Him, not out of fear of punishment nor in hope of reward. But these people continue to believe in the Last Judgement. They fear it and look forward to it at the same time, because they hope to be with their beloved Lord. When man, however, flatly rejects the Day of Judgement he will be devoid of politeness and light; his heart and conscience are dead. You deny the Day of Judgement when you will certainly face it. Everything you do in this life will be counted for or against you. Nothing is lost, nothing forgotten: " Yet there are guardians watching over you, noble recorders, who know all your actions. " These recorders are the angels charged with accompanying men, watching them and recording all what they do and say. We do not know and are not required to know how this takes place. Allah knows that we are neither given the ability to understand it nor are we going to benefit by understanding it because it does not affect the purpose of our existence. Hence it is useless to attempt to explain by our means what Allah has chosen not to reveal to us of the world of the imperceptible. Sufficient it is to us to feel that we do not live in vain and that there are noble recorders who note what we do, in order to be alert and prudent.

Since the atmosphere of the surah is one of benevolence and nobility, the description of those recorders given here is that they are "noble", so that we may feel shy and try to be polite in the presence of these noble angels. It is natural for people to exercise extra care not to say or do anything impolite or disgraceful when they are in the presence of noble people. How careful would they be if they realised that they were all the time in the presence of angels. The surah indeed arouses the most noble feelings of our upright nature by portraying this fact in such a familiar way.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 25 March 2007 at 5:08am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 13-19)

Which was revealed in Makkah

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=82&tid=57366.htm -

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

[إِنَّ الاٌّبْرَارَ لَفِى نَعِيمٍ - وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِى جَحِيمٍ - يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ - وَمَا هُمَ عَنْهَا بِغَآئِبِينَ - وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ - ثُمَّ مَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ - يَوْمَ لاَ تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئاً وَالاٌّمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ ]

(13. Verily, the Abrar (the righteous believers) will be in Delight;) (14. And verily, the wicked will be in the blazing Fire (Hell),) (15. Therein they will enter, and taste its burning flame on the Day of Recompense,) (16. And they will not be absent therefrom.) (17.And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is) (18. Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is) (19. (It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=82&tid=57430.htm - The Reward of the Righteous and the Sinners Allah informs of what the righteous will receive of delight.

They are those who obeyed Allah and did not meet Him with disobedience (sins). Then He mentions that the evildoers will be in Hell and eternal torment. Due to this He says,

[يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ ]

(Therein they will enter, and taste its burning flame on the Day of Recompense,)

meaning, the Day of Reckoning, Recompense, and Judgement.

[وَمَا هُمَ عَنْهَا بِغَآئِبِينَ ]

(And they will not be absent therefrom.)

meaning, they will not be absent for even one hour from the torment. The torment will not be lightened from them, nor will they be granted the death that they will be requesting, or any rest -- not even for a single day. Allah then says,

[وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ]

(And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is)

This is a magnification of the affair of the Day of Judgement. Then Allah affirms it by saying,

[ثُمَّ مَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ]

(Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is)

Then He explains this by saying,

[يَوْمَ لاَ تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئاً]

((It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, )

meaning, no one will be able to benefit anyone else, or help him out of that which he will be in, unless Allah gives permission to whomever He wishes and is pleased with. We will mention here a Hadith (where the Prophet said),

«يَا بَنِي هَاشِم، أَنْقِذُ 08;ا أَنْفُسَ 03;ُمْ مِنَ النَّارِ لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللهِ شَيْئًا»

(O children of Hashim! Save yourselves from the Fire, for I have no power to cause you any benefit from Allah.)[1][14]

This has been mentioned previously at the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ash-Shu`ara' (see 26:214). Thus, Allah says,

[وَالاٌّمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ]

(and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

 

This is similar to Allah’s statement,

لمن الملك اليوم لله الواحد القهار

(Whose is the kingdom this day ? It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible.)

It is also similar to His statement,

(The true sovereignty on that Day will be for the Most Gracious)(25:26)

It is also similar to His saying;

(The only Owner of the Day od Recompense.)(1:4)

 

Qatadah said,

((It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

"By Allah, the Decision is for Allah today (now), but on that Day no one will try to dispute with Him about it.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:13) Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, (82:14) and the wicked shall indeed go to Hell: (82:15) they shall enter it on the Day of Recompense, 82:16) and shall never be able to be absent from it. (82:17) And what do you know what the Day of Recompense is? (82:18) Yes, what do you know what the Day of Recompense is? (82:19) It is a Day when no one shall have the power to do anything for another  *8. Judgement on that Day shall wholly rest with Allah.

*8 That is, no one there will have the power to save anyone from suffering the consequences of his deeds; no one there will be so influential, strong, or such a favourite with AIIah that he should behave stubbornly in the Divine Court and say: "Such and such a one is a close relative or associate of mine; he will have to be forgiven, no matter what evils He might have committed in the world."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, while the wicked shall be in Hell, where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement; nor shall they ever be absent from it. Would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is ! Oh, would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul and when Allah reigns supreme.

We are then told of the destinies of the righteous and the wicked, which are determined by the reckoning based on the recordings by the noble angels: Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, while the wicked shall be in Hell, where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement, nor shall they ever be absent from it. The end is certain. That the righteous shall dwell in blissful happiness and the wicked shall end up in Hell is already determined. A "righteous" person is the one who consistently does "right" actions, i.e. good deeds of all kinds, until doing them becomes an intrinsic quality of his. The adjective "righteous" has connotations which fit in well with nobility and humanity. The contrasting quality, "wickedness", carries connotations of insolence and impudence as the wicked indulge in their sinful actions. Hell is a proper recompense for wickedness. The surah emphasises the certainty of this punishment: "where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement. " Then it re-emphasises it: "nor they shall ever be absent from it." They cannot escape it in the first place, nor will they be allowed to leave it, not even for a short while Having stated what happens on the Day of Judgement, the surah emphasizes again the certainty of that day, since it is denied by some. The emphasis is provided here in the form of a rhetorical question which enhances the mystery surrounding the object of the question. The surah then states the complete helplessness of everyone, the absolute impossibility of giving or receiving support and that Allah is the absolute sovereign on that awesome day: Would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! Oh, would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul and Allah reigns supreme. The form "would that you knew ... " is in Arabic a form of rhetorical question often used in the Qur'an. It suggests that the matter under discussion is far beyond our imagining and understanding. This is stressed here by repetition of the question before details about conditions on the day concerned are given: "It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul." It is total helplessness when everyone stands alone, busy with his own problems, unable to think of anyone else, relative or friend. "And Allah reigns supreme." He indeed reigns supreme in this life and the next. This fact, however, becomes so clear on that day that no one can overlook it, as the ignorant and the conceited do in this life. The surah closes with an air of fear and speechless expectation which contrasts with the air of violent horrors of the opening. In between the two man is addressed with that remonstrance which overwhelms him with a feeling of shame.

 

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar. All praise and blessings are due to Allah, and He is the Giver of success and freedom from error.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 01 April 2007 at 8:50am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter - 83)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

             - -

(1.   Woe to Al-Mutaffifin.) (2. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, demand full measure,) (3. And when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due.)

 

Increasing and decreasing in the Measure and Weight will be a Cause for Regret and Loss

An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah both recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "When the Prophet came to Al-Madinah, the people of Al-Madinah were the most terrible people in giving measurement (i.e., they used to cheat). Thus, Allah revealed,

[ ]

(Woe to Al-Mutaffifin.) After this, they began to give good measure.''[1][1] The meaning of the word Tatfif here is to be stingy with measurement and weight, either by increasing it if it is due from the others, or decreasing it if it is a debt. Thus, Allah explains that the Mutaffifin those whom He has promised loss and destruction, whom are meant by "Woe'' are

[ ]

(Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men,)

meaning, from among the people.

[]

(demand full measure,)

meaning, they take their right by demanding full measure and extra as well.

[ ]

(And when they have to give by measure or weight to (other) men, give less than due.)

meaning, they decrease. Verily, Allah commanded that the measure and weight should be given in full. He says in another Ayah,

[ ]

(And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a balance that is straight. That is good and better in the end.) (17:35)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(And give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but with that which he can bear.) (6:152)

and He says,

[ ]

(And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) (55:9)

Allah destroyed the people of Shu`ayb and wiped them out because of their cheating in weights and measurements. http://www.islambasics.com/Library/default.asp-sid=83&tid=57485.htm -

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(83:1) Woe to those who give short weight, *1

*1 In the original the word mutaffifin has been used, which is derived from tatfif, a word used for an inferior and base thing in Arabic. Terminologically, tatfif is used for giving short weight and short measure fraudulently, for the person who acts thus while measuring or weighing, does not defraud another by any substantial amount, but skimps small amounts from what is due to every customer cleverly, and the poor customer dces not know of what and of how much he is being deprived by the seller.

 

(83:2) who, when they take by measure from others, take it fully, (83:3) and when they measure or weigh for them, they give them less than what is due *2 .

*2 At several places in the Qur'an giving of short measure and weight has been condemned and measuring fully and weighing rightly has been stressed. In Surah AI-An'am, it has been enjoined: "You should use a full measure and a just balance. We charge one only with that much responsibility that one can bear." (v. 152). In Surah Bani Isra'il it has been said: "Give full measure when you measure and weigh with even scales." (v. 35). In Surah Ar-Rehman it has been stressed: Do not upset the balance: weigh with equity and do not give short weight." (vv. 8-9). The people of the Prophet Shu`aib were punished for the reason that the evil of giving short measure and weight had become widespread among them and in spite of his counsel and advice they did not refrain from it.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them

The surah may be divided into four parts The first opens with a declaration of war against the stinters: Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact infull, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them. Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

The surah depicts a social environment, and is also an account of the Islamic way of dealing with the world as it exists and with the human mind. This is what we shall attempt to explain as we consider the surah in detail.

Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them.

The surah opens with Allah's declaration of war against the stinters "Woe to the stinters". The Arabic term used for "woe" implies destruction and ruin. The implication is the same whether we consider this verse as a statement of a future eventuality or a curse, for a curse made by Allah has the same effect as that of a statement of what is going to happen. The next two verses explain the meaning of the "stinters" or defrauders as intended in the surah. They are those "who when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them." They are those who want their merchandise complete and intact when they buy, but they do not give the right amount when they sell.

 

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 09 April 2007 at 5:03am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter 83, Ayah 4-6)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

             أَلا يَظُنُّ أُوْلَـئ 16;كَ أَنَّهُم 18; مَّبْعُو 79;ُونَ - لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ - يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَ 05;ِينَ

(4. Do they not think that they will be resurrected,) (5. On a Great Day) (6. The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists)

 

Threatening the Mutaffifin with standing before the Lord of all that exists

Then Allah says as a threat to them,

[أَلا يَظُنُّ أُوْلَـئ 16;كَ أَنَّهُم 18; مَّبْعُو 79;ُونَ - لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ]

(Do they not think that they will be resurrected, on a Great Day)

meaning, do these people not fear the resurrection and standing before He Who knows the hidden matters and the innermost secrets, on a Day that contains great horror and tremendous fright Whoever loses on this Day will be made to enter into a blazing fire. Then Allah says,

[يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَ 05;ِينَ ]

(The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists)

meaning, they will stand barefooted, naked and uncircumcised at a station that will be difficult, hard, and distressful for the criminals. They will be covered by the command from Allah, and it will be that, which the strength and the senses will not be able to bare.

Imam Malik reported from Nafi` who reported from Ibn `Umar that the Prophet said,

«يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَ 05;ِينَ، حَتْى يَغِيبَ أَحَدُهُ 05;ْ فِي رَشْحِهِ إِلَى أَنْصَاف 16; أُذُنَيْ 07;»

(This will be the Day that mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists, until one of them will sink up to the middle of his ears in sweat.)

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith from Malik and `Abdullah bin `Awn, both of whom reported it from Nafi`.[1][2] Muslim also recorded it from two routes.[2][3]

Another Hadith: Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Miqdad, who was Ibn Al-Aswad Al-Kindi, that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

«إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَا 05;َةِ أُدْنِيَ 78;ِ الشَّمْس 15; مِنَ الْعِبَا 83;ِ حَتْى تَكُونَ قَدْرَ مِيلٍ أَوْ مِيلَيْن 16; قال فَتَصْهَ 85;ُهُمُ الشَّمْس 15; فَيَكُون 15;ونَ فِي الْعَرَق 16; كَقَدْرِ أَعْمَال 16;هِمْ، مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى عَقِبَيْ 07;ِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى رُكْبَتَ 10;ْهِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى حَقْوَيْ 07;ِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يُلْجِمُ 07;ُ إِلْجَام 11;ا»

(On the Day of Judgement, the sun will draw near the servants until it is a mile or two away from them. Then the sun will burn them, and they will be submersed in sweat based upon the amount of their deeds. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their two heels. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their two knees. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their groins. From among them there will be those who will be bridled in sweat (up to their necks).)

This Hadith was recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi.[3][4]

In Sunan Abu Dawud it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah used to seek refuge with Allah from the hardship of standing on the Day of Judgement.[4][5] It has been reported from Ibn Mas`ud that they will be standing for forty years with their heads raised toward the sky. No one will speak to them, and the righteous and wicked among them will all be bridled in sweat.[5][6] It has been reported from Ibn `Umar that they will be standing for one hundred years. Both of these statements have been recorded by Ibn Jarir.[6][7] In the Sunans of Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah, it is recorded from `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah used to begin his late night prayer by declaring Allah's greatness ten times, praising Allah ten times, glorifying Allah ten times, and seeking Allah's forgiveness ten times. Then he would say,

«اللْهُمّ&# 1614; اغْفِرْ لِي وَاهْدِن 16;ي وَارْزُق 18;نِي وَعَافِن 16;ي»

(O Allah! Forgive me, guide me, provide for me, and protect me.)

Then he would seek refuge from the hardship of the standing on the Day of Judgement.[7][8]

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(83:4) Do they not think that they will be raised up again (83:5) on a Great Day? *3 --

*3 "A Great Day": the Day of Resurrection when all men and jinn will be called to account together in the Divine Court and decisions of vital importance will be made pertaining to rewards and punishments.

 

(83:6) the Day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of the worlds.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

 

The fact that the behaviour of the defrauders is tackled in this manner in a Makkan revelation is very interesting. Makkan surahs generally concentrate on the fundamentals, such as the assertion of the unity of Allah, the supremacy of His will and His dominion over the universe and over mankind, and the assertion of the truth of revelation and prophethood, the truth of the Day of Judgement, the reckoning and the reward. The Makkan revelations also endeavour to form and develop the moral sense and relate it to the fundamentals of faith. The tackling of a specific issue of morality, such as the stinting of weights and measures, or business dealings in general, is a later concern; it is characteristic of Medinan revelations, which regulate the life of the community in an Islamic state. The fact that this Makkan surah makes the issue of stinting its focal point therefore deserves to be considered carefully.

 

The first point to note is that in Makka the nobility were very rich, were unscrupulous and exercised complete monopoly of trade in their business concerns. They organised the export and import trade using caravans which traveled to Yemen in winter and to Syria in summer. They had their seasonal trade fairs such as the Okaz Fair which was held in the pilgrimage season. The fairs were for business dealings as well as literary activities.

The text suggests that the defrauders against whom war was declared belonged to the nobility and wielded much power and influence which enabled them to force others to succumb to their wishes. The Arabic expression connotes that for some unspecified reason they were able to impose their will and exact in full. The meaning implied is not that they exacted their full due; for this would not justify the declaration of war against them. What is meant is that they obtained by sheer force what they had no right to demand. But when it was their turn to weigh or measure for others, they exercised their power by giving them less than their due.

 

Indeed this warning, coming so early in the Makkan period, gives an idea of the nature of the religion of Islam. It points out that Islam embraces all sides of life and aims to establish a firm moral code which accords with the basic principles of the Divine teachings. At the time when this surah was revealed the Muslim community was still weak. The followers of Islam had not yet won power in order to organise society and the life of the community according to Islamic principles. Yet Islam demonstrated its opposition to those acts of flagrant injustice and unethical dealings. It declared war against the stinters and threatened them with woe and destruction at the time when they were the powerful rulers of Makka. It declared its uncompromising stand against the injustice suffered by the masses whom it has never sought to lull into a state of lethargy and apathy. This gives us an insight into the real motives behind the stubborn opposition to Islam by the masters of Makka. They were undoubtedly keenly aware that what Muhammad (peace be on him) was calling for was not merely a matter of personal conviction which demanded no more than a verbal assertion of the unity of Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad, and a form of prayers addressed to Allah and not to idols. They realised that the new faith would establish a way of life which would cause the very basis of their positions and interests to crumble. They were fully aware that the new religion, by its very nature, did not admit any partnership or compromise with any worldly concepts, alien to its Divine basis, and that it posed a mighty threat to all the base earthly values of Ignorance. This is why they launched their offensive, which continued in full force both before and after the Muslim emigration. It was an offensive launched to defend their way of life in its entirety, not only a set of concepts which have no effect beyond individual acceptance and personal conviction.

 

Those who attempt in any age or land to prevent it from organising and ruling human life also realise these essential facts. They know very well that the pure and straightforward Islamic way of life endangers their unjust order, interests, hollow structure and deviant practices. Indeed the tyrannical stinters (whatever form their stinting takes and wherever it is, in money and finance, or in the area of rights and duties) are those who fear most the ascendancy of Islam and the implementation of its just methods.

 

The representatives of the two Medinan tribes, Aws and Khazraj, who pledged their support and loyalty to the Prophet were also aware of all this. Ibn Ishaaq, the Prophet's biographer, wrote:

Assim ibn Umar ibn Qataadah told me that when the Medinan Muslims came to give their pledge to the Prophet, Al-Abbas ibn Ubaadah Al Ansari, who belonged to the clan of Salim ibn Awf, addressed them and said: "You Khazraj! Do you know what your pledge to this man really means?" They answered 'Yes, we do'. His rejoinder was, 'You are pledging to fight the rest of mankind, white and black alike! So it would be better to leave him alone now if you think you would give him up to his enemies in the event of your sustaining material losses or losing your leaders. If you do such a thing you will bring upon yourselves great humiliation both in this life and in the life hereafter. But if you feel that you will honour your pledges despite any sacrifice in money or men, then go ahead, because this will be best for you here and in the hereafter!' They said, 'We offer our loyalty and support and declare our readiness to sustain any sacrifice, material or personal!' Turning to the Prophet, they asked him, 'What will be our reward if we honour our pledges?' He said, 'Heaven'. They said, 'Give us your hand'. He did and they gave him their pledges of support.

 

These supporters, like the Makkan tyrants, were keenly aware of the nature of Islam. They realised that it stands for absolute justice and fairness in the social order it seeks to create. It accepts no tyranny, oppression, conceit, injustice or exploitation. Hence it faces the combined forces of all forms of despotism, arrogance and exploitation.

Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

Their attitude is singularly strange. The mere idea of being raised to life again on