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Origins of Shia

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Printed Date: 30 July 2014 at 8:34pm


Topic: Origins of Shia
Posted By: Full of Hopes
Subject: Origins of Shia
Date Posted: 23 April 2010 at 10:16pm
 
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
اللهم صلي على نبينا محمد و على آله و صحبه و سلم
 
                                      Origins of Shia
 
 
Shiites, Shiism, and Islam (part 1 of 2)


  Description: A glimpse of how Shiites and Shiism differ from Islam, with a few demonstrative examples in matters of creed. Part One: Belief in God.

By IslamReligion.com

One of the most perplexing scenarios to non-Muslims and new Muslims alike is the division they may see between Shiites and Sunni Muslims. Some tend to become confused when they see that each group claims to be following the true Islam. To truly understand this subject to the fullest, one must delve into the early history of Islam and see under what circumstances this division actually began, a study far from possible for most people. Another way, much more in the scope of the average person, is to analyze which group is true to the teachings of Islam, a simple comparison may be done between Sunni and Shiite beliefs and practices in relation to textual evidence, the Quran – the revealed word of God, and the Sunnah – or teachings of Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him.

Many times, people see this division to be a major one, while the fact remains that Shiites only make up a mere 8 percent of the Muslim population, reaching even this figure after taking hold of certain important political regions in history. Not a division, one can confidently say that the Shiites are but one of the various splinter groups which left the pure teachings of traditional Islam. Sunnis, on the other hand, are not a splinter group, but merely name themselves as such to differentiate themselves from the Shiites and other deviant sects.

The word “Sunni” itself comes from the term “Sunnah”, explained earlier to be the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, for they are strict in abiding by these teachings without any introductions, interpolations, or omissions. The word Shiite (Shi’a in Arabic) means a “party”, “sect”, “supporters” or a “group of like minded individuals”. God says in the Quran addressing His Prophet, Muhammad:

“Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects (Shi’a), you have no concern in them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do.” [Quran 6:159], {إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ}, Transliteration: 'Inna Al-Ladhīna Farraqū Dīnahum Wa Kānū Shiya`āan Lasta Minhum Fī Shay'in 'Innamā 'Amruhum 'Ilá Allāhi Thumma Yunabbi'uhum Bimā Kānū Yaf`alūna

Although the specific groups called the Shiites is not what is directly intended in this verse, it is inclusive of them.

When one studies a bit of history, they will see that the term Shiite was first used amongst the Muslims in regards to a political issue over which the Muslims varied, 37 years after the death of the Prophet. Although the Shiites claim that their origin lies in that scenario, the actual term Shiite being used to denote this specific sect actually occurred much later in history. In either case, it is clear that the term was unheard of during the time of the Prophet, and thus we can say that the Shiites were a group which appeared after the death of the Prophet.

The Shrine of the Zoroastrian, Abu Lu’lu’ah, in Kashan, Iran, venerated by Shiites

Over the long evolution of Shiite thought, they incorporated many foreign concepts into their faith. Starting as a political opinion which favored some views of Ali, the cousin of the Prophet, over some other companions, it became a sect purporting strange ideas foreign to Islam. This was due mainly to the fact that this ideology was mainly espoused by people in areas far from the centers of Islamic learning, namely Persia, those who were either new to Islam, had either converted to Islam nominally, and were living in areas where a large percentage of people remained upon their previous religions. Thus the Shiites became fertile soil to the introduction of foreign ideas, which they struggled to incorporate into some aspects and beliefs maintained by Islam, resulting in a sect composed of ideas stemming from Judaism, Zoroastrianism and Islam. Not strange is it then that we see that one of the most important shrines in Shiism visited by many Shiites is that of Abu Lu’lu’ah, a Zoroastrian who died after the Caliphate of Umar, located in the city of Kashan in present day Iran. Muhammad Ali Mu’zi, an Iranian Shiite researcher in France, stated:
“The basic fundamentals of the Zoroastrian religion has entered into Shiaism even in some minute issues. …And this relationship marked the brotherhood between Shiaism and the ancient Magian Iran.” [1]

We will now take a brief look at Shiism from just one aspect, that of beliefs. From these few examples, one will clearly see how different it truly is from the religion of Islam brought by Prophet Muhammad.

There are various articles of faith in Islam, and from them branch other beliefs which must be held by all who attribute themselves to Islam. They are as mentioned in the verse:

“…but piety is that one has firm belief in God, the Last Day, the angels, the scriptures and the Prophets…” [Quran 2:177], {وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ}, Transliteration: Wa Lakinna Al-Birra Man 'Āmana Billāhi Wa Al-Yawmi Al-'Ākhiri Wa Al-Malā'ikati Wa Al-Kitābi Wa An-Nabīyīna.

This is also mentioned in a statement of the Prophet, may God praise him: «Faith is that you believe in God, the angels, the scriptures, the Prophets, the Last Day...» [Saheeh Muslim].

This short discourse will merely touch on some of these various aspects of faith, and mention just some of the beliefs of the Shiites and how they differ from Islam.

Belief in God:
The proper belief about God, or creed is the most important aspect of the religion of Islam. During the first 13 years of Muhammad’s Prophethood, he corrected people’s beliefs about God, warning them against calling to others besides God, whether angels, prophets, saints, martyrs, trees, stones, stars, or idols. He clarified that only God alone, the One who created them was to be worshipped. Very few legislations and acts of worship were revealed for this period. The majority of the Quran itself calls to this belief. God says in the Quran that calling to others besides Him is a sin worthy of eternal damnation in Hellfire:
“Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode.” [Quran 5:72], {مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ}, Transliteration: 'Innahu Man Yushrik Billāhi Faqad Ĥarrama Allāhu `Alayhi Al-Jannata.

This is an uncompromising belief in Islam, and is the basis from which one enters the fold of Islam. We find, however, that Shiites believe in the veneration of others besides God. Homage is to be paid to great saints and martyrs, such as Ali, Hussein, Fatimah, their Imams, and they are directly called out to in times of need. They believe that they can answer their calls as well as intervene for them with God, a belief that according to Islam is clear disbelief[2]. God says:
“Is not He (God) Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls Him, and Who removes the evil.” [Quran 27:62], {أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ}, Transliteration: 'Amman Yujību Al-Muđţarra 'Idhā Da`āhu Wa Yakshifu As-Sū'a.

Another important tenet which Shiism clearly violates is the concept that God Alone administers the affairs of the universe, and it is He alone who knows the Unseen. Shiism attributes these powers to their leaders, called Imams, and place them in a position higher than the Prophets and angels. God says:
“Say: ‘None in the heavens and the earth knows the unseen except Allah, nor can they perceive when they shall be resurrected.” [Quran 27:65], {قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۚ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ}, Transliteration: Qul Lā Ya`lamu Man Fī As-Samāwāti Wa Al-'Arđi Al-Ghayba 'Illā Allāhu Wa Mā Yash`urūna 'Ayyāna Yub`athūna.

“And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way of fear and hope, and He sends down water (rain) from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.” [Quran 30:24], {وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَيُحْيِي بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ}, Transliteration: Wa Min 'Āyātihi Yurīkumu Al-Barqa Khawfāan Wa Ţama`āan Wa Yunazzilu Mina As-Samā'i Mā'an Fayuĥyī Bihi Al-'Arđa Ba`da Mawtihā 'Inna Fī Dhālika La'āyātin Liqawmin Ya`qilūna.

The Shiites give many of these attributes to their Imams. Some of them even attribute lightning to be caused by them [3].

In authoritative Shiite texts, its states:

“The Imams have knowledge of whatever occurred in the past and whatever will happen in the future, and nothing is concealed from them.” (Al-Kulaini, Al-Kaafi, p.260).

“The Imams have knowledge of all the revealed books, regardless of the languages in which they were revealed” (Ibid, p.227).

“The Imams know when they will die, and they do not die except by their own choice” (Ibid, p.258).

“All of the earth belongs to the Imams.” (Ibid, p.407).

There are many aspects of faith in Shiism that oppose Islam and which render a person out of its fold. Due to this reason, Muslims do not consider Shiism to represent Islam, but rather believe it to contradict the very basics of Islamic teachings.



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Footnotes:
[1] The Role of Zoroastrianism in the Development of Shiaism.

[2] Biha’r Al-Anwa’r, Al-Majlisi. An example of such preposterous beliefs can be found in the following statements of one of their Imams, or leaders:

“When prophet Noah (Peace be upon him) was about to drown in the flooding waters, he invoked God Almighty by our (i.e. the names of the Imams) names. Hence God Almighty came to his rescue. When Prophet Abraham (Peace be upon him) was thrown into the scorching fire, he prayed to God through our names, and God Almighty ordered the fire to be cool and a means of safety for him [Abraham]. When prophet Moses (Peace be upon him) struck the Sea with his rod in quest of a path, he invoked God with respect to our names and God made the sea dry out. Finally when the Jews plotted to kill Jesus (Peace be upon him), he supplicated to God by mentioning our names and was rescued from death. God eventually raised him up.” (Wasa’il As-Sheea, 4/1143)

[3] Bihaar al-Anwar, Al-Burhan, and others.


Islamreligion website

 



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And whoever seeks a religion other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers(3:85)



Replies:
Posted By: Full of Hopes
Date Posted: 23 April 2010 at 10:20pm
Shiites, Shiism, and Islam (part 2 of 2)



Description: A glimpse of how Shiites and Shiism differ from Islam, with a few demonstrative examples in matters of creed. Part Two: The Testimony or Declaration of Faith, the previous Scriptures, the Quran, and the Prophets. A religion based upon the succession of Imams.

By IslamReligion.com

The Shahaadah
The Shism even differ with Islam in the first and most important pillar of Islam and faith, called the Shahaadah, the testimony one gives upon affirming their faith in Islam, that none deserves worship but God, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger (laa ilaaha ill-Allah). This testimony is the most important aspect of Islam, and the whole religion is built upon it, and embodies this unique and total monotheism and belief in God. So important is it that the Prophet pleaded to his uncle who was on his deathbed to testify:

«O uncle! Say ‘laa ilaaha ill-Allah,’ a phrase for which I will plead on your behalf in front of God» [Saheeh Al-Bukhari].

His uncle did not say this testimony due to his fear of what people would say about changing the religion of his forefathers upon death. He died, and the Prophet was informed by revelation that he was among the people of Hell.

Point being, this phrase and what it entails is so important that the Prophet made it a means of everlasting life in Paradise. He said:

«No one says ‘La ilaaha ill-Allah’ and dies firmly upon it, but he/she will enter Heaven (Paradise)» [Saheeh Al-Bukhari].

Thus is this phrase considered the first pillar of Islam, the very statement that rendered one a believer, gives him an opportunity to enter Paradise!

The Shiites, however, have a different ‘testimony of faith’. They not only negate it meanings, as shown in the previous articles by associating others with God, but they have also added certain principles nowhere to be found in authentic texts. Their shahaadah comprises of the statement: "none deserves worship but God, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, and Ali is His beloved and chosen one, and successor to the Prophet" [1].

This is due to the extremism they have in regards to the cousin of Prophet Muhammad, Ali, to whom they claim their origin. The Shiites even claim that the succession of Ali was mentioned in all of the scriptures revealed to the previous prophets [2]. They claim that all will be asked about the succession of Ali on the Day of Judgment [3], and that if anyone believes differently, they are considered polytheists [4]. Although Ali was known to be one of the most pious of the companions of the Prophet, in no narration can we find that Prophet Muhammad ever mentioned his succession in rule. Actually even when we look at early Shiite works, they themselves attribute this belief to Abdullah ibn Saba’, a renegade who claimed Islam and plotted against the Caliph Uthman, and also claimed that Ali was God Himself [5]. Thus it is clear that these beliefs are all innovations never preached by Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him.

Belief in the Scriptures:
God mentions in the Quran that He revealed Scriptures to the Prophets which they taught and recited to their people. Some of these Prophets and Scriptures are mentioned in the Quran:

Say, “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and to the tribes, and that which has been given to Moses and Jesus, and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam).” [Quran 2:136], {قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ}, Transliteration: Qūlū 'Āmannā Billāhi Wa Mā 'Unzila 'Ilaynā Wa Mā 'Unzila 'Ilá 'Ibrāhīma Wa 'Ismā`īla Wa 'Isĥāqa Wa Ya`qūba Wa Al-'Asbāţi Wa Mā 'Ūtiya Mūsá Wa `Īsá Wa Mā 'Ūtiya An-Nabīyūna Min Rabbihim Lā Nufarriqu Bayna 'Aĥadin Minhum Wa Naĥnu Lahu Muslimūna.

“It is He (God) Who has sent down the Book to you with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Torah and the Gospel.” [Quran 3:3], {نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ}, Transliteration: Nazzala `Alayka Al-Kitāba Bil-Ĥaqqi Muşaddiqāan Limā Bayna Yadayhi Wa 'Anzala At-Tawrāata Wa Al-'Injīla.

It was the Prophets who received revelation, and due to the fact that Muhammad, may God praise him, was the last prophet, there will be no other Scriptures revealed after the revelation of the Quran. The Shiites however, believe that there was a scripture revealed after the Quran before the death of the Prophet, which they call the ‘Tablet of Fatimah’. They claim, that in it were the names of all those who were to be their Imams in the future[6].

They invented these ideas due to the fact that they could not find any verses in the Quran which they could use to defend their views. They did not cease at this, but also went on to directly challenge the authenticity of the Quran by stating that its has not been preserved[7], and that the Quran today is incomplete, and that the complete version is with their 12th Imam who has been in hiding for the past 900 years in ‘the cave’. They believe that when he emerges he will bring forth the complete version[8]. This, as should be clear to all, is in direct opposition to the teachings of Islam, as God clearly states that the Quran is under the direct protection of God:

“The Chapter of Succession”. On both sides is a translation in Persian.

“Verily it is We Who have sent down the Reminder and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)” [Quran 15:9], {إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ}, Transliteration: 'Innā Naĥnu Nazzalnā Adh-Dhikra Wa 'Innā Lahu Laĥāfižūna.

The Shiites assert that the existing Quran must have been altered, since there is no reference to any of their strayed beliefs in it. One of the first to explicitly state this view was Mirza Hussein Muhammad Taqiy al-Noori al-Tabrasi (d. 1320 AH) in his book The Final Verdict on the Distortion of the Book of the Lord of Lords[9].

The Shiites became so extreme in their beliefs, that they even attempted to insert chapters about Ali, may God be pleased with him, in the Quran, since they could not find any clear texts. One of them is what they called “The Chapter of Succession”.

Belief in the Prophets:
As mentioned earlier, Islam teaches that the Prophets were the best of humanity, specifically chosen by God due to their excellent qualities specifically to preach the message of God to humanity. God says in the Quran:

“Allah specially chooses Messengers from angels and from humans. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.” [Quran 22:75], {اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ}, Transliteration: Allāhu Yaşţafī Mina Al-Malā'ikati Rusulāan Wa Mina An-Nāsi 'Inna Allāha Samī`un Başīrun.

The Prophets were the best of humans, living examples to be emulated:

“We sent no messenger except to be obeyed, by Allah’s leave…” [Quran 4:64], {وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ}, Transliteration: Wa Mā 'Arsalnā Min Rasūlin 'Illā Liyuţā`a Bi'idhni Allāhi.

The Shiites, however believe that their Imams are better than the prophets [10], and that some prophets were highly praised only due to their love of the Imams [11].

If one was to mention all the beliefs of the Shiites in which they have opposed the teachings of Islam, it would definitely need many volumes to do so. It should be clear, however, from this short discourse that the beliefs purported by Shiism has no basis in any of the teachings of Islam, but rather that it is a conglomeration of foreign beliefs evolved over a period of time, all of which revolve around extremist views concerning the leadership of certain favored candidates, known as their Imams. A religion which teaches the worship of God alone and living a life taught by God’s prophets, a message preached by all prophets, has for them become a life and existence solely based upon love of Ali and affirming his and their Imam’s claim to leadership, struggling to find ways to fit into Islamic texts by addition, interpolation, or misrepresentation. Creation comes into being, Prophets are sent and Scriptures are revealed, all for the purpose of succession of Ali and the latter Imams [12], and even on the Day of Judgment, it will be their Imams, not God, who will judge people [13]. It is no matter to wonder, then, what the basis of entering Heaven or Hell will be according to Shiism.

A religion based upon a claimed love of the family of Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, has lead them to beliefs contradicting the very essence of the message brought by him, the message of Islam.



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Footnotes:
[1] Abdul Kareem Mushtaq.

[2] Al-Kulaini, Al-Kaafi, 1/437.

[3] The Wilayat of ‘Ali ibne Abi Talib (as), Answering Ansar.

[4] “Whoever sets up another Imam besides ‘Ali and delays ‘Ali’s caliphate is a polytheist.” (Al-Kafi fil-Usool, vol.10 p.55)

[5] Rijaal al-Kishhi.

[6] Al-Kulaini, Al-Kaafi, 1/527-8, and many others.

[7] Usul Kafi 1:228

[8] Al-Anwar al-Nu’maniah, 2: 360-2.

[9] Faslul Khitab Fi Tahreefi-Kitabi Rabbil Arbaab.

[10] Wasa’il As-Sheea.

[11] Bihaar al-Anwar (26:267).

[12] I’tiqaadaat (106-7)

[13] Rijaal al-Kishhi (337)


Islamreligion website



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And whoever seeks a religion other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers(3:85)


Posted By: Full of Hopes
Date Posted: 23 April 2010 at 10:24pm
Origins of Shia



   Scholars of Usul Al-Fiqh (Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence) stated the following rule, "One cannot pass a judgment on something unless one has a clear conception of it". Based on this rule, it is meaningless to pass a judgment on Shia unless you have good knowledge about them. It is also meaningless to express one's opinion on reconciling the views of Sunnis and Shiites without recognizing the nature of both sects. Likewise, it is of no real sense to accept or reject talking about Shia without knowing the reality of the issue, to what extent it is dangerous, its rank as to our priorities and its relation to the multiple variables the Ummah is facing.

In short, before we proceed to criticize opponents or proponents of Shia, we should first understand who Shia are, what their origins are, what their theological and Fiqhi (Jurisprudential) backgrounds are, what their history is about, what their reality is an what their goals and ambitions are. Only after doing this, we can express our view foresightedly, especially when we know how many people changed their long-believed views and give up their ideas after they had been provided with sound information and clear vision.

Who are Shia?

The issue is not merely that of certain people living in a certain country who have some disputes with neighboring countries. Rather, it is an issue of theological, historical and Fiqhi backgrounds that have to be referred to.

Many historians differ on the real beginning of Shia.

What is commonly believed by the masses is that Shia are those people who supported `Ali bin Abu Talib during the caliphate of Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, (may Allah be pleased with him). Accordingly, this means that those who supported `Ali bin Abu Talib are Shia while those who supported Mu`awiyah are Sunnis. Such a notion has never been accepted by anyone. Moreover, Sunnis believe with regard to the dispute that arose between the two honorable Companions that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was on the right, while Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) exercised Ijtihad (independent judgment) but did not reach the truth. Thus, Sunnis thought is clearly siding with `Ali. Moreover, tenets, doctrines and ideologies held by Shia are entirely different from those held by `Ali bin Abu Talib absolutely. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that the rise of Shia was at that era.

Some historians say that the rise of Shia was after Al-Hussein (may Allah be pleased with him) was martyred. This opinion sounds to be more logical. Actually, Al-Hussein rebelled against the rule of Yazid bin Mu`aweiyah and, therefore, headed for Iraq after his followers there had promised to back him. However, they let him down at the critical time, which led to the martyrdom of Al-Hussein at Karbala. The group of people who invited him and failed to support him regretted doing so and decided to expiate their sin through rebelling against the Umayyad state. They actually did so and a large number of them were killed and thus were called Shia. This might explain why we notice that Shia are more attached to Al-Hussein bin `Ali than to `Ali bin Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) himself. They also, as we can see, mark the anniversary of Al-Hussein's martyrdom while don not mark that of `Ali bin Abu Talib.

However, this sect only rose as a political one opposing the rule of the Umayyad dynasty and backed any attempts to rebel against it. Until that time, they did not hold theological or jurisprudential principles different from those of Sunnis. We will even come to know that earlier leaders whom Shiites claim to be their earlier Shia Imams were only Sunni men adopting doctrines and principles of Sunnis.

The situation continued to be stable for months after the martyrdom of Al-Hussein (may Allah be pleased with him). At this period lived `Ali Zainul-`Abdin bin Al- Hussein who was one of the most righteous personalities and great ascetic scholars. He has never been reported to have any beliefs or ideologies different from those held by Companions and later generations.

`Ali Zainul-`Abdin had two sons of a high level of piety and purity, namely, Mohammed Al-Baqir and Zaid, both of whom completely believed in beliefs held by Sunni scholars including Companions and Successors. However, Zaid bin `Ali (may Allah have mercy on him) differed in viewing that `Ali bin Abu Talib was worthier of assuming caliphate than Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Although this opinion conflicts with the Ummah's consensus and contradicts many Hadith that explicitly held Abu Bakr Al-Siddik, `Umar and `Uthman in a higher rank than `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), this difference of opinion, however, does not relate to doctrinal issues. While he viewed that `Ali was the best, he, however, admitted the high rank of the first three caliphs. He also believed in the permissibility of one less in rank assuming imamate despite the existence of those higher in rank. Accordingly, he did not deny the imamate of Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with them). Apart from this view, he concurred with Sunnis in theology, principles and Fiqh.

Repeating the attempt of his grandfather Al-Hussein bin `Ali (may Allah be pleased with them both), Zaid bin `Ali rebelled against the Umayyad caliph Hisham bin Abdul-Malik, which ended up with his being killed in 122 A.H. His followers then founded a sect based on his ideas, known in history as Zaydiyyah, named after Zaid bin `Ali. Though considered to be a Shia-based sect, Zaydiyyah agrees with Sunnis in everything except in holding `Ali in a higher position than the first three Caliphs. The followers of this sect are mainly in Yemen and they are the nearest Shia sects to Sunnis - even one can hardly distinguish them from Sunnis in most respects.

It is worth mentioning that a group of the followers of Zaid bin `Ali asked him about his opinion on Abu Bakr and `Umar. In reply, he supplicated Allah to show mercy to both of them, but those who asked him refused to do the same and seceded from his sect. Therefore, they were known in the history as Rafidah (lit. dissenters) because they rejected the caliphate of Abu Bakr and `Umar on one hand, and rejected Zaid's opinion on the other. Subsequent generations of such a group founded a sect which was later known as Ithna `Ashriyyah (Imamiyyah) to turn into Shia's largest sect.

Mohammed Al-Baqir, Zaid bin `Ali's brother, died eight years before his brother (in 114 A.H.) leaving behind a son who became the reverend scholar Ja`far Al-Sadiq. The latter was a prominent scholar and a proficient Faqih (Jurisprudent), who held the same theology believed in by Companions, Successors and Muslim scholars in general.

Late at the era of the Umayyad caliphate, the Abbasid movement started activities aiming at rallying people against the Umayyad caliphate. The movement collaborated with the groups which seceded from Zeid bin `Ali and both toppled the Umayyad caliphate in 132 A.H. The Abbasid caliphate came to power headed by the founder Abul-`Abbas Al-Saffah and his successor Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur. Those who collaborated with this movement felt disappointed as they sought to establish a caliphate ruled by one of `Ali bin Abu Talib's grandchildren. Therefore, those people formed a group called Al-Talibiyyun (lit. proponents of `Ali bin Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) compared to Abbasids who are named after Al-`Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib) with the aim of staging a coup against the Abbasid caliphate.

Until this era, there were no essential theological or jurisprudential violations except that of the criticism of Abu Bakr and `Umar; actually, some of them who seceded from Zaid bin `Ali rejected them and would even curse them in public.

Ja`far Al-Sadik died in 148 A.H. leaving behind a son called Musa Al-Kazim, who was also a scholar but less in rank than his father. He died in 183 A.H. leaving behind some sons including `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida.

It happened that the Abbasid caliph al Ma'mun sought to contain the rebellion of Al-Talibiyyun who claimed the caliphate for the descendants of `Ali bin Abu Talib rather than those of Al-`Abbas. Thus, he nominated `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida as the crown prince, which fueled a fierce controversy among Abbasids. However, `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida suddenly died in 203 A.H., but Al-Talibiyyun accused Al-Ma'mun of killing him and once again staged successive revolutions against Abbasids just as they did with Umayyads.

Anyway, passage of years gave room for revolutions to relatively calm down. Until that time, Shia had not yet adopted an independent religious school of thought to be called Shia. Rather, there were only political movements aiming at assuming power and opposing rulers due to many reasons which did not include such theological reasons as those held by Shia now.

Strikingly, such dissenting calls found support on a large scale in the Persian region (currently Iran). Actually, many inhabitants of such a region felt sorry for the fall of the huge Persian empire and its fusion into the Islamic state. They, Persians, considered themselves of a higher race, a better ethnicity and a greater history than Muslims. This feeling led to the rise of Persophilia – an ideology which means giving priority to their race and ethnicity over anything even Islam. Some of them even showed deep adherence to their Persian roots, lock, stock and barrel, even the fire which they once worshiped.

As they were not powerful enough to rebel against the Islamic state, and being Muslims for decades, they found the Al-Talibiyyun's revolutions a way through which they would seek to topple the Islamic caliphate which toppled their Persian state before. In the same time, they did not want to forsake Islam which they embraced for many years. They, however, decided to interpolate it through injecting into it the heritage of the Persian state so as to secure instability within the Muslim Ummah. They kept a low profile, while Al-Talibiyyu maintained the high profile. Bearing in mind that Al-Talibiyyun are affiliated to `Ali bin Abu Talib, are a part of the Prophet's Household and thus held in a high esteem by people, such people secured continuation of there mission.

Thus, attempts of Persophils united with those of Al-Talibiyyun belonging to the Prophet's Household to form a new independent, not only political but also religious, entity.

Back to Al-Talibiyyun, we can see that after the death of `Ali Al-Rida whom Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma'mun nominated as the crown prince, he was succeeded by his son Mohammed Al-Jawad who died in 220 A.H. The latter was also succeeded by his son `Ali bin Mohammed Al-Hadi who died in 254 A.H. Finally, the latter was succeeded by Al-Hassan bin `Ali called Al-`Askary who also died suddenly in 260 A.H. leaving behind a young 5-year-old son, Mohammed.

Throughout previous years, separatist movements, which consisted of some of the Prophet's Household and Persophils, would swear allegiance to the elder son of Al-Talibiyyun's leader, starting with `Ali Al-Rida and ending with Al-Hassan Al-`Askary. Concerning the ascendants of `Ali Al-Rida, such as his father Musa Al-Kazim or his grandfather Ja`far Al-Sadik or his grandfather's father Mohammed Al-Baqir, they did not assume the revolutionary leadership against Umayyad or Abbasid rule.

However, after Al-Hassan Al-`Askary had died in 260 A.H., revolutionists got totally confused as to who is to assume leadership when Al-Hassan Al-`Askary left behind a young son. They even got more confused after the sudden death of that young son. This resulted in dividing such revolutionary groups into many sects each different from the other in terms of principles and ideas as well as even in laws and beliefs.

The most famous among such sects is Ithna `Ashriyyah (Imamiyyah), now prevailing in Iran, Iraq and Lebanon. It is the biggest Shiite sect at present.

The leaders of this sect started to add to Islam ideas that would work best for situations they are exposed to currently and that may ensure the continuation of their sect despite the absence of their leader.

They added many serious Bid'ahs (innovations in religion) to the religion of Islam, claiming them to be part and parcel of Islam. Thus, such Bid'ahs, with the passage of time, became a key component of their ideology and thought. Some of such Bid'ahs relate to Imamate (caliphate). Seeking a justification for the lack of a current imam, they argued that Imams are twelve only, arranging them in the following order: 1- `Ali bin Abu Talib, 2- Al-Hassan bin `Ali, 3- Al-Hussein bin `Ali, 4- `Ali Zainul-`Abidin bin Al-Hussein, 5- Mohammed Al-Baqir bin Zainul-`Abidin, 6- Ja`far Al-Sadik bin Mohammed Al-Baqir, 7- Musa Al-Kazim, 8- `Ali Al-Rida, 9- Mohammed Al-Jawad, 10- `Ali Al-Hadi, 11- Mohammed Al-Mahdi and 12- Al-Hassan Al-`Askary.

That is why this sect is called Ithna `Ashriyyah. Seeking to justify why the Imam succession came to an end, they claimed that the young child Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-`Askary has not died yet, and that, according to them, he has disappeared in a mountain cave and that he is still alive (over one thousand years now). They further claim that he will be back one day to rule the world. They also believe him to be the Awaited Mahdi (Righteous Imam). They also claimed that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) bequeathed Imamate to those twelve names but Companions withheld such information. This is why they judge Companions in general to be disbelievers (however, some of them judge Companions to be only profligate) as they concealed such a bequeath. Influenced by the Persian system of rule, they introduced the inevitability of the monarchical system believing that the Imam must be the elder son of `Ali bin Abu Talib and likewise all succeeding Imams. As known to all, this notion is not Islamic at all. Even Sunni Islamic states based on a monarchical system, such as Umayyad, Abbasid, Seljuk, Ayyubi and Ottoman caliphates, never considered the monarchical system to be a part of religion or that ruling must be on a dynasty basis. Influenced also by Persia, they introduced sanctification of the ruling dynasty. Accordingly, they believed in the infallibility of the aforementioned Imams and thus considered their sayings to be as holy as the Qur'an and Prophetic Hadith. Moreover, most of their Fiqhi (jurisprudential) rules are even derived from the sayings of Imams, regardless of whether these sayings are authentically or falsely attributed to them. Furthermore, in his book "Islamic Government", Khomeini, the leader of the Iranian revolution, stated, "One of the fundamentals of our ideology is that our Imams are higher in rank than devoted angels and prophets." Hence, this explains their bitter hostility to all Companions (except for a few of them who do not exceed thirteen). They also show hostility to even some of the Prophet's Household, such as Al-`Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), Allah's Messenger's uncle, and his son Abdullah bin `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), the great scholar of the Ummah. Unarguably, hostility to these two figures and judging them to be disbelievers is due to the historical conflict between Ithna `Ashriyyah and Abbasid caliphate.

Among their Bid`ahs also is that they consider most Muslim countries to be Darul-Kufr (House of disbelief). They also judge the people of Medina, Mecca, Egypt and Levant to be disbelievers, falsely reporting the Messenger of Allah to have said something in this regard and thus believe it to be a part of their religion.

You can refer to such ideas in their original resources, such as Al-Kafy, Bihar Al-Anwar and Tafsir Al-Qummi, Tafsir Al-`Ayyashi, Al-Burhan and other books.

Consequently, they do not acknowledge any Sunni scholars and all the authentic Hadith books, such as Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa'i. They also deny the authority of Abu Hanifah, Malik, Al-Shafi`i and Ibn Hanbal. They also do not admit the excellence of Khalid bin Al-Walid or Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas, `Umar bin Abdul-`Aziz,, Musa bin Nusair, Nourul-Din Mahmoud, Salahud-Din, Qutuz and Muhammad Al-Fatih.

As a result of their non-recognition of Companions, Successors and books of Hadith and Tafsir (exegesis of the Qur'an), they depended largely on sayings attributed to their Imams through very weak chains of narrators. Consequently, many abhorred Bid'ahs took place regarding their doctrines, acts of worship, transactions and other wakes of life. In this article, I do not intend to give a list of their Bid'ahs; actually, such a goal requires composing many books. I only refer here to the origin of the problem so that we may understand its consequences. However, it requires a lengthy talk to speak about such Bid'ahs as Taqiyyah (a dispensation allowing Shiites to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion) and Raj'a (the second coming or the return to life of their Imams after death), viewing that the Qur'an was interpolated, misbelieving in Allah, Bid'ahs committed at the shrines, building such shrines in mosques, abhorred Bid'ahs committed on the anniversary of Al-Hussein's Martyrdom and thousands of other Bid'ahs that became key pillars in religion according to Ithna `Ashriyyah.

All that I have mentioned so far is only a part of the ideology of Ithna `Ashriyyah. However, there are several other sects that rose during the same period in history, especially during the period known in history as the period of "Shia Bewilderment", which started as early as the middle of the third century A.H. following the death of Al-Hassan Al-`Askary (the twelfth and last Imam according to them).

From this period on, literature and books that plant their ideology and doctrines were composed. Their methodologies spread widely in the Persian region in particular and in the Muslim world in general. However, till then no state was established to officially adopt such ideologies. Anyway, by the end of the third century and the beginning of the fourth century A.H., serious developments took place that led to Shia assuming power in some areas, which had serious repercussions on the entire Muslim Ummah. This is what I will deal with in the next article, if Allah so wills.

However, I have to repeat the rule that "one cannot pass a judgment on something unless one has a clear conception of it". Thus, if we are to take a decision regarding a specific matter or issue, we have to have knowledge about it first. In other words, we can judge something to be right or wrong or say that it is better to do so-and-so only when authentic information is available. Undoubtedly, judgments based of passions and on no study leads certainly to evil consequences.

We ask Allah to glorify Islam Muslims.


By: Dr. Ragheb El Sergani



islamstory website



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And whoever seeks a religion other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers(3:85)


Posted By: Full of Hopes
Date Posted: 23 April 2010 at 10:27pm
Shia's Dominance


   Many readers - as noticed from their comments - have surely been shocked by the history of the rise of Shia. Certainly, we do not record historical facts merely to know what had happened in various stages of history. Rather, we aim at taking lessons wherefrom so that we might be able to tackle our crises in a better and a clearer way. Therefore, ignoring such history stands for committing a crime against modern generations. By doing so, we deprive ourselves of light if we overlook studying the roots of the issue, otherwise. Moreover, first of all, the Qur'an enjoins us to study the stories of ancient nations so as to apply its lessons to our actual fact. In this regard, Allah (may He be Exalted) said, "So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect." [Al-A`raf, 176], {فَاقْصُصِ الْقَصَصَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ} Transliteration: Fāqşuşi Al-Qaşaşa La`allahum Yatafakkarūna, Accordingly, it is not enough to merely tell stories. Rather, we have to reflect on stories and derive wherefrom practical methods to help us understand our actual fact and thus be enlightened about our future.

I would like to start the article with two important notes:

First: To understand and benefit from this article, readers should first read my previous article "Origins of Shia", as I highlighted there their origins and referred to some doctrines of Shia, which will help understand the developments.

Second: Until the moment I only narrate events and report authentic narrations. However, I have not yet highlighted our attitude toward Shia and the nature of relations that should be between us and them. Anyway, I will single out my next article for this topic. Thus, it will be useful to me to receive your impressions on how should we deal with them, especially while bearing in mind the historical and religious backgrounds we dealt with in detail.

Now back to the story of Shia:

After the death of Al-Hassan Al-`Askary (whom they consider their twelfth Imam), Shia passed by what was known in the history as the period of "Shia's Bewilderment", during which they were divided into many sects, each formulating its religion beliefs according to their whims in such a manner as to have better political gains. The most famous of such sects was Ithna `Ashriyyah (who believe in, study and prepare for t bb5 which was named Al-Qaramitah after his name. It is a branch of Al-Isma`iliyyah sect but is even more dangerous. This sect holds the idea of common ownership of money and women. Its adherents deem all prohibited acts such as murder, adultery and theft to be lawful. Furthermore, they make living on pillage and highway robbery. Concomitantly, all thieves and outlaws joined it and thus it became one of the most dangerous sects in the history of the Muslim Ummah.

All these and other countless developments took place during the second half of the third century A.H., which resulted in the rise of three major sects, Ithna `Ashriyyah, Isma`iliyyah and Qaramitah, each claiming to be on the right. Moreover, they differ in all respects including doctrines, principles and rulings. However, there were conflicts between them and Sunnis as well as among each other, as each of them denied the truth of the other. Actually, they were motivated by whims and innovation in religion.

Until this stage of history, such sects were no more than movements that staged disorder and turmoil within the Muslin Ummah. However, they had not yet assumed power or had sovereignty. By the end of the third century and the beginning of the fourth century A.H., great developments took place that led to serious repercussions.

The first sect to assume power was Al-Qaramitah, because it was the most virulent and violent sect. One of its propagators, Rustum bin Al-Hussein, reached Yemen where he established an Al-Qaramitah-based state and started to correspond with people everywhere – they corresponded with even Morocco - propagating their

doctrine. However, this state did not last long.

Anyway, another Al-Qaramitah-based state was established on the Arabian Peninsula especially in Bahrain. (It is not today's Bahrain but the area to the east of Arabia.) The Qaramitah state in such an area represented so great threat to the safety of Muslims that they murdered Hajjis. Perhaps the most heinous crime they committed was attacking Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the Sacred Mousque) on the Day of Tarwiyah (the eighth day of the month of Dhul‑Hijjah) in 317 A.H., during which they killed all Hajjis in the Haram (Sacred Mosque) and stole the Black Stone from the Ka`bah after having broken it! They took the Black Stone to their capital in Hajar, to the east of the Arabian Peninsula keeping possession of it for twenty two years. However, it was returned to the Ka`bah in 399 A.H.

Concerning Isma`iliyyah, they found the land of Morocco a fertile soil for their call. The ideas of Rustum bin Al-Hussein the Qaramitah-based ruler of Yemen spread in Morocco through a man called Abu Abdullah the Shiite. We know that both sects, Isma`iliyyah and Qaramitah, claim the Imamate of Isma`il bin Ja`far Al-Sadiq.

Therefore, one of the grandsons of Maymun Al-Qaddah, `Ubaidul-Lah bin Al-Hussein bin Ahmad bin Abdul



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And whoever seeks a religion other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers(3:85)


Posted By: Full of Hopes
Date Posted: 23 April 2010 at 10:29pm
 
 
Shia's Peril



   Many Muslims view it is very difficult and confusing to adopt a certain attitude towards Shiites. Difficulty is actually due to many reasons.

Lack of information is one of such reasons. In fact, Shia as for many Muslims is something ambiguous. They know neither their entity nor their origin. Moreover, they neither have a historical look at their past nor can expect their future. Consequently, a good number of Muslims thinks that Shia is no more than an Islamic school of thought and thus similar to Shafi'i, Maliki or other Schools of thought. Thus thinking, they do not grasp the fact that difference between Sunnis and Shiites does not relate only to subsidiary matters but also to some fundamentals as well.

The fact that many Muslims are not realistic or practical is another reason for difficulty. Actually, some Muslims have unsubstantiated rosy dreams. Thinking they are reasonable, they think there is no reason for conflict and wonder why do not we sit together overlooking our disputes, a Sunni shaking hands with a Shiite and take one way since both parties believe in Allah, His Messenger and the Last Day. It seems they forgot it is a far more complicated issue. For example, we judge to be a disbeliever a person who, although believing in Allah, His Messenger and the Last Day, deems drinking wine and adultery lawful. Deeming them lawful means denying their being prohibited by the Qur'an and Sunnah. If we apply the same criterion here, we will find out that the issue of Shia is so dangerous that it requires Shari'ah (Islamic Law) scholars to adopt decisive situations as far as the Islamic ruling on enormous Shiite Bid'ahs (innovations in religion) is concerned. Another reason leading to difficulty is multiplicity of deep wounds that hit many Muslim countries and multiplicity of enemies such as Jews, Crusaders, Communists, Hindus and others. In this regard, some of those claiming to be reasonable view that we should not open a new bloc for conflict.

This might be true in case we are trying to open such a bloc when it is already closed. However, being wide-open and of constant harm, ignoring it is a vice. Furthermore, it is useless to pose the repeatedly asked question: Who is more dangerous, Jews or Shiites? In fact, asking such a question aims at squelching those who try to awaken the Ummah and to put in awkward situation those who strive to protect and safeguard the Ummah. In refutation of such an argument, I say that there is no problem to face two contingent perils at a time. I would like also to ask them: Is it Sunnis who search for a justification to attack Shiites? I think the actual fact substantiated by bulk of evidence tells us that it is Shiites who harm Sunnis.

In the two previous articles, Origins of Shia and Shia's Dominance, I gave an outline of the Shia history. Through these articles, we could see tremendous aggressions committed by Shiites against the Muslim Ummah. However, I do not think that our present fact differs from the past. Rather, I certify that history repeats itself and that sons have inherited fathers' and grandfathers' rancor. Besides, no good is expected from those who claim the Companions generation was corrupt except for a very few number of them, which stands for explicitly belying the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him), «The best people are those living in my generation» This Hadith (Prophetic tradition) is related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim as well as other compilations of authentic Hadith.

Undoubtedly, present Shias truth -just as their truth in the past- is very heinous.

Let us revise important matters to help us have a clearer vision and thus help us understand the ideal attitude we should adopt toward Shiites in order to know which is better, speaking or remaining silent.

First: Everyone knows the Shias attitude toward the Prophet' Companions ranging from Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (the very truthful), `Umar Al-Faruq (one who distinguishes between truth and falsehood) and `Uthman Dhon-Norain (one who married two of the Prophet's daughters) to mothers of the believers, headed by `A'ishah the mother of the believers and ending with the whole great generation. Actually, Shias books and references, as well as even their creed and belief essentials, claim that this generation as a whole is profligate or even disbeliever and that the majority of which has gone astray and accuse them of hiding and interpolating the religion.

Regarding this, should we observe and remain silent in order to avoid Fitnah (disorder) as they calim?

I wonder what Fitnah can be more than accusing this generation of corruption and lying!

I would like that you try to comprehend the following statement said be the reverend Companion Jabir bin Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with both of them), «When later generations of this Ummah curse earlier generations, let those who have knowledge unfold it, for one who conceals such knowledge is as if concealing what is revealed to Muhammad (peace be upon him)» [The Hadith as reported in a Marfu' (traceable back to the Prophet) form is Da'if (unreliable). However, it is more authentically reported to be the words of Jabir bin Abdullah the Prophet's Companion].

Could you comprehend what depth this statement has?

Actually, defaming the Companion's generation does not stand for merely defaming some people who have passed away and thus, as claimed by some people, will not be harmed by such defamation being in Paradise in defiance of Shiites. More seriously, defaming Companions actually implies direct accusation of the authenticity of the whole religion. In fact, we received this religion through only Companions. Therefore, if doubt is cast on their morals, intentions and actions, how should we then follow this religion? Given this, the religion will be lost and the Prophet's Hadith and orders will be of no authority. On the contrary, we ask Shiites, what Qur'an do you recite? Is not it the Companions in mass, whom you defame, who transmitted the Qur'an?, Is not it Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him), whom you claim to have assumed caliphate through fraud, who collected the Qur'an? Based on your claims, why did not he interpolate the Qur'an if it is true that he interpolated the Sunnah?

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, «Follow my Sunnah (manner of conduct) as well as that of my rightly-guided Caliphs» [Related by Al-Tirmidhi, Book on Knowledge Taken from Allah's Messenger (2676), Ibn majah (42) and Ahmad (17184)], Thus, the Sunnah of the four rightly-guided Caliphs is an indispensable part of the religion of Islam. Moreover, rulings and decisions issued by Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman and `Ali are binding for all Muslims everywhere and at any time till the Day of Judgment. How can then defaming them be acceptable?

To this effect, our great scholars would tremble on hearing someone affronting the Prophet's Companions. For example, Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah be pleased with him) would say, "If you hear someone saying bad words about the Prophet's Companions, know that his being a Muslim is an object of doubt." Moreover, Judge Abu Ya`la said, "Scholars are unanimous on judging one who insults Companions while deeming it permissible to be a disbeliever and one who does so while not deeming it permissible to be a profligate."

To the same effect, Abu Zar`ah Al-Razy said, "If you see someone underestimating the Prophet's Companions, know that he is a heretic."

Furthermore, Ibn Taymiyah said, "One who claims that all Companions - except for a few number not exceeding twenty - forsook Islam after the Prophet's death is undoubtedly disbeliever."

Actually, such strict judgments regarding those who underestimate Companions is justified by the fact that it is Companions who transmitted the religion to us. Accordingly, underestimating them implies casting doubts on the religion itself. In addition, this great generation was praised in innumerable occurrences in Qur'anic verses and Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Therefore, defaming them indicates belying Allah and His Messenger.

Some people might argue that we did never hears so-and-so - a Shiite - insulting Companions. I would like to draw the attention of such people to three points:

The first point: The main point of Imamiyyah (a Shiite sect believing in the twelve Imams descending from `Ali) is that Companions conspired against `Ali bin Abu Talib, all the Prophet's Household and the Imams they believe in. Therefore, all adherents of Imamiyyah (found in Iran, Iraq and Lebanon) believe in the corruption of Companions. Should they admit the goodness of Companions, the Shiite main idea would be refuted. Therefore, it is acknowledged that all Shiites, were they leaders or followers, do neither respect or show reverence to Companions nor learn religion from them in the least.

The second point: Shiite leaders are always illusive in situations where their dislike of Companions is disclosed, although it is apparent in some of their expressions or situations as stated by Allah (may He be Exalted), "but surely you will know them by the tone of their speech" [Muhammad: 30], Transliteration: Wa Lata`rifannahum Fī Laĥni Al-Qawli, {وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِي لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ}. In this regard, we perhaps watched the debate held between Dr. Al-Qaradawi (may Allah safeguard him) and Rafsanjani on Al-Jazeera TV.

We could see how Rafsanjani was illusive regarding attempts made by Dr. Al-Qaradawi to make him say something good about Companions or Mothers of the believers. By the same token, Khamenei – the current leader of the Iranian Revolution - gave the following indecisive reply to a question about the ruling on insulting Companions that gave no definite answer regarding permissibility or otherwise, "Any saying leading to sowing discord among Muslims is absolutely impermissible." According to him, insulting Companions is not prohibited on its own, but it is only prohibited on account of its sowing discord among Muslims. This was published in the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram on November 23, 2006.

The third point: A special care should be given to the Taqiyyah creed which constitutes nine-tenths of religion according to them. Tiqiyyah refers to a dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. However, when they come to power, they openly disclose it. Throughout the Shia's history we referred to, we could know that when they dominate Sunni countries, such as Abbasid Caliphate in Iraq, Egypt, Morocco and other countries, they would publicly insult Companions considering it one of the essentials of their faith.

Through this point, we come to the conclusion that it is necessary to speak in order to clarify the truth regarding honorable Companions, for indeed refraining from telling' the truth is satanic. Moreover, keeping silent will result in loss of religion itself.

Second: Danger of the spread of Shiite faith in the Muslim world. Undoubtedly, propagating the Shiite faith is making its way rapidly throughout the Muslim world. It is extending beyond the borders of countries where it used to be such as Iran, Iraq and Lebanon. Rather, it is now spreading on a wide range in Bahrain, UAE, Syria, Jordan, KSA, Egypt, Pakistan, Afghanistan and other Muslim countries. More dangerously, many people have held the Shiite ideas and principles while thinking they are not Shiites. To this effect, after our articles in this regard have been published, we received a great bulk of messages whose senders claim to be Sunnis while their messages are overflowing with Shiite ideas and methodologies. We all know about fierce campaigns launched against Companions in newspapers and satellite channels in Sunni countries. Most famous are the campaign launched recently by an Egyptian newspaper against `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), the campaign launched by another newspaper against Al-Bukhari (may Allah show mercy to him) and satellite programs presented by a famous journalist defaming Companions in all episodes.

What adds to the difficulty of the situation and the improbability of remaining silent thereon is the close relationship between Shiite and Sufi methodologies on the pretext that both of them love the Prophet's Household. As we know, Sufism is widespread in many Muslim countries when it is famous for committing many Bid'ahs and abhorred sins and shares Shia in that both sanctify the graves of the Prophet's Household. As a result, Shiism is expected to spread so long as Sufi sects are widespread in Muslim countries.

Third: The situation in Iraq is very dangerous.

It became a usual scene that Sunni Muslims are killed after glancing at their identity cards. Scholar Harith Al-Dary, Secretary General of the Association of Muslim Scholars in Iraq, stated that more than 100000 Sunnis were killed by Shiites from 2003 to 2006 only. This is in addition to constant displacements of Sunnis so that Shiites might easily have authority in such regions. Furthermore, most of those displaced outside Iraq are Sunnis, which might lead to serious change of the population structure which will result in evil consequences. The question that arises is: Is the Fitnah resulting from discussing the issue of Shia more dangerous than that of killing such a great number of Sunnis? Till when should we remain silent in this regard, when everyone knows that Iran fully supports killing Sunnis according to identity cards?

Fourth: Iran has its clear, or even explicitly publicized, coveted objects in Iraq. Previously, there was an eight-year-old war between the two countries. However, their way to it is now paved, bearing in mind that Iraq represents an ultimate Shiite religious importance. In Iraq there are the holy shrines and the graves of six Shiite Imams, including the grave of `Ali bin Abu Talib in Najaf, the grave of Al-Hussein in Karbala, the grave of Musa Al-Kazim and that of Muhammad Al-Jawad in Kazimiya, and the grave of Muhammad Al-Hadi and that of AL-Hassan Al-`Askary in Samarra. This is in addition to false graves of such prophets as Adam, Noah, Hud and Salih – all located in Najaf – whose names are well-known to be falsely attributed them.


Moreover, the dangers of Iran's ambitions in Iraq is reinforced by the fact that US backs and supports such ambitions. We can all see the American-backed and sponsored Shiite government. Furthermore, reciprocal unreal accusations between the US and Iran should make no sense. Actually, USA never thinks of launching war against Iran – refer to our article "A demon under control". However, worrying is not only ambitions in Iraq's oil or wealth, or even the expansion of Shiite-dominated land, but also the fact that brutality and criminality is part and parcel of their belief in religion. They consider Companions and other Sunni Muslims who followed them to have showed enmity to the Prophet's Household. They, therefore, call us Nawasib (understood by the Shiite to mean those who declared hostility against the Household of the Prophet), although we show more respect to the Prophet's Household than them. Based on accusing us as such, they issue very dangerous judgments. For Example, Khomeini said, "It is strongly substantiated to apply the same rulings of Ahlul-Harb (people otherwise at war with Muslims) to Nawasib. This means that it will be lawful to take booties from them and divide one-fifth of it among warriors. It is even strongly substantiated that it is lawful to take up their property wherever they may be and with any how. In such a case, one-fifth is to be singled out." Asked about the ruling on one who denies the Imamate of the twelve Imams, the Shiite Imam Muhammad Sadiq Al-Rawhani said the following amazing statement, "Imamate is higher in rank than prophethood. Moreover, perfecting the religion took place through appointing Imam `Ali (peace be upon him) as the Commander of the Faithful. In this regard, Allah (may He be Exalted) said, "This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favor on you" [Al-Ma'idah 3], Transliteration: Al-Yawma 'Akmaltu Lakum Dīnakum, {الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ}. Accordingly, he who does not believe in the Imamate of the twelve Imams dies as a disbeliever."

In the article (Origins of Shia), we stated that Khomeini in his book "Al-Hukumah Al-Islamiyya (Islamic Government)" stated that Imams offer much Prayers to a degree never reached by a high-ranked angel or a prophet and thus disbelieving in them is more harmful than disbelieving in the Prophet (peace be upon him). I think this notion explains their judging others to be disbelievers, which results in deeming killing Sunnis in Iraq and everywhere to be lawful. Moreover, in this context we can understand also the inevitability of holding sway over Iraq for the Shiite sanctuaries there that is dominated by those whom they judge to be disbelievers.

Fifth: Their direct threat is not limited to Iraq only.

Rather, their ambitions extends to all the countries of the region. They consider Bahrain to be a part of Iran, which is explicitly stated by Ali Akbar Natiq Nouri, the head of the investigation section, in the Revolution leader's office while celebrating the Iranian Revolution thirtieth anniversary. He said, "Bahrain was in the past the 14th governorate of Iran and was represented by an MP in the Iranian National Consultative Assembly." Besides, it is well-known that Iran occupies three important UAE islands in the Arabian Gulf.

Moreover,they are growing so largely in number in the UEA that they now constitute 15% of the whole population. In addition, they control trade centers especially in Dubai.
The situation in KSA is also not stable. Since the Iranian Revolution in 1979, turmoil took place frequently in KSA. It even took place immediately after the Iranian Revolution. At that time, Shiite demonstrations were organized in Al-Qatif and Saihat, the severest of which took place on November 19, 1979. The situation got worse to the extent that they demonstrated in and tried to destroy Allah's Sacred House, which happened during Hajj seasons in 1987 and 1989. Furthermore, 450 Shiite personalities submitted a request to the crown prince at that time Prince Abdullah to assume supreme positions in the Cabinet, diplomatic corps, military and security systems and to raise their representation ratio in the Shoura Council.

In the same regard, Ali Shamkhani, the top military counselor of the Supreme Guide of the Iranian Revolution, stated that in case USA strikes Iran's nuclear institutions, Iran will not strike only US interests in the Gulf, but will also use ballistic missiles to hit strategic targets in the Gulf as well as oil pumps and energy stations in the Arabian Gulf.

This statement was published by the British Times on Sunday June 10, 2007.

Is this everything?

No, there are much more things of which we gave no mention.

In this article, we have so far discussed only five points highlighting the danger and importance of the issue of Shia. However, there remains other very important five points which I prefer not to discuss them here in brief so that I may give them their due detail. Therefore, I will put them off – if Allah wills – till the next article, after which I will speak about the ideal way to deal with such serious circumstances.

Undoubtedly, the issue of Shi`ah is not that marginal issue within the story of Islam that is to be neglected or postponed. Rather, it is one of the priorities of the Muslim Ummah. Everyone could perceive that Palestine's liberation by Salahud-Din followed only from saving Egypt from the `Abidy Shiite reign. At that time, Salahud-Din did not suppose that war against crusaders should be given priority over discussing the Shiite rule in Egypt. This is because Muslims gain victory only when they have a sound creed and sincere soldiers. Actually, Salahud-Din would never use the Egyptian people to fight with him such a fatal battle unless he relieved them of the `Abidy innovative rule. The same should apply to the Iraqi case now, as well as all countries threatened by Shiites. In fact, we have to take lessons from history.

We ask Allah to glorify Islam and Muslims.

Dr. Ragheb ElSergany

islamstory website



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And whoever seeks a religion other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers(3:85)


Posted By: UmmFatima
Date Posted: 17 June 2010 at 11:57pm
"hold fast to the rope of Allah and do not separate"

astaghfirullah these posts are only trying to deepen the sunni-shia divide. Can't we all just be Muslim together? These anti-Shia ideas are part of the problem!


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“Our Lord! Grant us comfort in our spouses and descendants, and make us leaders of the God-fearing.” -Al-Furqan 74


Posted By: myahya
Date Posted: 13 July 2010 at 10:47pm
Unfortunately the article is trying to misrepresent the origin of Shia. I discussed some issues in the following, and we can discuss further if needed.

The word “Sunni” itself comes from the term “Sunnah”, explained earlier to be the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, for they are strict in abiding by these teachings without any introductions, interpolations, or omissions. The word Shiite (Shi’a in Arabic) means a “party”, “sect”, “supporters” or a “group of like minded individuals”.

The word Shi’a means supporters and followers. This word is used by the prophet Mohammad (sawa) for “followers” of Ali (as) and so this is exactly of the prophet’s teachings. I do see the exact conformity between Sunnah of the prophet and being Shi’a of Ali, because being Shi’a of Ali is the teaching and emphasis of the prophet. If you review the history and references in Islam you will see this.

Although the specific groups called the Shiites is not what is directly intended in this verse, it is inclusive of them.

This is in fact exclusive of them in Quran (6:159).

When one studies a bit of history, they will see that the term Shiite was first used amongst the Muslims in regards to a political issue over which the Muslims varied, 37 years after the death of the Prophet.

If one studies history they will see that the term “Shi’a” of Ali is first used by the prophet himself.

In either case, it is clear that the term was unheard of during the time of the Prophet, and thus we can say that the Shiites were a group which appeared after the death of the Prophet.

What if I show you that the prophet has used this word about followers of Ali (as) and it is not appeared after his death?   

Not strange is it then that we see that one of the most important shrines in Shiism visited by many Shiites is that of Abu Lu’lu’ah.

This is also wrong information. For a true Shi’a, the most important shrines are the shrine of the prophet and 11 shrines of Imams starting from Ali (as) ending with Hasan Ibn Ali (as) the father of Mahdi (as). Mahdi (as) is the 12th Imam who is alive and does not have shrine. These are the most important.

Belief in God is an uncompromising belief in Islam, and is the basis from which one enters the fold of Islam. We find, however, that Shiites believe in the veneration of others besides God. Homage is to be paid to great saints and martyrs, such as Ali, Hussein, Fatimah, their Imams, and they are directly called out to in times of need.

First I should emphasize that Shia calls God directly and independently. However, Shia venerates (highly respects and loves) the prophet Mohammad (sawa), Ali (as), Fatima (sa) and the other 11 imams, but not worship them. Shia Worships only the one God. Shia also calls them directly but not independently and not exclusive of God. The prophet and Imams do not have any independent authority unless what God has given them. This is totally different from what the article is trying to show.

Another important tenet which Shiism clearly violates is the concept that God Alone administers the affairs of the universe, and it is He alone who knows the Unseen. Shiism attributes these powers to their leaders, called Imams, and place them in a position higher than the Prophets and angels.

Of course it is God alone who knows Unseen, originally and independently. Nevertheless, anyone whom is chosen by God could be taught by Him whatever from Unseen He wants. Remember from Quran, where God teaches Adam (as) what angels do not know, where the man (sent by Allah) taught Moses (as) what he did not know, and where He says in Quran that nobody would touch what He knows unless what He wants.

The Shiites give many of these attributes to their Imams. Some of them even attribute lightning to be caused by them

Again, all of God’s attributes belong unconditionally and independently to Him, and if Shia believes in any attribute for the prophet and Imams (like lightening), it is through Allah, from His side and under His selection and authority, not beside Him and independently.

Their shahaadah comprises of the statement: "none deserves worship but God, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, and Ali is His beloved and chosen one, and successor to the Prophet".

It is true that Ali (as) is His beloved and chosen one and successor of the prophet. However, Shahaadah is “none deserves worship but God, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger”, nothing more. If anyone says this Shahaadah in any language they will be Muslim. This is Shia belief.

Although Ali was known to be one of the most pious of the companions of the Prophet, in no narration can we find that Prophet Muhammad ever mentioned his succession in rule.

You can find it without a doubt. Look at a few of them:

You are in the same position with relation to me as Aaron was with Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me.[ Sahih al-Bukhari; Sahih Muslim; al-Tirmidhi; Ibn Majah; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal]

He who wishes to live as I have lived and to die as I will die, and enter the Garden of Eternal Bliss which Allah has promised me—let him take Ali as his leader (wali), because Ali will never lead you away from the Path of Truth, nor will he take you into error.[ al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, ; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal]

Ali is the authority (wali) over every believer (mu΄min) after me.[Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal; Sahih Tirmidhi]

Ali is the doorway to my knowledge, and after me he will explain to my followers what has been sent to me. Love for Ali is faith, and spite towards him is hypocrisy.[ Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi]

I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is its gate. He who wishes to reach this city should enter through its gate.[ al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak; Ibn Jarir, Kanz al-Ummal; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi; Tarikh ibn Kathir]

Ali is from me, and I am from Ali, and none delivers except me and Ali.[Sunan ibn Majah; Sahih Tirmidhi]

He who obeys me will have obeyed Allah, and he who disobeys me will have disobeyed Allah. And he who obeys Ali will have obeyed me, and he who disobeys Ali will have disobeyed me.[al-Hakim, al-Dhahabi]

And the speech of the prophet in his last Haj pilgrimage, introducing Ali as his successor (Vasi) in a place named as Ghadir-Khum. It is mentioned in many books and narrated by many companions. This is quite documented in history. Note that I brought these narrations not from Shia sources.

It was the Prophets who received revelation, and due to the fact that Muhammad, may God praise him, was the last prophet, there will be no other Scriptures revealed after the revelation of the Quran. The Shiites however, believe that there was a scripture revealed after the Quran before the death of the Prophet, which they call the ‘Tablet of Fatimah’.

We believe that this book exists. But who has claimed that this is new revelation/new religion after Quran?!! In Shia belief, the prophet Mohammad (sawa) is the last prophet and Quran is the last revelation and the scripture of the last religion.

They did not cease at this, but also went on to directly challenge the authenticity of the Quran by stating that its has not been preserved[7>, and that the Quran today is incomplete

Again this is wrong information. Even the 12 Imams say that the present Quran is complete.

The Shiites assert that the existing Quran must have been altered, since there is no reference to any of their strayed beliefs in it. One of the first to explicitly state this view was Mirza Hussein Muhammad Taqiy al-Noori al-Tabrasi (d. 1320 AH) in his book The Final Verdict on the Distortion of the Book of the Lord of Lords[9>.

The Shiites became so extreme in their beliefs, that they even attempted to insert chapters about Ali, may God be pleased with him, in the Quran, since they could not find any clear texts. One of them is what they called “The Chapter of Succession”.


I do not call these Shia at all. If you really like to know Shia belief based on 12 Imams let me tell you: there is nothing missing in this present Quran and it is not altered.

The Shiites, however believe that their Imams are better than the prophets [10>, and that some prophets were highly praised only due to their love of the Imams [11>.

We do not say so. For instance, the prophet Mohammad (sawa) is both prophet and Imam. The 12 Imams in Shia are not prophets and they are all Muslims who are chosen by God to guide people towards the exact Suunah of the last prophet and the last religion. Therefore, they are not better than the last prophet.

It is a conglomeration of foreign beliefs evolved over a period of time, all of which revolve around extremist views concerning the leadership of certain favored candidates, known as their Imams.

This is not of extremist views but the truth confirmed by the teachings of the prophet, also supported by rational arguments and intelligence. In addition, if you think that belief in “leadership of certain favored candidates” is an extremist view, then you must also claim that belief in prophets is of same issue.



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