Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
The thesis is:
state your political theory and why society should be molded by it? Explain the pros and cons to your political thoughts. Also explain what kind of person should impliment how the country (or society) should be ruled...
Islam has its own political system distinct and unique from any other.
Allah (SWT) revealed the Quran and the Sunnah as sources for us to determine the political system of Islam.
Allah says in translation in (6:57) "the rule [hukmu] is to none but Allah" and
(5:48) "And rule between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their whims away from the Truth which came to you." and
(5:49) "And rule between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their whims, and beware that they tempt you away from even some part of what Allah has revealed to you."
(5:44) "And those who do not rule by what Allah has revealed, they are disbelievers."
Islam has its own ruling system and Allah (SWT) has commanded the Muslim Ummah to rule by it.
(45:18) "We made for you a law [shariy`ateen], so follow it, and not the fancies of those who have no knowledge".
The Islamic ruling system: Allah (SWT) is the Sovereign, the Legislator, the All Knowing most qualified to legislate on the actions and affairs of mankind. No legislature can claim all knowledge, all wisdom, all subtly into anything. Only Allah (SWT) can.
Allah (SWT) has instructed the Muslim Ummah to be the authority to implement His deen and His legislation. The Ummah is instructed to select a single imam, or caliph, or amir (whichever title we choose), to govern the affairs by Allah(SWT)'s legislation.
So the ruler gains his authority from the Muslim Ummah, not Allah (SWT). The Muslim Ummah must hold him accountable to rule only by Allah's legislation. This is accomplished by two means:
The ruler can only gain his authority through a contract with the Muslim Ummah. Meaning, he receives bayah/allegiance after he agrees to certain usul fiqh principles which the people wish for him to adopt in ruling: eg. all actions should be based on an hukm before undertaking, all things are permissible, no single madhab shall apply to all legal matters (for example).
The Muslim people form a majlis ash shura, consultative assembly, composed of all the people of the state. The majlis consults on matters and offers approvals or rejections of candidates for office within the government.
The caliph selects a candidate to be chief judge, and after approval by the majlis, the chief judge becomes a judicial 'leader' that forms a judicial court, such as a judicial panel to judge on cases pertaining to the state, ie. the caliph should be impeached, or his subordinate ruled corruptly, or ineffectively, etc. The chief judge forms lower courts, selects judges (approved by the maljis), and adopts usul principles. there are generally 3 categories of courts: disputes between people (khusoomat), disputes in the marketplace (hisba), and disputes between people and the state (madhalim).
This is the general ruling system of Islam. The caliph selects provincial rulers, ie. governors, chief accountants, etc and can allow for varying degrees of public participation in selection of provincial appointees, ie. mayors.
Pros and Cons of this system?
The pros are following the commands and prohibitions of Allah and worshipping Him as He instructed, gaining His Pleasure. When Allah (SWT) is pleased, He will protect and secure those whom He is pleased with.
No cons to this.
The companions of the Prophet Muhammad (saaw) stated openly, ecspecially Abbas (ra), his uncle, said that if the Muslims establish the Islamic state, the entire world will fight against you and everything outside of the state could be in jeopardy. Thus, the first generation Muslims realized that establishing a unique system adherent to Allah's deen and not product of man's bias would threaten those men who seek power and authority over all mankind. So the people who establish the Islamic state must be prepared to face the world and understand the magnitude and significance of their choices and actions.
A people that is too weak, doesn't believe in, or corrupts the deen is vulnerable. There are several hadith which state that when the Muslim people abandon Islam for other systems (such as today), there will be wars and enemies that take our possessions and kill us (which is what we have today).
So the Muslim people must believe in this deen, have hope that we will succeed through it, and have knowledge and understanding of it.
And Allah knows best.
I welcome discussion on this matter.
Let there arise from amongst you a group inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and they are the successful ones. Al Imran:104