My answer in red, blue is written frienships
Here is an answer to your question:
1. What are the essential teachings of your faith? It is to believe in Allah, His Books, Messengers, Day of Judgment, Angels, Fate.
Same, we call it 6 articles of faith.
2. Do Muslims consider any book, script, or texts as sacred? If so, what is this Sacred Scripture’s designated title? Understand that the Qur'an mentions the Book of Abraham, Torah, Psalms , Injeel. The Qur'an is the total of the Revelation to mankind.
There is 2 sacred text Quran and Hadith (Prophet tradition/saying).
Qur'an is the word of God that revealed to prophet Muhammad's via angel Gabriel, the wording, sequence, format is fully from God. And it's not prophet Muhammad's own word. Hadith the other hand is prophet Muhammad's own word, his own advise, teaching, prohibition, example etc.
Regarding bible, Torah, Psalm, Muhammad (pbuh/peace be upon him) mentioned in hadith: "Do not believe the people of the Book, nor disbelieve them, but say, 'We believe in Allah, and whatever is revealed to us, and whatever is revealed to you.' " (Bukhari book 92 #460 and book 93 #632). But we muslim consider bible, psalm, and Torah no longer authentic, it's not the word of God but the words of human, Paul etc.
3. Does the Islamic faith recognize anyone as its founder? If so, who is this founding person? Islam began with Adam and not Muhammad Rasulullah. Muhammad just completed and sealed the message of Allah to mankind.
We don't consider Muhammad (pbuh) is the founder of Islam, Islam is from God, and it's began from Adam (pbuh)
4. Does your faith include any significant “rites of passage,” rituals, or other practices? It consists in establishing the caliphate, praying, fasting, giving out the poor dues, performing the annual pilgrimage. Above all is the eschewing of indecencies and evil.
I am in different with friendship, there is no "caliphates" (like pope in Catholicism). We have 5 pillars of Islam
1. Shahada (proclamation that you believe in Allah (God) only and believe that Muhammad (pbuh) is the last messenger of God)
2. Salat (prescribed prayer) 5 times a day,
4. charity (alm giving).
5. Hajj (pilgrim to mecca) once during life time, if you have enough money and healthy.
5. Does the Islamic faith define specific roles for men, women, and children? Men are the protectors of women. Women are to look after the trust of their husbands and the caring of the children.
Men responsible (mandatory) to feed and protect their family, woman to care children etc. However there is no prohibition for woman to do something else to do business etc.
6. How do Muslims feel about the beliefs and followers of other religions? Religion is not an Arabic word and neither is it a derivative from the Torah. We know only Islam- obeying that jealous G-d of Abraham who records every act you do and will ask you about your actions.
Jews and Christian consider as people of the books, others we consider as unbeliever. But in Islam there is a concept "My religion is mine your religion is yours". We respect their believe/way.
http://www.islamicity.com/MOSQUE/ARABICSCRIPT/AYAT/109/109_6.htm - http://www.islamicity.com/MOSQUE/ARABICSCRIPT/AYAT/109/109_6.htm
7. Are you aware of and able to recall the current (approximate) Muslim population in North Carolina, the United States, and/or the world? It is said about 1.5 billion.
US is vary, I believe about 6-8 million
World: 1. 5 billion
1. In your own words, can you describe what happens during your worshiping services? For example in prayers you praise Allah, accepting Him as your protector, acknowledge his attributes, and confessing that you you worship Him alone and that He is the only One to Guide you. You ask Him to direct you to the Straight path. You take example from no one but Muhammad.
Praise God, humble to him, ask protection, guidance and blessing, ask forgiveness from sin. We don't need any tools or "things" (food, beverages, flowers, special clothing etc) to give to God. The only requirement you have to wear clean and modest clothing and purify yourself (we cal it wudhu or ablution)
2. What is expected of the participants? The same.
3. Do men and women worship together? Yes, but they can worship separately.
Yes, but if possible men in the front row together with other men and women in the back row.
4. Are children allowed to attend worshiping services with the adults? Yes.
Yes, it's encouraged.
5. Is music used in worshiping ceremonies? No
No music needed.
6. Do Mosques contain religious imagery? If so, what are the images of? No picture of any sort is allowed in a mosque. The writing on the walls in Ka'ba is an innovation. The Qur'an is in our hearts and not on walls. The Jews stopped going to Ka'ba after idols were introduced.
No. Quran calligraphy in wall mosque etc are not treated as religious, just an ornament to beautify the mosque. Doesn't have specific ritual value/meaning.
7. What type of architecture is most commonly applied to buildings used for Islamic worship? Dome.
Dome, but it's not mandatory many mosques in Indonesia, China and other places don't have dome. Dome is just a culture.
8. Are any locations within a Mosque more sacred than others? Usually where the Imam stands. In madina it is a place between the grave of the holy apostle.
Not really, even the imam's stand.
9. Is there a standard chronological order to the events that take place during worship? Yes. Intention after purification.
Purification, intention, then the salat/prayer (included a certain movement such as stand, bow down, sit etc and recitation Quran and other passages recitation)
10. Who is the officiator of this activity and what is his or her title (if one is assigned)? It began from Adam to Jesus son of Maryam. Concluded, perfected simplified and accepted by Allah in the hands of Muhammad Rasulullah.
The Imam (leader), usually the most knowledgeable person in term of religion among the congregation/group. But there is no official person that authorized by any institution, so any body can lead as long as he know the minimal requirement to lead the salat (prayer)
11. Would a visitor be expected to act or behave in any specific manner? If so, please define the requirements. A visitor to where and what is his faith?
Open your shoes (only) when you go to the prayer room. This idea to make sure that the carpet clean/purified, as you know we bow down (put our forehead on the carpet).
Don't not talk unless it is necessary.
*** 12. What do you think is the most important thing for an outsider of your faith to understand about the Islamic religion? Muhammad did not come to unilaterally change what Allah gave to Moses at the foot of Mount Sinai. The Shari'a of Muhammad in Madina was on the behavior of the Levi tribes of the Children of Israel.
We worship God, the same God of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus the son of virgin Marry. The only different with Christianity, we don't consider Jesus is the son of God. We believe the above prophet and other prophet like Prophet David, Solomon, Joseph, John etc (peace be upon them all).
If you want to know more about islamic prayer here the link:
1. Artcle/Pillars of Islam http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/pillars.shtml - http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/pillars.shtml
2. Islamic Prayer (Salat) in Video - http://www.islamicity.com/ISLAMITV/?ref=1274 - http://www.islamicity.com/ISLAMITV/?ref=1274
The Prophet said: "Do not eat before you are hungry, and stop eating before you are full"
"1/3 of your stomach for food 1/3 for water, 1/3 for air"