Uthman ibn `Affan
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Printed Date: 01 September 2014 at 7:46am
Topic: Uthman ibn `Affan
Posted By: rami
Subject: Uthman ibn `Affan
Date Posted: 02 July 2005 at 4:54am
Bi ismilahir rahmanir raheem
`Uthman ibn `Affan ibn Abi al-`As ibn
Umayya ibn `Abd Shams, Abu `Amr, Abu `Abd Allah, Abu Layla al-Qurashi al-Umawi (d. 35),
the Prophet’s Friend, Amîr al-Mu’minîn, the third of the four
Rightly-Guided Successors of the Prophet and third of the Ten promised Paradise. He is
named Dhu al-Nûrayn or "Possessing Two Lights," a reference to his
marriage with two daughters of the Prophet, Ruqayya then Umm Kulthum. He is among those
who emigrated twice: once to Abyssinia, and again to Madina. He gathered together the
Qur’an which he had read in its entirety before the Prophet. During his tenure as
Caliph, Armenia, Caucasia, Khurasan, Kirman, Sijistan, Cyprus, and much of North Africa
were added to the dominions of Islam. He related 146 hadiths from the Prophet. Among the
Companions who narrated from him in the Nine Books are Anas, Abu Hurayra, Jundub, `Abd
Allah ibn al-Zubayr, `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas, `Abd Allah ibn `Umar. A host of prominent
Followers narrated from him, among them al-Zuhri, Ibn al-Musayyib, al-Dahhak, and `Alqama.
`Uthman was extremely wealthy and generous. When he heard the Prophet
say: "Whoever equips the army of al-`Usra, Paradise is for him," he brought the
Prophet a thousand gold dinars which he poured into his lap. The Prophet picked them up
with his hand and said repeatedly: "Nothing shall harm `Uthman after what he did
today." It is also narrated that equipped the army of al-`Usra with seven hundred
ounces of gold, or seven hundred and fifty camels and fifty horses.
The Prophet said: "The most compassionate of my Community towards
my Community is Abu Bakr; the staunchest in Allah’s Religion is `Umar; and the most
truthful in his modesty is `Uthman." The pebbles were heard by Abu Dharr glorifying
Allah in the hands of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman. The Prophet particularly
praised `Uthman for his modesty and said: "Shall I not feel bashful before a man when
even the angels feel bashful before him?"
He was humble and was seen at the time of his caliphate sleeping alone
in the mosque, wrapped in a blanket with no one around him, and riding on a mule with his
son Na’il behind him.
It is related through several sound chains that `Uthman recited the
Qur’an in a single rak`a. Ibrahim ibn Rustum al-Marwazi said: "Four are
the Imams that recited the entire Qur’an in a single rak`a: `Uthman ibn
`Affan, Tamim al-Dari, Sa`id ibn Jubayr, and Abu Hanifa." Ibn al-Mubarak also
narrated that `Uthman used to fast all year round. `Ali ibn Abi Talib said: "`Uthman
was one of those who were ‘mindful of their duty and [did] good works, and again
[were] mindful of [their] duty, and [believed], and once again [were] mindful of their
duty, and did right. Allah loves those who do good.’ (5:93)" Ibn `Umar said
that `Uthman was meant by the verse "Is he who pays adoration in the watches of
the night, prostrate and standing, bewaring of the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of
his Lord. . ." (39:9).
Anas narrated: When Hudhayfa campaigned with the people of Iraq and
al-Sham in Armenia, the Muslims contended with regard to the Qur’an in a
reprehensible manner. Hudhayfa came to `Uthman and told him: "O Commander of the
Believers, rescue this Community before they differ in the Qur’an the way Christians
and Jews differed in the Books." `Uthman was alarmed at this and sent word to Hafsa
the Mother of the Believers: "Send me all the volumes in which the Qur’an has
been written down." When she did, `Uthman ordered Zayd ibn Thabit, Sa`id ibn al-`As,
`Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, and `Abd Al-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham to copy them into
volumes. He said: "If you all differ with Zayd concerning the Arabic, then write it
in the dialect of Quraysh, for truly the Qur’an was only revealed in their
dialect." There is Consensus around the integral contents of `Uthman’s volume. This means that one who denies or questions it in whole or in part has
`Uthman was neither tall nor short, extremely handsome, brunet, large-jointed, wide-shouldered, with a large beard which he dyed yellow
and long hair which reached to his shoulders, and gold-braced teeth. `Abd Allah ibn Hazm
said: "I saw `Uthman, and I never saw man nor woman handsomer of face than him."
The plot to kill `Uthman marked the onset of Dissension (fitna)
in the Community. Together with deadly division, the great sign of this Dissension was the
beginning of falsehood. The timing of the spread of falsehood was foretold by the Prophet
in the hadith: "I entrust to you the well-being of my Companions, and that of those
that come after them. Then falsehood will spread." To counter this, the sciences of
hadith and hadith criticism were innovated within the half-century which followed
`Uthman’s death in order to sift true Prophetic and Companion-reports from false
ones. This was done by verifying the authenticity of transmission chains (isnâds)
embodied in the honesty and competence of transmitters, and by examining the conditions
and contents of transmission in their minutest historical, linguistic, and doctrinal
details. Ibn Sirin (d. 110) said: "We used to accept as true what we heard, then lies
spread and we began to say: Name your transmitters." Confirming this is al-Hasan
al-Basri’s (d. 110) reaction to someone who requested his isnâd: "O man!
I neither lie nor was ever called a liar!" Later scholars such as Ibn al-Mubarak (d.
181) declared: "Isnâd is an integral part of the Religion, otherwise anyone
can say anything."
The principle of authentication was founded by the Prophet himself and
used by the Companions. This is proved by the Prophet’s questioning of the man who
said he had seen the new moon of Ramadan: "Do you bear witness that there is no God
except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?" When he replied in the
affirmative, the Prophet accepted his news. Similarly, Ibn `Abbas said: "If a
trustworthy source tells us of a fatwa by `Ali, we do not seek any further
concerning it." This shows that they already distinguished between true and dubious
sources. Furthermore, all the Companions are considered trustworthy sources according to
Allah’s saying: "You are the best community that has been raised up for
mankind" (3:110) and several other verses and hadiths to that effect. This
evidence was listed by al-Khatib in al-Kifaya and Ibn Hajar in al-Isaba.
The Prophet spoke of `Uthman’s forthcoming martyrdom on numerous
"Give him [`Uthman] the tidings of Paradise after a trial that
shall befall him."
"A dissension shall surge like so many bull’s horns. At that
time, he [indicating a man wearing a veil] and whoever is with him are on the side of
right." Ka`b ibn Murra al-Bahzi then ran to the man, lifted his veil, and turned him
towards the Prophet saying: "Him, O Messenger of Allah?" The Prophet said yes.
It was `Uthman ibn `Affan.
`Uthman said: "The Prophet took a covenant from me [not to fight
at the time of my martyrdom] and I shall fulfill it."
"O `Uthman! It may be that Allah shall vest you with a shirt. If
they demand that you remove it, do not remove it."
Ibn `Umar said: "As `Uthman was delivering a sermon, Jahjah
al-Ghafari walked up to him, snatched his stick, and broke it on his knee. A shard of wood
entered his thigh and it got gangrened and was amputated. Then he died within the year.
Al-Qadi `Iyad relates in his book al-Shifa’, chapter entitled "Esteem for
the things and places connected with the Prophet," that this staff had belonged to
`Abd Allah ibn Salam said to the Egyptians at the time they were
besieging the Commander of the Believers `Uthman ibn `Affan: "Never did Allah’s
sword not remain sheathed from harming you since the Prophet came to it until this very
day." Yazid ibn Abi Habib said: "I have heard that most of those that rode to
kill `Uthman were later seized by demonic possession." Al-Dhahabi mentioned that `Ali
had pronounced a curse on `Uthman’s killers. One of the reasons for the climate of
hatred stirred up against the Caliph was the grievance of some parties from Egypt and Iraq
that `Uthman was favoring his relatives among the Banu Umayya with public offices and
demanded that he remove them.
Ibn al-Musayyib related that a group of seven hundred Egyptians came to
complain to `Uthman about their governor Ibn Abi Sarh’s tyranny, so `Uthman said:
"Chose someone to govern you." They chose Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, so `Uthman
wrote credentials for him and they returned. On their way back, at three days’
distace from Madina, a black slave caught up with them with the news that he carried
orders from `Uthman to the governor of Egypt. They searched him and found a message from
`Uthman to Ibn Abi Sarh ordering the death of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and some of his
friends. They returned to Madina and besieged `Uthman. The latter acknowledged that the
camel, the slave, and the seal on the letter belonged to him, but he swore that he had
never written nor ordered the letter to be written. It was discovered that the letter had
been hand-written by Marwan ibn al-Hakam. `Uthman was besieged for twenty-two days during
which he refused both to give up Marwan and to resign. He was killed on the last day of
Dhu al-Hijja, on the day of Jum`a, by several men who had crept into his house.
Ibn `Umar related from `Uthman that the previous night the latter had
seen the Prophet in his dream telling him: "Be strong! Verily you shall break your
fast with us tomorrow night." When his assailants came in they found him reading the
Qur’an. `Uthman was first stabbed in the head with an arrow-head, then a man placed
the point of his sword against his belly, whereupon his wife Na’ila tried to prevent
him with her hand, losing several fingers. Then `Uthman and Na’ila’s servant
were killed as the latter fought back. She ran out of the house screaming for help and the
killers dispersed. It is narrated that `Uthman was killed as he was reading the verse "And
Allah will suffice you for defense against them. He is the Hearer, the Knower."
(2:137) Several reports state that at the time of `Uthman’s siege and death Zayd ibn
Thabit had marshalled three hundred Ansâr in his defense together with Abu
Hurayra, Ibn `Umar, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, `Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, but `Uthman forbade all
of them to fight.
Among `Uthman’s sayings:
"If I were between Paradise and the Fire, unsure where I will be
sent, I would choose to be turned into ash before finding out where I was bound."
"I swear by Allah that I never committed fornication in the Time
of Ignorance nor in Islam. Islam only increased me in modesty."
His servant Hani’ narrated: "Whenever `Uthman stood before a
grave he wept until his beard was wet. He was asked: ‘You have seen battle and death
without a tear, and you cry for this?’ He said: ‘The grave is the first abode of
the hereafter. Whoever is saved from it, what follows is easier; whoever is not saved from
it, what follows is harder. The Prophet said: "I have not seen anything more
frightful than the punishment in the grave."’" `Uthman also related from
the Prophet that whenever the latter finished burying someone, he would stand by the grave
and say: "All of you, ask Allah to forgive your brother and make him steadfast, for
he is now being questioned."
The Prophet said: "More men will enter Paradise through the
intercession of a certain man than there are people in the tribes of Rabi`a and
Mudar." The elders considered that this was `Uthman ibn `Affan.
Main sources: Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’
1:92-100 #3; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 1/2:
Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.
Posted By: rami
Date Posted: 07 September 2005 at 12:44am
Bi ismillahir rahmanr raheem
From The Beauty of the Righteous & Ranks of the Elite,
Imam Abu Na'im al-Asfahani, trans. Shaykh Muhammad Al-Akili. Pearl
Publishing House, Philadelphia: 1996. this is a collection of ahadith
on the companions of the prophet (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) the
original arabic work is some 30 volumes if i remember correctly.
‘Abdullah, the son of ‘Amer bin Rabi’a, said: “When the insurgence
against the caliph ‘Uthman, God be pleased with him, took place, my
father woke up in the middle of the night, and he prayed, ‘My Lord, I
beseech Thee to deliver me from these trials and to protect me as Thou
protected Thy most favored servants.’”
3- 'UTHMAN IBN 'AFFAN
The next sire of the people, is the humble before his Lord, the chaste
and truly devoted to his Lord, the bearer of the two lights, the most
revering of his Lord, who prayed toward the two Qibla, the Sacred House
in Mecca and the Furthest Mosque in Jerusalem, and who enjoyed the
privilege and blessings of migration twice, that is 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan,
God be forever pleased with him, the blessed caliph of God's messenger,
upon whom be peace.
'Uthman, may Allah shower him with His
utmost blessings, prayed and invoked the divine favors between the two
pinnacles of the night. He rose regularly at night to offer extended
superogatory prayers and to prostrate himself before his Creator,
Cherisher, and Lord. He prayed for God's mercy to embrace him in this
life and in the next, and he feared His displeasure and castigation.
'Uthman was generous and most shy, and he was vigilant, reverent, and
fearful of his Lord. His fortune during the day consisted of goodness
of character, fasting and prayers, and during the night, his fortune
was made of superogatory devotion, reading the Qur'anic revelation,
contemplation, and prayers.
109- 'Uthman was a
hard-working and a persevering devoted worshipper. On this subject, and
after the passing of 'Uthman, God be pleased with him, al-Hassan bin
'Ali, God be pleased with him and with his father, was once sitting in
a group of believers, and they were reminiscing the virtues of 'Uthman,
God be pleased with him. Al-Hassan, referring to his father, and in
anticipation that he will further illumine this subject, said, 'The
Prince of the Believers will soon arrive.' When 'Ali, God bless his
countenance, arrived, he reanimated the subject of 'Uthman, commenting:
"Indeed, 'Uthman was among those about whom God Almighty said: 'Those
who believe in Allah and do righteous deeds, who guard themselves
against evil, and who have faith, thence, and as long as they are
God-fearing and do good deeds, surely Allah loves the charitable ones'
110- Abu Bakr bin Musa narrated that
'Abdullah bin Omar, God be pleased with him, once explained that the
Qur'anic verse: 'He who worships devoutly during the hours of the
night, prostrating himself or standing up (in devotion), who heeds the
call of the hereafter, and hopes to win the mercy of his Lord,' (Qur'an
39:9) refers to 'Uthman, God be forever pleased with him.
111- Sulaiman bin Ahmad narrated that Ibn Omar narrated that God's
messenger said: "The most humble and unassuming person among my
followers is 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan."
112- On this
subject, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal reported that al-Hassan spoke of 'Uthman's
regard to modesty, saying: "Even when he was in the privacy of his
house, and his doors were locked, 'Uthman would not take off his robe
when he poured water to wash himself, he would sit down while taking a
bath, and his modesty prevented him from standing up naked before the
all-Seeing Omnipresent Lord."
113- 'Abdullah bin Omar
once said: "Three men from the tribe Quraish are the most cheerful, the
most modest, and they have the best of character. They are truthful
when they speak, and they are not suspicious of others' truthfulness.
They are Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan, and 'Ubaida al-Jarrah."
114- Imam Muhammad Ibn Seerin narrated that when the assailants
besieged 'Uthman's house, and in a moment of distress, his beleaguered
wife burst out in tears as she cried out: "Whether you kill him or not,
he used to recite the entire Qur'an throughout the night during a
single rak'a of his prayers."
115- Abi Ja'far narrated
that Masrouq saw al-Ashtar, a member of the mob that murdered 'Uthman,
God be pleased with him. Masrouq inquired: "Did you kill 'Uthman?"
Al-Ashtar boastfully and conceitedly replied: "Yes we did." Masrouq
pondered in dismay for a moment and then said: "By God, you have
murdered a man who has fasted all his life and prayed all his nights."
'Uthman, God be forever pleased with him, was given the glad tidings of
the adversities he had to meet, and his heart was guarded against
anxiety or complaints in that regard. 'Uthman met anxiety with
patience, and he traveled through afflictions with thankfulness to his
Lord. He sipped the bitter taste of his trials and tribulations in this
world to savor the everlasting sweetness and solace of salvation in the
116- On this subject, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari
narrated that he was once together with God's messenger inside a garden
when someone came to the gate and sought permission to enter. God's
messenger said: "Open the gate and give him the glad tidings of
paradise and of an atrocious last trial in this world." When Abu Musa
opened the gate, he found 'Uthman, God be pleased with him, standing at
the door, and when I told him the news, he came in thanking Allah for
His favors, and he sat down quietly next to God's messenger.
117- Abi Hazim narrated that when 'Uthman was besieged inside his
house, he said: "I have made a solemn promise to God's messenger, and I
must endure its consequences with patience."
Ahmad bin Sanan narrated that 'Uthman earned two distinct badges of
honor that added to his prominence, and neither Abu Bakr nor Omar had
them: (1) 'Uthman was unjustly murdered, and (2) he compiled the Qur'an.
Among his other traits, 'Uthman spent freely his entire wealth on God's
path, he sought the pleasure of his Lord, and he provided comfort to
His servants. 'Uthman took little for himself, he wore ordinary cloaks,
ate plain food, and sought the highest of achievements, and finally, by
the mercy of his Lord, he was crowned with the highest of honors.
119- Abu Huraira, God be pleased with him, narrated: "'Uthman bought
paradise from God's messenger, upon whom be peace, twice: 1) Once in a
business transaction when he bought the well of rumah (from the
disbelievers), and which he made a public property for all Muslims, and
2) he bought it a second time when he fully financed and equipped the
Army of Hardship (Jaish al-'Usra)."
120- Also on this
subject, 'Abdu-Rahman Ibn Abi Habab al-Salmi narrated that prior to the
Battle of Badr, God's messenger delivered a sermon concerning the Army
of Hardship, and he admonished the people to support it. Initially,
'Uthman pledged to equip one hundred men. When God's messenger further
invited the people to share in this responsibility, 'Uthman made an
additional pledge to equip another hundred. God's messenger spoke again
on their behalf, and 'Uthman again added a pledge to equip another
hundred. God's messenger then said: "'Uthman does no longer need a deed
of righteousness (i.e., to please Allah) after this."
121- 'Abdullah bin Omar narrated that when God's messenger saw 'Uthman
going back and forth to equip the Army of Hardship (Arb. jaish
al-'usra) before the Battle of Badr took place, God's messenger prayed:
"O Allah, forgive 'Uthman for every step he takes back and forth, for
every deed he hides and every deed he displays, and forgive him for
whatever thoughts he conceals and whatever words he utters."
122- Al-Hassan, son of 'Ali, once said: "I saw 'Uthman resting inside
the mosque covered with an ordinary blanket, and he had no personal
guards when he was the Muslim State's Calif and commander of the
believers. When he woke up in the morning, the marks of stones showed
on his side, and the people would point out, saying: "This is Amir
ul-Mu'mineen."' (The commander of the believers).
Ja'far bin Muhammad bin al-Fadhl narrated that 'Uthman used to feed the
people the best of food, and later on, he would enter his house to
partake a modest meal of some bread which he dipped in a little oil and
124- Sulaiman bin Musa narrated that during
his caliphate, 'Uthman was called upon once to reprove a group of
people who engaged in an iniquitous act. When he came out of his house,
the people had dispersed, 'Uthman praised God Almighty for sparing him
from such encounter, and on that day, he bought the freedom of a slave
as an expression of his deep gratitude to his Lord."
125- Maimoun bin Mihran narrated that al-Hamadani told him: "I once saw
'Uthman, during the appogé of his caliphate, riding on a mule and his
servant Na'il riding behind him."
126- 'Abdullah bin
al-Rumi narrated that 'Uthman once said: "If I was given a choice
between going to heaven or hell, and not knowing to which of the two I
will ultimately be taken, I would rather be turned into ashes before I
know my final destination."
127- 'Abdullah bin 'Amir
bin Rabi'a was once visiting with 'Uthman and he heard him say: "Let
Allah be my witness, that I have never committed adultery in my life,
whether during the period of jahiliyya (Arab paganism), or later on in
Islam, and I became more reserved since the religion Islam was
128- 'Abdullah al-Madini narrated that
'Uthman's servant Hani said: "Whenever 'Uthman visited a grave, he
sobbed until his beard was soaking in tears."
Masja's narrated: "We once went along with 'Uthman to visit a dying
person, and 'Uthman instructed him to utter the testimony, 'La ilaha il
Allah' (Surely there is no god except Allah). When the person did what
he was told, 'Uthman immediately commented, 'I swear by Him in Whose
presence my soul stands, with this testimony which he has just cast
upon his sins, he has wiped them out altogether.' The people inquired
with a degree of wonder, 'Is this something that you are personally
testifying to, or did you hear this statement from God's messenger?'
'Uthman replied, 'Indeed, I have heard it from God's messenger.'
Someone then asked, 'If uttering this testament proves thus for a dying
person, then what effects would it have on a healthy person when he
testifies to it?' 'Uthman replied, 'Much much stronger.'"
Rasul Allah (sallah llahu alaihi wa sallam) said: "Whoever knows himself, knows his Lord" and whoever knows his Lord has been given His gnosis and nearness.