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Quote Andalus Replybullet Topic: neosalafism/wahabism 2
    Posted: 11 June 2007 at 5:43pm

Wahhabis attribute a place and direction to Allah

 

While accusing the masses of Muslims of being polytheists, Wahhabis themselves have differentiated themselves from other Muslims in their understanding of creed. Due to the Wahhabis’ adherence to an unorthodox, grossly flawed literal understanding of God’s Attributes, they comfortably believe that Allah has created or human attributes, and then attempt to hide their anthropomorphism by saying that they don’t know ‘how’ Allah has such attributes. For example, Bilal Philips, a Wahhabi author says:

 

He has neither corporeal body nor is He a formless spirit.  He has a form befitting His majesty [italics mine], the like of which no man has ever seen or conceived, and which will only be seen (to the degree of man’s finite limitations) by the people of paradise.

 

Discussing each part of his statement will shed light into his anthropomorphic mind.  Bilal Philips says that “Allah has a form befitting His majesty…  What he confirms in his mind is that Allah definitely has a form. He even specifies the kind of form by saying: “He [Allah] has neither corporeal body…” meaning that Allah has a form that is not like the forms of creation, and then says, “nor is He a formless spirit.  Then he says, “He has a form befitting His majesty…  The problem with such statements to a Muslim is that they express blatant anthropomorphism. What Bilal Philips is doing here is foolishly attributing a “form” to God that, in his mind, nobody has ever seen.  Therefore, Bilal Philips believes that God has some type of form, or non-corporeal body. No orthodox Sunni Muslim scholar has ever said such a perfidious thing.

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, one of the greatest mujtahid Sunni imams ever to have lived, refuted such anthropomorphic statements over a thousand years before Bilal Philips was born.  The great Sunni Ash`ari scholar, Imam al-Bayhaqi, in his Manaqib Ahmad relates with an authentic chain that Imam Ahmed said:

 

A person commits an act of disbelief (kufr) if he says Allah is a body, even if he says:  Allah is a body but not like other bodies.

 

Imam Ahmad continues:

 

The expressions are taken from language and from Islam, and linguists applied ‘body’ to a thing that has length, width, thickness, form, structure, and components.  The expression has not been handed down in Shari’ah.  Therefore, it is invalid and cannot be used.

 

Imam Ahmed is a pious adherer of the time period of the Salaf that was praised by Prophet Muhammad (s).  How can Bilal Philips claim to represent the pious forefathers of the Salaf?  He not only contradicts them but is vehemently refuted by them. The great pious predecessors had refuted ignoramuses like Bilal Philips in their times long ago. 

 Blatant anthropomorphism is also illustrated by the Wahhabi Ibn Baz’s commentary on the great work of Imam Abu Ja’afar at-Tahawi called “Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah” (The Creed of Tahawi), a work that has been praised by the orthodox Sunni community as being representative of Sunni orthodoxy. The now deceased Ibn Baz was Saudi Arabia’s grand Mufti.

Article #38 of Imam Tahawi’s work states:

 

He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created entities are. 

 

Ibn Baz, in a footnote, comments:

 

Allah is beyond limits that we know but has limits He knows.

 

In another footnote, he says: 

By hudood (limits) the author [referring to Imam Tahawi] means [limits] such as known by humans since no one except Allah Almighty knows His limits.

Ibn Baz deceptively attempts to represent the noble Sunni Imam al-Tahawi as an anthropomorphist by putting his own anthropomorphic interpretation of Imam Tahawi’s words in his mouth.  It must be emphasized that not a single orthodox Sunni scholar understood Imam Tahawi’s statement as Ibn Baz did.

 

Ibn Baz’s also shows anthropomorphism in a commentary by the great Sunni scholar Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani.  Ibn Baz says:

 

As for Ahl ul-Sunna – and these are the Companions and those who followed them in excellence – they assert a direction for Allah, and that is the direction of elevation, believing that the Exalted is above the Throne without giving an example and without entering into modality.

 

Another now deceased Wahhabi scholar, Muhammad Saleh al-Uthaymeen, blatantly expresses his anthropomorphism.  He says:

 

Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne.

 

The great Sunni Hanbali scholar, Ibn al-Jawzi, had refuted anthropomorphists who were saying that Allah’s establishment is ‘in person’ hundreds of years ago:

 

Whoever says:  He is established on the Throne ‘in person’ (bi dhatihi), has diverted the sense of the verse to that of sensory perception.  Such a person must not neglect that the principle is established by the mind, by which we have come to know Allah, and have attributed pre-eternity to Him decisively.  If you said:  We read the hadiths and keep quiet, no one would criticize you; it is only your taking them in the external sense which is hideous.  Therefore do not bring into the school of this pious man of the Salaf – Imam Ahmad [Ibn Hanbal] – what does not belong in it.  You have clothed this madhab [or school of jurisprudence]  with an ugly deed, so that it is no longer said ‘Hanbali’ except in the sense of ‘anthropomorphist’

 

Sulayman ibn `Abdul Allah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab, the grandson of the Wahhabi movement’s founder, says:

 

Whoever believes or says:  Allah is in person (bi dhatihi) in every place, or in one place: he is a disbeliever (kafir).  It is obligatory to declare that Allah is distinct from His creation, established over His Throne without modality or likeness or exemplarity.  Allah was and there was no place, then He created place and He is exalted as He was before He created place

 

Just as Bilal Philips affirms a form to Allah in his mind, and Ibn Baz confirms limits to Allah in his mind, al-Uthaymeen confirms that Allah is literally sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne in his mind.  All of them have loyally followed the footsteps of Ibn Taymiyyah and Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab – the two arch-heretics who were instrumental in causing tribulation (fitna) and division among the Muslim masses because of their reprehensible, unorthodox interpretations of the Islamic sources.

Wahhabi anthropomorphists say: Allah is in a direction, Allah has limits, Allah is literally above the Throne, and that Allah is sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne.  To a Muslim, the fact is that the Throne is located in a particular direction and a certain place.  By understanding Allah to be above the Throne literally as the Wahhabis do, they are attributing Allah with created attributes and, as a result, are implying that a part of the creation was eternal with Allah.  This opposes what the the Qur’an and the following hadith authentically related by al-Bukhari says:

 

Allah existed eternally and there was nothing else [italics mine].

 

Sunni orthodoxy clears Allah of all directions and places.  To a Sunni, Allah has always existed without the need of a place, and He did not take a place for Himself after creating it.  Orthodox Sunni scholars have said exactly what was understood by Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Companions (ra).  Imam Abu Hanifah, the great mujtahid Imam who lived in the time period of the Salaf said:  “Allah has no limits…”, period.  And this is what Sunni orthodoxy represents.

 

Orthodox Sunni scholars oppose Wahhabism

 

I end this article with a selected list of orthodox Sunni scholars who have refuted Wahhabism and warned Muslims from its poison. The list of scholars, along with names of their books and related information, is quoted from the orthodox Sunni scholar Muhammad Hisham Kabbani[12]:

 

Al-Ahsa'i Al-Misri, Ahmad (1753-1826): Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect. His son Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abd al-Latif al-Ahsa'i also wrote a book refuting them.

 

Al-Ahsa'i, Al-Sayyid `Abd al-Rahman: wrote a sixty-seven verse poem which begins with the verse:

 

Badat fitnatun kal layli qad ghattatil aafaaqa

wa sha``at fa kadat tublighul gharba wash sharaqa

 

[A confusion came about like nightfall covering the skies

and became widespread almost reaching the whole world]

 

Al-`Amrawi, `Abd al-Hayy, and `Abd al-Hakim Murad (Qarawiyyin University, Morocco): Al-tahdhir min al-ightirar bi ma ja'a fi kitab al-hiwar ["Warning Against Being Fooled By the Contents of the Book (by Ibn Mani`) A Debate With al-Maliki (an attack on Ibn `Alawi al-Maliki by a Wahhabi writer)"] (Fes: Qarawiyyin, 1984).

 

`Ata' Allah al-Makki: al-sarim al-hindi fil `unuq al-najdi ["The Indian Scimitar on the Najdi's Neck"].

 

Al-Azhari, `Abd Rabbih ibn Sulayman al-Shafi`i (The author of Sharh Jami' al-Usul li ahadith al-Rasul, a basic book of Usul al-Fiqh: Fayd al-Wahhab fi Bayan Ahl al-Haqq wa man dalla `an al-sawab, 4 vols. ["Allah's Outpouring in Differentiating the True Muslims From Those Who Deviated From the Truth"].

 

Al-`Azzami, `Allama al-shaykh Salama (d. 1379H): Al-Barahin al-sati`at ["The Radiant Proofs..."].

 

Al-Barakat al-Shafi`i al-Ahmadi al-Makki, `Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad: unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.

 

al-Bulaqi, Mustafa al-Masri wrote a refutation to San`a'i's poem in which the latter had praised Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab. It is in Samnudi's "Sa`adat al-Darayn" and consists in 126 verses beginning thus:

 

Bi hamdi wali al-hamdi la al-dhammi astabdi

Wa bil haqqi la bil khalqi lil haqqi astahdi

 

[By the glory of the Owner of glory, not baseness, do I overcome;

And by Allah, not by creatures, do I seek guidance to Allah]

 

Al-Buti, Dr. Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan (University of Damascus): Al-Salafiyyatu marhalatun zamaniyyatun mubarakatun la madhhabun islami ["The Salafiyya is a blessed historical period not an Islamic school of law"] (Damascus: Dar al-fikr, 1988); Al-lamadhhabiyya akhtaru bid`atin tuhaddidu al-shari`a al-islamiyya ["Non-madhhabism is the most dangerous innovation presently menacing Islamic law"] (Damascus: Maktabat al-Farabi, n.d.).

 

Al-Dahesh ibn `Abd Allah, Dr. (Arab University of Morocco), ed. Munazara `ilmiyya bayna `Ali ibn Muhammad al-Sharif wa al-Imam Ahmad ibn Idris fi al-radd `ala Wahhabiyyat Najd, Tihama, wa `Asir ["Scholarly Debate Between the Sharif and Ahmad ibn Idris Against the Wahhabis of Najd, Tihama, and `Asir"].

 

Dahlan, al-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zayni (d. 1304/1886). Mufti of Mecca and Shaykh al-Islam (highest religious authority in the Ottoman jurisdiction) for the Hijaz region: al-Durar al-saniyyah fi al-radd ala al-Wahhabiyyah ["The Pure Pearls in Answering the Wahhabis"] pub. Egypt 1319 & 1347 H; Fitnat al-Wahhabiyyah ["The Wahhabi Fitna"]; Khulasat al-Kalam fi bayan Umara' al-Balad al-Haram ["The Summation Concerning the Leaders of the Sacrosanct Country"], a history of the Wahhabi fitna in Najd and the Hijaz.

 

al-Dajwi, Hamd Allah: al-Basa'ir li Munkiri al-tawassul ka amthal Muhd. Ibn `Abdul Wahhab ["The Evident Proofs Against Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession Like Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Wahhab"].

 

Shaykh al-Islam Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Baghdadi al-Hanafi (1815-1881 CE): al-Minha al-Wahbiyya fi radd al-Wahhabiyya ["The Divine Dispensation Concerning the Wahhabi Deviation"]; Ashadd al-Jihad fi Ibtal Da`wa al-Ijtihad ["The Most Violent Jihad in Proving False Those Who Falsely Claim Ijtihad"].

 

Al-Falani al-Maghribi, al-Muhaddith Salih: authored a large volume collating the answers of scholars of the Four Schools to Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.

 

al-Habibi, Muhammad `Ashiq al-Rahman: `Adhab Allah al-Mujdi li Junun al-Munkir al-Najdi ["Allah's Terrible Punishment for the Mad Rejector From Najd"].

 

Al-Haddad, al-Sayyid al-`Alawi ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn al-Qutb

Sayyidi `Abd Allah ibn `Alawi al-Haddad al-Shafi`i: al-Sayf al-batir li `unq al-munkir `ala al-akabir ["The Sharp Sword for the Neck of the Assailant of Great Scholars"]. Unpublished manuscript of about 100 folios; Misbah al-anam wa jala' al-zalam fi radd shubah al-bid`i al-najdi al-lati adalla biha al-`awamm ["The Lamp of Mankind and the Illumination of Darkness Concerning the Refutation of the Errors of the Innovator From Najd by Which He Had Misled the Common People"]. Published 1325H.

 

Al-Hamami al-Misri, Shaykh Mustafa: Ghawth al-`ibad bi bayan al-rashad ["The Helper of Allah's Servants According to the Affirmation of Guidance"].

 

Al-Hilmi al-Qadiri al-Iskandari, Shaykh Ibrahim: Jalal al-haqq fi kashf ahwal ashrar al-khalq ["The Splendor of Truth in Exposing the Worst of People] (pub. 1355H).

 

Al-Husayni, `Amili, Muhsin (1865-1952). Kashf al-irtiyab fi atba` Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab ["The Dispelling of Doubt Concerning the Followers of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab"]. [Yemen?]: Maktabat al-Yaman al-Kubra, 198?.

 

Al-Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham, Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine, vol. 1-7, As-Sunnah Foundation of America, 1998.

_____, Islamic Beliefs and Doctrine According to Ahl as-Sunna - A Repudiation of "Salafi" Innovations,  ASFA, 1996.

_____, Innovation and True Belief: the Celebration of Mawlid According to the Qur'an and Sunna and the Scholars of Islam, ASFA, 1995.

_____, Salafi Movement Unveiled, ASFA, 1997.
 

Ibn `Abd al-Latif al-Shafi`i, `Abd Allah: Tajrid sayf al-jihad `ala mudda`i al-ijtihad ["The drawing of the sword of jihad against the false claimants to ijtihad"].

 

The family of Ibn `Abd al-Razzaq al-Hanbali in Zubara and Bahrayn possess both manuscript and printed refutations by scholars of the Four Schools from Mecca, Madina, al-Ahsa', al-Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, Yemen and other Islamic regions.

 

Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi, `Allama al-Shaykh Sulayman, elder brother of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab: al-Sawa'iq al-Ilahiyya fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["Divine Lightnings in Answering the Wahhabis"]. Ed. Ibrahim Muhammad al-Batawi. Cairo: Dar al-insan, 1987. Offset reprint by Waqf Ikhlas, Istanbul: Hakikat Kitabevi, 1994. Prefaces by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi al-Shafi`i and Shaykh Muhammad Hayyan al-Sindi (Muhammad Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab's shaykh) to the effect that Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab is "dall mudill" ("misguided and misguiding").

 

Ibn `Abidin al-Hanafi, al-Sayyid Muhammad Amin: Radd al-muhtar `ala al-durr al-mukhtar, Vol. 3, Kitab al-Iman, Bab al-bughat ["Answer to the Perplexed: A Commentary on "The Chosen Pearl,"" Book of Belief, Chapter on Rebels]. Cairo: Dar al-Tiba`a al-Misriyya, 1272 H.

 

Ibn `Afaliq al-Hanbali, Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Rahman: Tahakkum al-muqallidin bi man idda`a tajdid al-din [Sarcasm of the muqallids against the false claimants to the Renewal of Religion]. A very comprehensive book refuting the Wahhabi heresy and posting questions which Ibn `Abdul Wahhab and his followers were unable to answer for the most part.

 

Ibn Dawud al-Hanbali, `Afif al-Din `Abd Allah: as-sawa`iq wa al-ru`ud ["Lightnings and thunder"], a very important book in 20 chapters. According to the Mufti of Yemen Shaykh al-`Alawi ibn Ahmad al-Haddad, the mufti of Yemen, "This book has received the approval of the `ulama of Basra, Baghdad, Aleppo, and Ahsa' [Arabian peninsula]. It was summarized by Muhammad ibn Bashir the qadi of Ra's al-Khayma in Oman."

 

Ibn Ghalbun al-Libi also wrote a refutation in forty verses of al-San`ani's poem in which the latter had praised Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab. It is in Samnudi's Sa`adat al-darayn and begins thus:

 

Salami `ala ahlil isabati wal-rushdi

Wa laysa `ala najdi wa man halla fi najdi

 

[My salutation is upon the people of truth and guidance

And not upon Najd nor the one who settled in Najd]

 

Ibn Khalifa `Ulyawi al-Azhari: Hadhihi `aqidatu al-salaf wa al-khalaf fi dhat Allahi ta`ala wa sifatihi wa af`alihi wa al-jawab al-sahih li ma waqa`a fihi al-khilaf min al-furu` bayna al-da`in li al-Salafiyya wa atba` al-madhahib al-arba`a al-islamiyya ["This is the doctrine of the Predecessors and the Descendants concerning the divergences in the branches between those who call to al-Salafiyya and the followers of the Four Islamic Schools of Law"] (Damascus: Matba`at Zayd ibn Thabit, 1398/1977.

 

Kawthari al-Hanafi, Muhammad Zahid. Maqalat al-Kawthari. (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Azhariyah li al-Turath, 1994).

 

Al-Kawwash al-Tunisi, `Allama Al-Shaykh Salih: his refutation of the Wahhabi sect is contained in Samnudi's volume: "Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn."

 

Khazbek, Shaykh Hasan: Al-maqalat al-wafiyyat fi al-radd `ala al-wahhabiyyah ["Complete Treatise in Refuting the Wahhabis"].

 

Makhluf, Muhammad Hasanayn: Risalat fi hukm al-tawassul bil-anbiya wal-awliya ["Treatise on the Ruling Concerning the Use of Prophets and Saints as Intermediaries"].

 

Al-Maliki al-Husayni, Al-muhaddith Muhammad al-Hasan ibn `Alawi: Mafahimu yajibu an tusahhah ["Notions that should be corrected"] 4th ed. (Dubai: Hashr ibn Muhammad Dalmuk, 1986); Muhammad al-insanu al-kamil ["Muhammad, the Perfect Human Being"] 3rd ed. (Jeddah: Dar al-Shuruq, 1404/1984).

 

Al-Mashrifi al-Maliki al-Jaza'iri: Izhar al-`uquq mimman mana`a al-tawassul bil nabi wa al-wali al-saduq ["The Exposure of the Disobedience of Those Who Forbid Using the Intermediary of the Prophets and the Truthful Saints].

 

Al-Mirghani al-Ta'ifi, `Allama `Abd Allah ibn Ibrahim (d. 1793): Tahrid al-aghbiya' `ala al-Istighatha bil-anbiya' wal-awliya ["The Provocations of the Ignorant Against Seeking the Help of Prophets and Saints"] (Cairo: al-Halabi, 1939).

 

Mu'in al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (d. 1289): Sayf al-Jabbar al-maslul `ala a`da' al-Abrar ["The Sword of the Almighty Drawn Against the Enemies of the Pure Ones"].

 

Al-Muwaysi al-Yamani, `Abd Allah ibn `Isa: Unpublished manuscript of a refutation of the Wahhabi sect.

 

Al-Nabahani al-Shafi`i, al-qadi al-muhaddith Yusuf ibn Isma`il (1850-1932): Shawahid al-Haqq fi al-istighatha bi sayyid al-Khalq (s) ["The Proofs of Truth in the Seeking of the Intercession of the Prophet"].

 

Al-Qabbani al-Basri al-Shafi`i, Allama Ahmad ibn `Ali: A manuscript treatise in approximately 10 chapters.

 

Al-Qadumi al-Nabulusi al-Hanbali: `AbdAllah: Rihlat ["Journey"].

 

Al-Qazwini, Muhammad Hasan, (d. 1825). Al-Barahin al-jaliyyah fi raf` tashkikat al-Wahhabiyah ["The Plain Demonstrations That Dispel the Aspersions of the Wahhabis"]. Ed. Muhammad Munir al-Husayni al-Milani. 1st ed. Beirut: Mu'assasat al-Wafa', 1987.

 

Al-Qudsi: al-Suyuf al-Siqal fi A`naq man ankara `ala al-awliya ba`d al-intiqal ["The Burnished Swords on the Necks of Those Who Deny the Role of Saints After Their Leaving This World"].

 

Al-Rifa`i, Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim, President of the World Union of Islamic Propagation and Information: Adillat Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`at aw al-radd al-muhkam al-mani` `ala munkarat wa shubuhat Ibn Mani` fi tahajjumihi `ala al-sayyid Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki ["The Proofs of the People of the Way of the Prophet and the Muslim Community: or, the Strong and Decisive Refutation of Ibn Mani`'s Aberrations and Aspersions in his Assault on Muhammad `Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki"] (Kuwait: Dar al-siyasa, 1984).

 

Al-Samnudi al-Mansuri, al-`Allama al-Shaykh Ibrahim: Sa`adat al-darayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn al-wahhabiyya wa muqallidat al-zahiriyyah ["Bliss in the Two Abodes: Refutation of the Two Sects, Wahhabis and Zahiri Followers"].

 

Al-Saqqaf al-Shafi`i, Hasan ibn `Ali, Islamic Research Intitute, Amman, Jordan: al-Ighatha bi adillat al-istighatha wa al-radd al-mubin `ala munkiri al-tawassul ["The Mercy of Allah in the Proofs of Seeking Intercession and the Clear Answer to Those who Reject it"]; Ilqam al hajar li al-mutatawil `ala al-Asha`ira min al-Bashar ["The Stoning of All Those Who Attack Ash'aris"]; Qamus shata'im al-Albani wa al-alfaz al-munkara al-lati yatluquha fi haqq ulama al-ummah wa fudalai'ha wa ghayrihim... ["Encyclopedia of al-Albani's Abhorrent Expressions Which He Uses Against the Scholars of the Community, its Eminent Men, and Others..."] Amman : Dar al-Imam al-Nawawi, 1993.

 

Al-Sawi al-Misri: Hashiyat `ala al-jalalayn ["Commentary on the Tafsir of the Two Jalal al-Din"].

 

Sayf al-Din Ahmed ibn Muhammad: Al-Albani Unveiled: An Exposition of His Errors and Other Important Issues, 2nd ed. (London: s.n., 1994).

 

Al-Shatti al-Athari al-Hanbali, al-Sayyid Mustafa ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan, Mufti of Syria: al-Nuqul al-shar'iyyah fi al-radd 'ala al-Wahhabiyya ["The Legal Proofs in Answering the Wahhabis"].

 

Al-Subki, al-hafiz Taqi al-Din (d. 756/1355): Al-durra al-mudiyya fi al-radd `ala Ibn Taymiyya, ed. Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari ["The Luminous Pearl: A Refutation of Ibn Taymiyya"]; Al-rasa'il al-subkiyya fi al-radd `ala Ibn Taymiyya wa tilmidhihi Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, ed. Kamal al-Hut ["Subki's treatises in Answer to Ibn Taymiyya and his pupil Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya"] (Beirut: `Alam al-Kutub, 1983); Al-sayf al-saqil fi al-radd `ala Ibn Zafil ["The Burnished Sword in Refuting Ibn Zafil (Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya)" Cairo: Matba`at al-Sa`ada, 1937; Shifa' al-siqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam ["The healing of the sick in visiting the Best of Creation"].

 

Sunbul al-Hanafi al-Ta'ifi, Allama Tahir: Sima al-Intisar lil awliya' al-abrar ["The Mark of Victory Belongs to Allah's Pure Friends"].

 

Al-Tabataba'i al-Basri, al-Sayyid: also wrote a reply to San`a'i's poem which was excerpted in Samnudi's Sa`adat al-Darayn. After reading it, San`a'i reversed his position and said: "I have repented from what I said concerning the Najdi."

 

Al-Tamimi al-Maliki, `Allama Isma`il (d. 1248), Shaykh al-Islam in Tunis: wrote a refutation of a treatise of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab.

 

Al-Wazzani, al-Shaykh al-Mahdi, Mufti of Fes, Morocco: Wrote a refutation of Muhammad `Abduh's prohibition of tawassul.

 

al-Zahawi al-Baghdadi, Jamil Effendi Sidqi (d. 1355/1936): al-Fajr al-Sadiq fi al-radd 'ala munkiri al-tawassul wa al-khawariq ["The True Dawn in Refuting Those Who Deny the Seeking of Intercession and the Miracles of Saints"] Pub. 1323/1905 in Egypt.

 

Al-Zamzami al-Shafi`i, Muhammad Salih, Imam of the Maqam Ibrahim in Mecca, wrote a book in 20 chapters against them according to al-Sayyid al-Haddad.

See also:

 

Ahmad, Qeyamuddin. The Wahhabi movement in India. 2nd rev. ed. New Delhi : Manohar, 1994.

 



[1] Throughout the article, (s) means “peace be upon him,” and (ra) means “may Allah (swt) be pleased them.”

[2] Lacy, Robert. The Kingdom: Arabia & the House of Sa`ud ý.  p. 59.

[3] Zahawi, Jamal E (1996) The Doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna Versus the ‘Salafi’ Movement. Translated by Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani. As-Sunna Foundation of America.

[4] For example, orthodox Sunni scholar Abu Ala Bukhari accused people of unbelief (kufr) if they called Ibn Taymiyah “Shaykh”. Imam Zahid al-Kawthari accused Ibn Taymiyah’s positions on the creed to be tantamount to apostasy.

[5] Gilles, Kepel. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 72.

[6] Sivan, Emmanuel. Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. pg. 102-103.

[7] Kabbani, Hisham M (1996). Islamic Beliefs & Doctrine According to Ahl al-Sunna A Repudiation of “Salafi” Innovations. Volume I. As-Sunna Foundation of America.

 

[8] Safran, Nadav.  (1988).  Saudi Arabia:  The Ceaseless Quest for Security.  Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY.  Pg. 11.

[9] Safran, Nadav.  (1988).  Saudi Arabia:  The Ceaseless Quest for Security.  Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY.  Pg. 12.

[10] Bagot, Blubb, Sir J. (1961). War in the Desert .New York:  Norton. Pg. 44.

[11] Abdul Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz. “Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab.” Available: www.alinaam.org.za/library/hist_bio/ibnwahhaab.htm.

[12] Ibid., Zahawi. pp. 7-15.

To contact author email Zubair Qamar

A feeling of discouragement when you slip up is a sure sign that you put your faith in deeds. -Ibn 'Ata'llah
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abuzaid
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Quote abuzaid Replybullet Posted: 12 June 2007 at 1:46am

I only say this..

He it is who has bestowed upon thee from on high this divine writ, containing messages that are clear in and by themselves - and these are the essence of the divine writ - as well as others that are allegorical. Now those whose hearts are given to swerving from the truth go after that part of the divine writ which has been expressed in allegory, seeking out [what is bound to create] confusion, and seeking [to arrive at] its final meaning [in an arbitrary manner]; but none save God knows its final meaning. Hence, those who are deeply rooted in knowledge say: "We believe in it; the whole [of the divine writ] is from our Sustainer - albeit none takes this to heart save those who are endowed with insight.

"O our Sustainer! Let not our hearts swerve from the truth after Thou hast guided us; and bestow upon us the gift of Thy grace: verily, Thou art the [true] Giver of Gifts.

"O our Sustainer! Verily, Thou wilt gather mankind together to witness the Day about [the coming of] which there is no doubt: verily, God never fails to fulfil His promise."

BEHOLD, as for those who are bent on denying the truth - neither their worldly possessions nor their offspring will in the least avail them against God; and it is they, they who shall be the fuel of the fire!

3:7-10



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Quote Abu Mujahid Replybullet Posted: 12 June 2007 at 6:23am

Bro Abuzaid,

Well said. The sad part of this man is he is convert and Kabbani Sufi, Kowthari/Dahlani..and list goes on. North American muslims make this mistake again and again. Convert let we put in drive seat!!. The result is like this disastor. The sect he belong...Hisham Kabbani sufi spy is well documented in west their hostile to true Islam. I will never forget the day he went to Michael Wienner *Savage* (Jew) and savaged real Islam. Among lies he fed to this Jew and State Department was 80 percent of American masajids is run by extermist. In other word....Al-qaeda. He went further kissing the feet of White house and Congress just to get attention and respect. What a sad convert Sufi!!!

The list of his citation is also laughing.....among many include Dahlani and Saqaf. The latter teachs Amman University carrying huge hatred venom against the sunnah people. When scholars correct him he went silent crying for help from Jordan King, the Jewish lover .

To debate with him in civility long like tall order. I put Kitab altowhid li Muhammad Ibnu Abdulwahab and asked him to show where he deviated from Ahlu sunnah waljamah. He couldn't answer because he knows I caught him red handed.  Instead he went on his way adopting hit and run game.

This is a man who refused correct hadith in muslim just his American sufi ego says otherwise. So I decided to counter his above post by this sunni post. My aim is to remind the people who don't know the core of this what Sunni people says in this regard. Second, expose their ignornance in this serious matter. Third: Their sufism in America is danger to our muslim national security even if they call themselves Ahlu sunna waljama. 

May Allah guide him to right path.

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Who is Allaah? By Mahmud Murad

Allaah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allaah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness, Divinity, and Ruboobiyyah[1], and to the uniqueness of His attributes and names.

His essence does not resemble the essences. He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything inhere in Him. "There is none like unto Him." He is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible. He is the Rubb[2] who accomplishes all affairs, Allaah is the Omnipotent and the Omniscient.

His knowledge comprehends in perfect manner all things, hidden or manifest. He is greater than can be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. He knows everything, and He is aware of all that takes place in the earth and the heavens. Allaah, the Supreme, is the Rubb of everything and has a free hand in disposal of all affairs.

His mercy encompasses everything. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny. He is wise in all His actions, just in all His decrees. His justice ensures order in the universe in which nothing is out of order.

There is no one to share His dominion, nor does He take an aide or supporter from His creatures. He is nearer to man than man's own jugular vein[3]. Whenever a believer is in need or distress calls on Him, He responds.

Allaah has revealed His final Scripture, the Qur'an, to that last of His Messengers, Muhammed (SAW) who was responsible for conveying the Message of Islam to mankind. He is the Exalted Allaah. Glory is due to Him.

Where is Allaah?

Allaah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger (SAW) as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'an is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allaah.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allaah without distorting their meaning, and that Allaah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.

This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allaah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allaah with which Allaah has created mankind. Although the Aqeedah of Loftiness of Allaah is part of man's innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.

All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allaah. Whoever believes that Allaah is above His 'Arsh[4] and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allaah, and believes as well that the heavens and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allaah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.

Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites[5] and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims' minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allaah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allaah clashes with the clear Qur'ânic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allaah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allaah.

The essential divine attributes of Allaah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'h without questioning the 'how' of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy.

It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allaah, or the question, 'Where is Allaah?' with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur'an and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.

The Qur'ânic Proofs

Allaah, the Exalted, commands the believers to refer their disputes and differences to His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (SAW) saying: "And when you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and the Last Day."[6]

Therefore, the words of Allaah, the Exalted, as well as the words of His Messenger (SAW) must be held as the ultimate and decisive judgment. No judgment or decision should take precedence over theirs whether in issues related to the divine attributes, or any other religious issue.

By their emphasis on reason in establishing religious truth, the rationalists, the modernists, and the Jahmites assert the preeminence of reason over the divine revelations. Whereas the Loftiness of Allaah which is clearly enunciated in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, is beyond the reach of reason.

The true believers, contrary to the rationalists, believe that the 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that having created the seven heavens and the earth and what is in them, Allaah, the Exalted, has mounted His great 'Arsh. Allaah says: "Declare your Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity."[7]

The "Supreme", linguistically, is in the superlative signifying that Allaah is higher than everything and is above all things in essence, power, and invincibility. Commenting on this verse, Ibnul-Qayyim, may Allaah grant him His mercy, said: All Muslims in the past and in the present, when supplicating Allaah or imploring His help, they always raise their hands with palms towards the heaven. They do not lower their hands with palms towards the earth, nor do they turn them right or left, nor towards any other direction. They raise their hands up, knowing that Allaah is above them. The Muslims also say in prayer while prostrating, "I declare my Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity."

If Allaah is everywhere, as the deviated sects allege, why then the above verse does not read, 'Declare your Rubb, (around you), (below you), or (everywhere)?' Allah says: "They fear their Rubb above them."[9]

This verse refers to the angels who are above us, and above them is our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted. Lest anyone be confused, Allaah confirms in this verse that He is above the angels who are the residents of the heavens:
"The Compassionate has mounted the 'Arsh.[10]

And: "And verily, your Rubb is Allaah who created the heaven and earth in six days, and then mounted the 'Arsh. [11]

Allaah also says: "Are you sure that He Who is Above the heaven will not cleave the earth beneath you? Or are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will not send against you a stone-charged hurricane."[12]

The renowned exegetes and commentators are agreed that the One Who is above the heaven is none but Allaah Who has mounted His Arsh and is above it in the manner which suits His Majesty.

Those who believe that Allaah is everywhere base their argument on verses such as: "And He is Ilaah in the Heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!"

The term, 'Ilaah' is classical Arabic means, 'the worshipped'; thus the meaning of the above verse is, "It is He Who is worshipped in the heaven and worshipped on the earth". It would have been redundant were the verse to speak about the existence of Allaah in the heaven and on the earth, for the term Illah' is an adjective of Allaah, while the pronouns, 'He' in the verse is used in lieu of the name 'Allaah', therefore, when the name 'Allaah' replaces the pronoun 'He', we get the proper meaning of the verse: 'And it is Allaah Who is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'. But according to the deviated sect who consider the term, 'Ilaah' as 'Allaah', we get the redundant meaning, 'And Allaah is Allaah in the heaven and Allaah is on the earth,' a sentence which is grammatically, linguistically and logically incorrect.

Qatadah, a renowned exegete, interpreted this verse as: 'He is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'.

Imam al-Aajurri said: 'al-Ilaah, is the worshipped. He is worshipped in the heaven as He is worshipped on the earth'.

The Omnipresence of the Divine Knowledge

And He is Allaah above the heaven and on the earth He knows your private and public affairs. And He knows what you achieve.[13]

Those who deny that Allaah is above His ‘Arsh, dubiously argue that this verse supports their argument. Their argument is refuted by realizing that this verse refers to the knowledge of Allaah, according to the renowned exegetes, not His essence. They further assert that this verse signifies that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things in the heavens and on the earth. The reference to the divine knowledge is made clearly by repeating the clause, 'He knows' twice in this verse, that is to say: "Allaah, the Exalted, knows the hidden and the open, and He knows what you achieve".

Had the verse ended with the word, 'earth', one might take their dubious argument into consideration, but Allaah, the Exalted, makes it abundantly clear that it is His knowledge, not His essence that encompasses all things.

Another dubious argument is presented by those who deny the fact that Allaah, the Exalted, is above His 'Arsh, by alleging that the following verse supports their argument. "Do you not see that Allaah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five, but He is their sixth, nor of fewer than that, nor of more, but He is with them wherever they may be. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Surely, Allaah knows all things full well."[14]

The above verse, they contend, signifies that Allaah is essentially everywhere. This argument is refuted by the prominent exegete, Ibn Kathir who says: "This means that Allaah is well acquainted with their utterances, and private talks and thoughts."

Al-Qurtubi commented on this verse saying: "He knows and hears their private counsel. This is evidenced by the fact that the opening and concluding clauses of this verse confirm the knowledge of Allaah."

Al-Qasimi says: "The scholars among the Prophet's companions, who transmitted the meaning of the Qur'an to their successors, held this verse to mean that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but His knowledge is everywhere."

The linguistic analysis of this verse proves the following points:

  • The opening words of the above verse speak of Allaah's knowledge, not His location.

  • Private counsel, or secret talk, is the theme of this verse. Allaah says, 'There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth'. He does not say, 'There are not three, but He is their fourth'. Thus the meaning becomes quite clear that it is the knowledge of Allaah what encompasses all His creatures.

  • Allaah confirms that He will inform them of their secret talk on the Day of Resurrection.

  • The verse ends, therefore, confirming Allaah's knowledge.

  • Allaah begins the surah of al-Mujadilah (Chapter 58), of which the verse in question is part, with the following verse: "Allaah has indeed heard the speech of the woman who pleads with you concerning her husband and complains to Allaah. And Allaah has heard your dialogue. Verily, Allaah is All-Hearing and All-Seeing.[15]

  • Allaah, the Exalted, states that He has heard the woman who was complaining to the Prophet (SAW), and has certainly heard her arguing with her husband, but He did not state in the verse that He was their third.

  • In the subsequent verse, Allaah emphasizes that He is well acquainted with the deeds of His slaves.

If one were to believe that Allaah is essentially everywhere, it would follow then that He also dwells in filthy places. Only an insane person would dare to impute to Allaah such an attribute. Far removed is Allaah of what they ascribe to Him.

It would also follow that Allaah is mingling with His creatures in the heavens and on the earth. Such belief has paved the way for pantheism[16], and promoted the myth of god incarnate. Allaah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It should be clear in the minds of the true believers that there is nothing to surround Allaah, the Exalted, nor is there a place to contain Him. Things and places are creatures, and Allaah is above all His creatures. All creatures need Him, while He is separated from His creatures, and stands in need of none of them.

The Heaven is the Qiblah of the Du'a

Muslims supplicate Allaah with their palms upheld because they believe Allaah is above the heaven. When confronted with this fact, those who deny the Loftiness of Allaah allege that Muslims supplicate in this manner only because heaven is the Qiblah of Du'aa or supplication.

  • The above allegation, to begin with, has no proof in the Qur'an or the Sunnah, and it cannot be related to any of the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) nor to any of the Tabi'een, who succeeded them. There is no mention of this statement in the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of the Messenger (SAW). The issue of the Qiblah is central to the religion of Islaam, so every Muslim must be aware of it and especially the scholars of the Muslim ummah should have known it.

  • It is an established fact, that the Ka'abah is the Qiblah of formal prayer as well as the du'aa or supplication. To declare the heaven or anywhere else to be the Qiblah of du'aa is a gross BID'AH (innovation) and a clear breach of the Qur'an, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the ummah, because the Muslims have one single Qiblah, the Ka'abah.

  • The Qiblah is the direction to which Muslims turn or face in prayer, and to face something is to look toward it. If the heavens were the Qiblah, the Messenger (SAW) would have commanded his companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, to face the heavens in their prayer. On the contrary, the Muslims are forbidden to uphold their eyes while praying, but are to concentrate on the spot upon which their faces rest during prostration. The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) warned: "Let those who uphold their eyes while praying stop doing so, lest they become blind." [17]

The Qur'ânic verses allow no room for such opinions. Allaah, the Exalted, specifically commanded His Messenger (SAW) and his ummah to face the direction of the Ka'abah in their prayers, saying: "And from wherever you come forth, turn your face toward the Sacred Mosque."[18]

Then Allaah addresses the Muslims: "And wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it."[19]

The Loftiness of Allaah is also proven by the following verse: "To Him ascend the good words, and He exalts the righteous deeds."[20]

This verse contains the clear words of Allaah, in which the verb "ascend" is used to indicate that Allaah is above and separated from His creatures. The ascendance of deeds is also proven by the words of the Prophet (SAW) describing the excellence of the period of time that falls after zawal of zenith. He said, "This is a time when the gates of the heavens are opened, and I hope that a good deed of mine would ascend to Allaah." The verb "ascend" in the text signifies that the good deeds are raised up to reach Allaah, the Exalted. And Allaah says: "The angels and ar-Rooh21 ascend to Allaah in a day which is fifth thousand years long."[22]

The Loftiness of the Creator is made clear by the great distance that separates the angels who inhabit the heavens from their Rubb above them. And Allaah says: "He manages all affairs from the heaven unto the earth."[23]

It should be borne in mind that this verse is preceded by the words of Allaah: "He mounted the Throne."

And Allaah also says: "O, Issa (Jesus)! I shall cause you to die, and raise you up to Me."[24]

Since Allaah addressed Issa saying: "I will raise you up to Me", what would those who believe that Allaah is everywhere answer when they are asked: "Where is Issa now?" They would say either Issa is everywhere, or he is in heaven. If they claim that Issa is everywhere, they would apostatize as a result of their equating Issa with Allaah in accordance with their claim that Allaah is everywhere. A claim which resembles the Christians' myth of god incarnate. But if they say, "Issa is in the heaven," they would admit that Allaah did raise Issa up to the heaven, and that Allaah is above the heavens.

Allaah says: "Surely, your Rubb is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days; then He istawa[25] on the Throne."[26]

This is one of the seven Qur'ânic verses in which Allaah, the Exalted, refers to His istiwaa' on His 'Arsh. Ahlus-Sunnah are certain that the great 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that Allaah, having created the earth and apportioned its provisions, ascended above His great 'Arsh. Only those who believe otherwise hold these verses to be allegorical. Allaah, they say, "is everywhere", denying that He is above the 'Arsh. Exalted is Allaah, and far is He removed from their ascription.

Quoting all or even most of the verses signifying Allaah's attribute of Loftiness would only enlarge the volume of this issue. There are about 215 verses in the Qur'an containing the verb sent down with reference to either the Qur'an, the previous Scriptures, or the angels.

Proofs from Authentic Prophetic Traditions

Authentic Prophetic traditions, as well as traditions of the Prophet's companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, and works of the Four Imama and of the rest of the pious predecessors contain many textual as well as inferential proofs of Allaah's Loftiness. Allaah, the Exalted, praises His Messenger (SAW) and confirms his veracity and truthfulness by saying: "Nor does he speak of his own desire. It is only revelation revealed (to him.)"[27]

And Allaah says: "And whatsoever the Messenger commands you, adhere to it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it."

And the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) said: "I have been given the Qur'an and similar to it therewith."[28]

The purified Sunnah is what the Prophet (SAW) meant by saying: "and similar to it therewith". The Sunnah is the second source of the Sharee'ah of Islaamic laws. Many traditions deal with the attribute of Allaah's Loftiness. The following are selected authentic traditions to whose authenticity all scholars of the hadeeth at all times have testified.

The Prophet (SAW) reported his eventful journey from Makkah to Jerusalem (al-Mi'raj)[29] and from there up to the heavens as follows:

Jibraeel took me up to the lowest heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. He was asked, 'Who is this?' He answered, 'Jibraeel.' 'Who is with you?' They inquired. 'Muhammed (SAW)' He answered. They inquired. 'Has he been invited?' 'Yes'. Jibraeel replied. Then someone greeted saying, 'He is most welcome'. The Prophet (SAW) continued, when the gate was opened, I entered and met Adam there. Jibraeel said to me, 'This is your father, greet him'. Adam greeted me back, saying: 'Welcome, pious son and pious Prophet'. Then Jibraeel ascended to the second heaven and requested its guards to open its gate.

The questioning that took place in the lowest heaven was repeated before the gate was opened. The Prophet (SAW) described what he saw in every heaven, until finally he was taken up to the seventh heaven where obligatory prayers were prescribed to him. This authentic mutawatir[30] hadeeth speaks clearly in plain words and straightforward manner which is not liable to misconstruction or farfetched interpretations. The Prophet (SAW) was taken up to his Rubb from one heaven above the other. The Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe that the Mi'raj was neither an illusion nor a vision, rather real and essential. Had Allaah been everywhere, why would the Prophet (SAW) be taken all the way up to the seventh heaven? Allaah would have prescribed to him the Salaah on earth rather than in the seventh heaven.

Abdullah bin Amr reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "Be merciful to those on earth, so that the One above the heavens will be merciful to you."[31]

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "The angels of death usually attend the dying person. If he is pious, they would address his soul saying, 'O good soul! Come out of the good body, and rejoice in the annunciation of mercy and provision from the Rubb Who is well pleased with you'. The angels would keep coaxing it with these words until the soul emerges from the body. Then it would be taken up to the heaven where permission to open the gates of the heaven would be sought. The guards would inquire, 'Who is this?' 'So and so', the angels would answer. The guards would say: 'O good soul! You are welcome'. The soul would be flattered by such words and finally be taken up to heaven above which is Allaah."[32]

It is quite evident that Allaah, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens. Otherwise, why would the souls and the believers deeds be taken up to the heavens to reach Allaah?

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "The angel of death used to appear to people whose souls he would collect. When he came to the Prophet of Allaah, Musa (AS) to collect his soul, Musa punched out his eye. The angel of death ascended to his Rubb, the Glorious, and said to Him, My Rubb! You have sent me down to Musa who punched out my eye. Had he not been honored by You, I would have given him hard time..."

The angel of death descended to Musa from the heaven to collect his soul. He did not come to him from east, west, north, or south, nor did he emerge from the earth, and then he ascended to His Rubb Who is above the heavens.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "There are hundred levels in Jannah which Allaah has prepared for the Mujahideen who fight in His cause. Between on level and another is a distance which is equal to that between the earth and the heaven. When you ask Allaah, azza wajull, ask Him for Firdaws, because it is situated in the midst and Highest point of Jannah from where the rivers of Jannah spring, and above it is the 'Arsh of the Most Merciful."[33]

Mu'awiyah as-Sahmi reported: "I had some sheep which I kept between Uhud and Juwaniyyah with a slave-girl to look after them. One day, I went out to check on my sheep and discovered that a wolf had devoured one of them. Since I am just a human, (I became angry) and struck the girl. Later on, I came to the Prophet (SAW) and reported to him the incident. He terrified me with the gravity of my action. I said, 'Messenger of Allaah'! Shall I free her (as an expiation of my sin.) He said 'Call her over'. When I did, he asked her, 'Where is Allaah?' She said, 'Above the heavens'. Then he asked her, 'Who am I?' She said, 'The Messenger of Allaah (SAW)'. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) ordered me, 'Free her. She is a believer'."[34]

The above hadeeth, according to Shaikh Kahlil al-Harras, is a luminous proof of the Loftiness of Allah, the Exalted. Here is a man who wronged his female slave by striking her, and wanted to expiate his sin by giving her freedom in return. The Prophet (SAW) chose one particular question, 'Where is Allaah?' Then the slave girl gave him the correct answer, 'Above the heaven'. The Prophet (SAW) declared her to be a believer.

Does not the above the hadeeth stand as a solid proof that Allaah is above the heaven? Doubtlessly, that slave girl, the shepherdess, knew her Rubb more than those ignorantly claim that Allaah is everywhere!

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night, during the last third of the night, and says: 'Anyone calls Me, I will respond to him? Is there anyone asking for anything? I will give it to him? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, I will forgive him?'"[35]
The words of the Prophet (SAW): 'Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven', clearly indicate the essential Highness or Loftiness of Allaah, the Exalted. Were Allaah to exist everywhere, there would be no need for the Prophet (SAW) who knew Allaah best, to say, 'Allaah descends', nor would there be a reason to distinguish one portion of the night from another. There is only one answer to this: Allaah, the Blessed, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens, and above the great 'Arsh.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "Allaah will descend to His slaves on the Day of Resurrection."[36]

It is the Day when Allaah will come down to pass His judgment.

In another tradition, the Prophet (SAW) said: "Allaah will gather the first and the last of His slaves for an appointed certain Day, when they will remain for forty years with their eyes uplifted towards heaven waiting for the decisive judgment. Allaah will then descend in coverings of clouds from His 'Arsh to the Kursi."

The Standpoint of the Companions (May Allaah be pleased with them)

Zainab, the wife of the Prophet (SAW), used to claim excellence over the rest of his wives by telling them, 'It is only your parents who gave you in marriage to the Prophet (SAW), while it is Allaah Who gave me in marriage to him from above the seven heavens.'[37]

In another narration, she said to the Prophet (SAW), 'It is the Rahmaan, the Merciful, Who married me to you from above His 'Arsh.'

Ibn Abbas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said to Aa'ishah, the wife of the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) when she was on her death bed: "Of all his wives you were the most beloved to the Messenger of Allaah (SAW), and he used to live only the pure. Allaah, the Exalted sent down your exoneration from above the seven heavens which was brought down by Jibraeel. There is not a single masjid of the masajid of Allaah but the verses of your exoneration[38] are recited in it day and night."

Aa'ishah, the wife of the Prophet (SAW) in this world and in the world to come, Mother of the Believers, whom the pervasive-minded sect tried to dishonor, but Allaah, the Exalted, exonerated her honor and condemned those who spread the lies against her.

In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet (SAW), Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said: "He who was worshipping Muhammed (SAW), (let him know that) Muhammed is dead, and he who was worshipping Allaah, (let him know that) Allaah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies'."[39]

Ibn Umar passed by a shepherd and asked him, 'Do you have a sheep fit for slaughter? 'Its owner is around', the shepherd answered. 'Tell him that the wolf devoured it'. Ibn Umar said to him. Thereupon, the shepherd uplifted his head towards the heaven and said, 'Then where is Allaah?' Ibn Umar responded, 'By Allaah. It is I who should have said, 'Where is Allaah.' He later on bought off the sheep and the shepherd and freed the latter and gave him the sheep.[40]

Abdurrahman al-Mahdi [41] said: "There is no one more evil among the people of whims than the followers of Jahm. All their deviant beliefs revolve around one theme; 'There is no one above the heaven.' I believe, by Allaah, that they should not be married from, nor to inherit Muslims nor to be inherited by Muslims."

This opinion of Ibn Mahdi is shared by many among the pious predecessors.

Wahab b. Jareer said: "Beware of the opinions of Jahm's followers, for they try to convince people that there is nothing above the heavens. Their statements are only from Iblees's revelation, and it is only infidelity".[42]

The Standpoint of the Four Renowned Imams

Imaam Abu Haneefah[43]

Abu Muti' Al-Balkhi reported: "I asked Imam Abu Haneefah about a person who says, 'I do not know whether my Rubb is, above the heavens or on earth?' Abu Haneefah, may Allah grant him His mercy, said: 'A person who makes such a statement becomes an apostate because Allaah, the Exalted says, 'The Merciful has ascended above the 'Arsh, and the 'Arsh of Allaah is above His heavens'. I further asked Abu Haneefah, 'What if such a person admits, Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but exclaims, I do not know whether His 'Arsh is above the heavens or on earth'. Abu Haneefah responded: 'If he denies that the 'Arsh is above the heavens, he is an apostate."[44]

If the person apostatizes by saying that he did not know where is the 'Arsh of Allaah, then by right a person who denies the Loftiness of Allaah altogether is definitely worse than an apostate.

Imaam Malik[45]

Abdullah bin Nafi' reported: Malik bin Anas said: 'Allaah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His knowledge.'[46]

Imaam Ash-Shafi'ee[47]

Imaam ash-Shafi'ee said: "The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding, namely, the Testimony of Faith: "There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allaah, that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allaah, and that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above the heavens. He descends to the lowest heaven whenever He wishes."[48]

Imaam ibn Khuzaimah, a Shafi'ite himself, said: "Whoever disacknowledges that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above His seven heavens, and that He is separated from His creatures, is a Kafir, (unbeliever). Such person must be ordered to repent and disavow his belief, or else he must be beheaded and thrown on a garbage dump so that neither Ahlul-Qiblah[49] nor Ahludth-dthimmah[50] be annoyed by the foul odor of his carcass."[51]

Abu Bakr Muhammad at-Tamimi, a Shafi'ite imaam of Naisaboor, said: "I do not pray behind a person who denies the attributes of Allaah and does not recognize that Allaah is above His 'Arsh."[52]

Imaam Ahmad[53]

He was asked: "Is Allaah above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and is His knowledge and power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: 'Certainly, He is above His 'Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge."[54]

All of the above show that the entire Muslim ummah, in the past and present, is in unison regarding the belief in the Loftiness and Supremacy of Allaah, the Exalted.

Dubious Arguments

Adherents of certain deviant sects promote a false belief that Allaah is omnipresent Who inheres in His creation. Rational arguments are deadly available to refute the blasphemy of the Jahmites and those who try to revive their belief today. To prove that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, and above the seventh heaven in a manner that suits His Majesty, the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allaah be pleased with him, refuted their belief more than one thousand years ago, when he wrote: "Where Allaah is and Where He is not - An exposition of the denial of the Jahmites that Allaah is above the 'Arsh."

We asked them "Why do you deny that Allaah is above the 'Arsh when He has said: 'The Merciful has mounted the 'Arsh?[55] And again,' 'Who in six days created the Heavens and the earth then mounted the 'Arsh,'[56] They replied: "He is under the seven earths as He is on the 'Arsh; He is in heaven, on earth and in every place; there is no place where He is not, nor is He is one place to the exclusion of any other." And they quoted the verse: "And He is Ilaah in the heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!"

If you wish to prove the falsehood of the Jahmites who claim that Allaah exists everywhere, not in one particular place, ask them, 'Is it not true that Allaah was existent when there was nothing in existence?' The Jahmites' answer would be: "Certainly, there was nothing before Allaah." Then ask them, "Did Allaah create the creation within Himself or outside of Himself?" The Jahmites would be compelled to choose on of the following three answers:

If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation within Himself, they would then become apostate instantly by claiming that the Jinn, humans and Satans are all dwelling within Allaah.

If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation outside Himself but dwelled in them afterwards, they would also become apostate instantly by claiming that Allaah dwells in His creatures.

But if the Jahmites say that Allaah created the creation outside Himself and has never dwelled in them, they would by giving this answer, join the folds of Ahl-As-Sunnah, for by giving this answer they denounce their own deviant beliefs.

Allaah, the Exalted, described Himself in the Torah too that He is above His creatures. Ka'bul-Ahbaar said: "Allaah, azza wajall,[57] said in the Torah, 'I, Allaah Am above My salves, and My 'Arsh is above My creatures, and I am upon My 'Arsh running the affairs of My slaves. Nothing is hidden from Me neither in heaven nor on the earth."[58]

Finally, it may be worthwhile to say that even the enemy of Allaah, Fir'awn (Pharoah), who flagrantly claimed to be a god of his people, knew where Allaah is more than the followers of Jahm today. Allaah says:

And Fir'awn said, 'O, Haman, build for me a tower that I may reach the ways; the ways to heavens so that I may have a look at the Ilaah of Musa.[59]

Now consider the words of Fir'awn who wanted Haman to build a tower for him that he might climb all the way to the heavens to see the Rubb of Musa, for Musa already told him that Allaah to Whom he is inviting him is above the heavens, and compare this with the groundless argument of the Jahmite off-shoots of today.

A Muslim wonders how could those who believe that Allaah is Omnipresent rationalize such assertion knowing that Allaah, the Omnipotent, will collect the earth in His hand and fold the heavens in His right hand, as evidenced by the following divine stern warning.

And they have not venerated Allaah with the veneration that is due Him, for on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be collected in His hand and the heavens will be folded up in His right hand.[60]

Were the above verse to be the only proof of Allaah's Loftiness, it would have been more than sufficient. It is certainly sufficient to those who fear Allaah and give Him the true veneration that is due to Him.

Conclusion

The first three Muslim generations whose righteousness the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) testified for, and whose merits surpassed the merits of all succeeding generation. They are the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) and the two generations that followed them. They all believed in the apparent meaning of the Qur'ânic ayaat that deal with the divine attributes without giving them farfetched interpretations based on Greek philosophies.

The Believer must believe that there is none like unto Allaah, the Exalted, in His essence, attributes, nor His actions. He must also believe that Allaah stands in need of none of His creatures. Neither a thing nor a place encompasses Him. He is above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, and above all His creature essentially and realistically not allegorically. There is none of His creatures that touches Him.

Based on this it is not permissible to say that Allaah is everywhere, or He inheres in any of His creatures, for Allaah was when there was nothing. He who asserts that Allaah is not outside the universe, not only denies the existence of Allaah, but he worships a non-existent god.

We ask Allaah to keep us on the straight path of His Messenger (SAW) and his Companions and to make us join their company on the Day when neither wealth nor offspring would avail. Walhamdu lillahi Rabbil-aalameen.

This discourse has been based mainly on two books: Ithbat Uluwil-Lah, by Usamah bin Yusuf al-Qassas, may Allaah grant him His mercy, and Ar-Rahman alal Arsh Istawa, by Dr. Awad Mansoor.(salafipublications)

Footnotes & References

[1] Ruboobiyyah, inf. of Rubb

[2] Some translate the term 'Rubb' into 'Lord', the meaning of 'Rubb' is far more comprehensive than to be restricted to a single word such as 'Lord'. Rubb, means, among other things, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Provider, and the One in whose hands is the disposal of all affairs.

[3] Q 50:16

[4] Arsh, the Throne of Allaah.

[5] Jahmites are the followers of Jahm bin Safan (d. 128-745), a radical heretic. Among other things, they deny that Allah, the Exalted, is above His Arsh, and they allege that He is everywhere.

[6] Q 4:59

[7] Q 87:1

Q 87:1

[9] Q 16:50

[10] Q 20:2

[11] Q 7:54

[12] Q 67:17.18

[13] Q 6:3

[14] Q 58:7

[15] Q 58:1

[16] Pantheism is the belief that Allaah and the universe constitute one being, as opposed to the fundamental belief of the Oneness of Allaah and the separateness of His creations, as stressed by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah.

[17] Imam al-Bukhâri, Imam Muslim and others.

[18] Q 2:150

[19] Ibid.

[20] Q 35:10

[21] Ar-Rooh is Jibraeel, peace be upon him.

[22] Q 70:4

[23] Q 32:5

[24] Q 3:55

[25] 'Istawa' p.t. is derived from the verb sawiya and its derivative form istiwaa' to mount on the Throne. The Ash'arites, the Mu'tazilites, the Jahmites, and those who uphold their belief, hold the attribute of Istiwaa' to be only symbolic, whereas Ahlus-Sunnah accept this and the other essential attributes of Allah literally without drawing parallels.

[26] Q 7:54

[27] Q 53:4.527 Q 53:4.5

[28] Abu Dawood.

[29] Imam al-Bukhâri, Imaam Muslim and others.

[30] This is the strongest category of the authentic ahaadeeth.

[31] Imam al-Bukhâri, Imam Muslim, and others.

[32] Imam Ahmad, al-Hakim, and others.

[33] Imam al-Bukhâri, Ahmad, and others.

[34] Imam Muslim, Abu Dawood, and others.

[35] Imam Malik, Imam al-Bukhâri, Imam Muslim, and others.

[36] At-Tirmidhi and others.

[37] Al-Bukhâri.

[38] The verses in question are in surat An-noor #24:11 thru 20.

[39] Imam al-Bukhâri and others.

[40] Adth-Thahabi.

[41] He was a great scholar and a leading authority in the Prophetic traditions, and a contemporary of Imaam ash-Shafi'ee, (135-198H.)

[42] Al-Bukhari, adth-Thahabi and others.

[43] Abu Hanifah, one of the four Imam was prominent jurist living from 80 to 150 AH.

[44] Sharhut-Tahawiyyah, p.288

[45] Malik bin Anas, one of the four Imams, was prominent jurist and traditionist (93-179 H).

[46] Abdullah bin Ahmad, as-Sunnah, and others.

[47] Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris ash-Shafi'ee one of the prominent four Imams. Prominent jusrit (150-204 H).

[48] Al-Juyoosh al-Islaamiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.93

[49] The Muslims in general.

[50] Christian or Jewish subjects of a Muslim country.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal, the great Imaam, was nicknamed the Imam of Ahlus-Sunnah. This name was to become in Islaam the watchword for uncompromising belief. Imaam Ahmad, may Allaah be pleased with him, was a hero and victim of the violent inquisition during the reign of the Caliph al-Ma'moon, who ordered his subjects, under pain of severe punishment, to adopt the belief that the words of Allaah of which the Qur'an is composed are created, thus resembling the belief of the Christians. Imaam Ahmad, who refuted to endorse this belief was subjected to harassment, imprisonment, and torture.

[54] Al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyag, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.123.

[55] Q 20:4

[56] Q 25:60

[57] Azza wajall, Allaah is the Powerful, the Glorious.

[58] Adth-Thahabi and others.

[59] Q 40:36,37

[60] Q 39:67

Where is Allah?
By Shaykh Mahmood Ridha Murad.



Edited by Abu Mujahid
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 13 June 2007 at 5:38am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

JazakumAllah khair brothers, mashaAllah very informative posts. Is it me or did any one else notice that cocept of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala above His Arsh is same in both aqaaid? So basically Muhammad saleh al-uthaymeen was presenting his own views rather than an original one when he said, 'Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne.

Brother abu Mujahid can you also shed some light on first two points raised by Brother Andalus, as to whether they are personal belief of Bilal philips and ibn baaz? and what is the real aqida regarding those matters?

Wassalam

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Quote Abu Mujahid Replybullet Posted: 14 June 2007 at 1:26pm
Originally posted by fatima

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

JazakumAllah khair brothers, mashaAllah very informative posts. Is it me or did any one else notice that cocept of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala above His Arsh is same in both aqaaid?<

Sister walaikumu salam. Don't be decieved by his fake lies. Both Aqeedah are not same at least interm of Allah's atrribute. Besides, there are many lies he said that need to be exposed and corrected. 

 >So basically Muhammad saleh al-uthaymeen was presenting his own views rather than an original one when he said, 'Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne<

Sister that is lie as you will see soon.

>Brother abu Mujahid can you also shed some light on first two points raised by Brother Andalus, as to whether they are personal belief of Bilal philips and ibn baaz? and what is the real aqida regarding those matters?

 

OK. Let me address the first point and come back two other shiekhs.

Wassalam

 

First, Sh. Othaiymen, didn't said such stuff. What he said was what Ahlu sunnah said all along. As usual, he distorted like his Kabbani did the words of shiekh to fit his sick agenda

Sheikh Othaiymen said,

  "We believe that He ‘created the Heavens and the earth in Six days than He made Istawaa upon the Throne, He manages everything.' His Istawaa means that He is in Person above the Throne in a way that befits His Majesty and Greatness. Nobody Knows how He made Istawaa,"
 

Now compare to what this dahlani said about Othaiymen. The shiekh never said he is sitting on Kursi or Chair. he said He is above in person (Dat) above the throne as you see above.

Continue.......

 

 

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Quote Andalus Replybullet Posted: 16 June 2007 at 10:25pm

Originally posted by Abu Mujahid

Bro Abuzaid,

Well said. The sad part of this man is he is convert and Kabbani Sufi, Kowthari/Dahlani..and list goes on. North American muslims make this mistake again and again. Convert let we put in drive seat!!. The result is like this disastor. The sect he belong...Hisham Kabbani sufi spy is well documented in west their hostile to true Islam. I will never forget the day he went to Michael Wienner *Savage* (Jew) and savaged real Islam. Among lies he fed to this Jew and State Department was 80 percent of American masajids is run by extermist. In other word....Al-qaeda. He went further kissing the feet of White house and Congress just to get attention and respect. What a sad convert Sufi!!!

Thats a real nice rant, but you wasted your time, as once again, your present a fallacy to reason, this is a genetic fallacy. Not only am I "not" a follower of Kabbani, it is completely irrelevant as if I were, it would not make the presentation given any less valid. This reply is just more of your "blithering". Your constant immature approach to labeling and name calling to replace a rational discourse is a sign to me that you lack education, age, and experience. I will give you a warning. I have allowed you freedom to insult me, and I have engaged you in word play, but now that I will present my thoughts in a coherent fashion which requires time, I will expect you to “grow up” and reply to my contributions with meaning and argued positions. If you begin to reply with your usual name calling, labeling, and derogatory remarks, you will be warned, and further repeats of outbursts will end with your account being brought to the attention of the admin for dismissal.

 

The list of his citation is also laughing.....among many include Dahlani and Saqaf. The latter teachs Amman University carrying huge hatred venom against the sunnah people. When scholars correct him he went silent crying for help from Jordan King, the Jewish lover .

genetic fallacy. I will comment on the use of “citations” with clear reasons why they are erroneous and unaccepatbale. Keep in mind you cannot reject, rationally, an argument on the grounds that you dislike citations, as your dislike for citations does not imply that the evidence was wrong. This is a “genetic fallacy”.

 

To debate with him in civility long like tall order. I put Kitab altowhid li Muhammad Ibnu Abdulwahab and asked him to show where he deviated from Ahlu sunnah waljamah. He couldn't answer because he knows I caught him red handed.  Instead he went on his way adopting hit and run game.

I gave you a small list, "tasawuf, tawasul, visiting graves, ijam, etc, etc, etc. I did not answer because you have not presented me with a specific question, only constant blithering. I made a general statement regarding this poisonous work, and I am not required to refute the entire work. You could have asked me what about the work was wrong, or what was a point of disagreement, but your response was typical of a sectarian, which is to throw out unrealistic demands and then howl about how your challenge was not met. Your demand and the current conclusion you are drawing is a non-sequitur. 

This is a man who refused correct hadith in muslim just his American sufi ego says otherwise. So I decided to counter his above post by this sunni post. My aim is to remind the people who don't know the core of this what Sunni people says in this regard.

It is not I who reject, it is the fact that your sect drudges up fitnah and useless discourse and uses questionable evidences, which are rejected by great Sunni minds of Ahl As-sunnah, not me, nor being “American”, which is another genetic fallacy.

  Second expose their ignornance in this serious matter. Third: Their sufism in America is danger to our muslim national security even if they call themselves Ahlu sunna waljama. 

May Allah guide him to right path.

-----------------------------------------------------------

May I ask you a question, what color is your sky? The fact that you have now declared your deviated sect’s ideas as mainstream, and my position as “American Sufism”, suggests that you an extremely ignorant person, very uneducated in terms of Islamic history, and delusional. God leads astray those whom He wills, and Muhammad ibn Abdl Wahab was very much lead astray, which is why he chose as his hero Ibn Taymyyah, another man who was lead so far astray that he was put in prison for his deviated ideas, and those who choose to follow them. You are like those who live in the eye of a hurricane: People tell you that you are in a great storm, but your mind is blinded by the blue sky around you, and you refuse to realize you are in the center of a raging storm.

 

Who is Allaah? By Mahmud Murad

Allaah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allaah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness, Divinity, and Ruboobiyyah[1], and to the uniqueness of His attributes and names.

His essence does not resemble the essences. He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything inhere in Him. "There is none like unto Him." He is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible. He is the Rubb[2] who accomplishes all affairs, Allaah is the Omnipotent and the Omniscient.

His knowledge comprehends in perfect manner all things, hidden or manifest. He is greater than can be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. He knows everything, and He is aware of all that takes place in the earth and the heavens. Allaah, the Supreme, is the Rubb of everything and has a free hand in disposal of all affairs.

His mercy encompasses everything. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny. He is wise in all His actions, just in all His decrees. His justice ensures order in the universe in which nothing is out of order.

There is no one to share His dominion, nor does He take an aide or supporter from His creatures. He is nearer to man than man's own jugular vein[3]. Whenever a believer is in need or distress calls on Him, He responds.

Allaah has revealed His final Scripture, the Qur'an, to that last of His Messengers, Muhammed (SAW) who was responsible for conveying the Message of Islam to mankind. He is the Exalted Allaah. Glory is due to Him.

Where is Allaah?

Allaah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger (SAW) as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'an is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allaah.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allaah without distorting their meaning, and that Allaah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.

This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allaah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allaah with which Allaah has created mankind. Although the Aqeedah of Loftiness of Allaah is part of man's innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.

All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allaah. Whoever believes that Allaah is above His 'Arsh[4] and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allaah, and believes as well that the heavens and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allaah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.

Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites[5] and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims' minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allaah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allaah clashes with the clear Qur'ânic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allaah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allaah.

The essential divine attributes of Allaah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'h without questioning the 'how' of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy.

It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allaah, or the question, 'Where is Allaah?' with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur'an and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.

 

This piece is the usual deceptive sophistry that comes out of this deviated group. I noticed that the first thing he tried to do is commit a false dichotomy by trying to assert an equivocation that he failed to prove. He asserts that one most accept the Divine Loftiness (he never argued to actually even define his usage of divine loftiness which is suspect was a deceptive trick), or else reject all other divine attributes. He failed to show how that works, he failed to show how is idea of divine loftiness is the same as that declared by the majority of Ahl Asunnah, and tries to mislead unknowing Muslims. He is trying to use an idea put forth by Ibn Taymyyah dealing with “tafweed”. According to this deviant group, “tafweed” is committal of modality when speaking of the attributes of God, so that when we speak of the “shin of God”, the “salafis” say that they understand the meaning, but the modality of the shin is committed to God, but if we commit the meaning of the attributes to God, then we are like the Jahmis who do deny the reality of the attributes (there rests the equivocation fallacy). But tafweed is defined by such scholars as Imam Anawawi as “committal of meaning”, such that when speak of the “shin of God”, we commit the meaning to God, which is not a denial of the attributes. Therefore, the intellectually bankrupt theology of the neo salafis is such that they claim they know the meanings of the divine attributes, but they do not know the how of the meaning, because they place the modality with God. This is no different from Christian who say that God is 3 in one, but we do not understand the meaning (they assign understanding of the meaning but commit the modality to God).

 It is not a matter of denying divine loftiness, it is a matter of denying their anthropomorphic heresy of trying to show God has a direction and is bound by time and space, a complete violation of God describing Himself as not being like anything we can think of, and having a position implies form and position, and not proving what “loftiness” is, we are being hood winked into believing that God exists in space and time. Another trick he is attempting is to throw out rational reasoning. This sect will usually throw it to the side when it does not work for them, but invoke it when they demand “daleels” at every point in a discussion as a way to obfuscate discourse. I deny that God has a position in time and space.

I do not have to deny Divine Loftiness to disagree with these deviants, as I hold that Allah is above the Throne and all creation with a Loftiness that does make Him closer to the throne or heaven which does not make Him further from the earth. So I do not deny His Loftiness, but I deny that it places Him in a position of place and time.

Since the author failed to go into the idea of “tafwee”, and simply tried to assert his devtiaed position as if it is the only position and the strongest opinion, I will now contribute some examples of “tafweed” from Sunni classical texts, thanks to brother  “faqir” for contributing and brother Sidi Abu Hasan for his translation, and to sunniforum where several threads on this topic have already taken place.

http://www.sunniforum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=13478&p age=2

 

Imam Ibn Abd as-Salam and Tafwid





Sulţān al-Úlamā Shaykh Ízzuddīn Ábdu’l Ázīz ibn Ábdu’s Salām [d. 660 AH] writes in his epistle: ‘Al-Mulĥah fī Iýtiqādi Ahli’l Ĥaqq’ pg. 12:


استوى على العرش المجيد على وجه الذي قاله * وبالمعنى الذي أراده * استواء منزها عن امماسة والإستقر 75;ر * والتمكن والحلول والإنتقا 04; * فتعالى الله الكبير المتعال عما يقوله أهل الغي والضلال بل لا يحمله العرش * بل العرش وحملته محمولون بلطف قدرته * ومقهورون في قبضته * أحاط بكل شيء علما



And He made Istawā on the Majestic Throne in the manner He has said;
its meaning is what He Intends. Istawā that is free from touching [the throne] or settling upon it. Or holding unto it or getting into it or transferring upon it. Exalted is Allāh, the Most Exalted from such things attributed by the aberrant and the deviated. Rather the Throne cannot bear Him; infact, the Throne and [the angels] who bear it are dependent on His Grace and are subdued by His Power. He encompasses everything with His Knowledge.


*translated by Sidi Abu Hasan*

Imam Ali al-Qari on Tafwid


Bismillāhi’r Raĥmāni’r Raĥīm


Álī al-Ūshī [Badyi’l Amālī]:

wa rabbu’l árshi fawqa’l árshi lākin
bilā waşfi’t tamakkuni wa’t-tişāli

The Lord of Throne is on the Throne, but –

Sans the attribute of ‘holding unto’ or ‘touching’ it.

-----

Álī al-Qārī [Đaw al-Máālī]

‘Lord of the Throne’ that is, the Creator and the Owner of the Throne. The association is similar to ‘Lord of the House’ [
rabbu’l bayt] or ‘Lord of Jibrīl’ [rabbi jibrīl.] The Throne is the greatest thing in the creation and that which encompasses everything. Allāh táālā has said: ‘Raĥmān has made Istawā on the Throne’ [ţā-hā, v.5]

The madh’hab of the latter scholars [khalaf] is to explain Istawā’a as Subduing [
istiylā’a] and the chosen position of the predecessors [salaf] is not to explain it at all. [ádamu’t ta-wīl] Rather, to believe it as it has been revealed, that it is transcendent and unqualified [tanzīh] which negates similitude [tashbīh] and to submit the matter [tafwīđ] towards Allāh and His Knowledge concerning its meaning. Just like Imām Mālik has said: ‘Istawā’a is known; it’s modality is unknown; to ask about it is heresy; to believe in it is mandatory’ [al-istawā’a málūm, wa’l kayf maj’hūl, wa’s suālu ánhu bidáh, wa’l īmānu wājib]

This is also the opinion of our Imām al-Aážam regarding this and all such abstruse verses and traditions like ‘hand’ ‘eyes’ ‘face’ among other such attributes. The word ‘upon’ [fawq] is used like ‘He is Overpowering upon His slaves’ [Al-Anáām, v.18] or ‘They fear their Lord from above them’ [An-Naĥl, v.50] Our elders did not explain the word ‘upon’ or ‘above’ [
fawq] as Greatness or Exaltedness like the latter scholars did.

The author [
nāžim] replaced a synonym for the word used in the Qur’ān to align it with the poetic meter and then, he clarified the position by saying in the following distich: Above, and it does not mean ‘to take hold’ or ‘to touch.’ That is it doesn’t mean ‘to rest’ or the aspect of ‘reaching’ because these descriptions are inconceivable [muĥāl] concerning Allāh táālā.

In this verse is also the refutation of Karrāmiyyah and the anthropomorphists [
Mujassimah] who attest a ‘direction’ [jihah] to Allāh táālā. Thus, the Karrāmiyyah attest the direction of height to Allāh without taking hold on the Throne [istiqrār]

And the anthropomorphists – they are the Ĥashwiyyah – insist that Allāh táālā ‘took hold’ [
istiqrār] quoting the verse and taking its literal meaning even though they have no proof for that. Because Istawā’a has many meanings among which is the meaning of overpowering, subduing, control etc. [al-istīylā’a] like the poet says:

qadi’stawā bishrun ála’l írāqi
min ghayri sayfin wa damin mihrāqi


Bishr has subdued and overpowered Iraq,
Without using the sword or bloodshed.

Similarly is the saying of Allāh: ‘and when he reached his youth, and reached his full strength’ [al-Qaşaş/28:14] where Istawā’a is used to mean ‘complete’ or ‘perfected’ [tamām, kamāl.] and the saying of Allāh: ‘and it settled upon the mount Jūdī’ [Hūd v.44] where it means, ‘settled.’ [istiqrār]

Therefore one cannot use this as conclusive evidence when there is a possibility of having so many different meanings.

If someone asks: ‘Then what is the reason of these abstruse [
mutashābihāt] verses being revealed?’ I answer: This is to show the incapacity and powerlessness of the creation and their shortfall of their intellect in grasping the meaning of the Divine Speech of their Lord [ižhāru ájzi’l khalqi wa quşūri fahmihim án kalāmi rabbihim] and to prove their slavery and their faith. Like the most knowledgeable among them say: ‘We bear faith [in all that has been revealed.] All of this is from our Lord’

They submit [
tafwīđ] to Allāh and believe in the intended meaning of Allāh without trying to understand the meaning itself. [al-iýtiqādu bi ĥaqīqati murādillahi min ghayri an yúrafa murādahu] and this is the highest perfection a slave can attain. And this is the chosen position among our elders [salaf] and they turned away from describing or elucidating the meanings of abstruse verses. However, the latter scholars chose to explain these verses without insisting or being assertive about it claiming this is how it was intended by the Lord, glorified is He.

Slavehood [
úbūdiyyah] is far robust than worship; because slavehood entails ‘being pleased with what the Lord does’ and worship is ‘doing what may please the Lord.’ Surely, pleasure of Allāh [riđā] is far greater than actions and deeds [ámal.] So much so that forsaking riđā is apostacy – but forsaking action, is disobeidience and sin [fisq.] Therefore, there is an end to worship – there is no worship in the hereafter, but there is no end to slavehood [úbūdiyyah] in either of the two worlds.

It is crystal clear that the madh’hab of our elders is the safest and the learned; whereas the madh’hab of the latter ones is excellent and more accurate. [
madh’habu’s salaf aslam wa aálam wa madh’hab al-khalaf aĥkam]

Allāh táālā knows best.



*Translated by Sidi Abu Hasan*

More from Ibn Hajar on Tafwid




فتح الباري، شرح صحيح البخاري - للإمام ابن حجر العسقلان 10;

وَقَوْلِ 07;ِ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُ 06;ِنَا
الشرح: قوله (باب قول الله تعالى ولتصنع على عيني: تغذي) كذا وقع في رواية المستملي والأصيلي بضم التاء وفتح الغين المعجمة بعدها معجمة ثقيلة من التغذية، ووقع في نسخة الصغاني بالدال المهملة وليس بفتح أوله على حذف إحدى التاءين فإنه تفسير تصنع، وقد تقدم في تفسير سورة طه قال ابن التين هذا التفسير لقتادة، ويقال صنعت الفرس إذا أحسنت القيام عليه.
قوله (وقوله تعالى
تجري بأعيننا) أي بعلمنا وذكر فيه حديثي ابن عمر ثم أنس في ذكر الدجال، وقد تقدما مشروحين في " كتاب الفتن " وفيهما أن الله ليس بأعور، وقوله هنا وأشار بيده إلى عينه كذا للأكثر عن موسى ابن إسماعيل عن جويرية، وذكره أبو مسعود في الأطراف عن مسدد بدل موسى والأول هو الصواب، وقد أخرجه عثمان الدارمي في كتاب الرد على بشر المريسي عن موسى بن إسماعيل مثله.

ورواه عبد الله بن محمد بن أسماء عن عمه جويرية بدون الزيادة التي في آخره، أخرجه أبو يعلى والحسن بن سفيان في مسنديهما عنه، وأخرجه الإسماعي 04;ي عنهما قال الراغب: العين الجارحة، ويقال للحافظ للشيء المراعى له: عين، ومنه فلان بعيني أي أحفظه، ومنه قوله تعالى (واصنع الفلك بأعيننا) أي نحن نراك ونحفظك، ومثله (
تجري بأعيننا) وقوله (ولتصنع على عيني) أي بحفظي، قال وتستعار العين لمعان أخرى كثيرة.

و
قال ابن بطال احتجت المجسمة بهذا الحديث.

وقالوا في قوله وأشار بيده إلى عينه دلالة على أن عينه كسائر الأعين، وتعقب باستحالة الجسمية عليه لأن الجسم حادث وهو قديم؛ فدل على أن المراد نفي النقص عنه انتهى، وقد تقدم شيء من هذا في باب قوله تعالى (وكان الله سميعا بصيرا) وقال البيهقي: منهم من قال العين صفة ذات كما تقدم في الوجه، ومنهم من قال: المراد بالعين الرؤية، فعلى هذا قوله (ولتصنع على عيني) أي لتكون بمرأى مني، وكذا قوله (واصبر لحكم ربك فإنك بأعيننا) أي بمرأى منا والنون للتعظيم، ومال إلى ترجيح الأول لأنه مذهب السلف، ويتأيد بما وقع في الحديث وأشار بيده فإن فيه إيماء إلى الرد على من يقول معناها القدرة، صرح بذلك قول من قال إنها صفة ذات وقال ابن المنير وجه الاستدلا 04; على إثبات العين لله من حديث الدجال من قوله (إن الله ليس بأعور) من جهة أن العور عرفا عدم العين وضد العور ثبوت العين، فلما نزعت هذه النقيصة لزم ثبوت الكمال بضدها وهو وجود العين، وهو على سبيل التمثيل والتقريب للفهم لا على معنى إثبات الجارحة، قال
ولأهل الكلام في هذه الصفات كالعين والوجه واليد ثلاثة أقوال: أحدها أنها صفات ذات أثبتها السمع ولا يهتدي إليها العقل، والثاني أن العين كناية عن صفة البصر، واليد كناية عن صفة القدرة، والوجه كناية عن صفة الوجود، والثالث إمرارها على ما جاءت مفوضا معناها إلى الله تعالى.

وقال
الشيخ شهاب الدين السهرورد 10; في كتاب العقيدة له، أخبر الله في كتابه وثبت عن رسوله الاستواء والنزول والنفس واليد والعين، فلا يتصرف فيها بتشبيه ولا تعطيل، إذ لولا إخبار الله ورسوله ما تجاسر عقل أن يحوم حول ذلك الحمى، قال الطيبي: هذا هو المذهب المعتمد وبه يقول السلف الصالح.





Very rough translation of the last few lines:




... amongst the people of kalaam there are three sayings regarding the attributes (sifaatul) al-ayn, al-wajh and al-yad.

The first saying is: that they are the attributes of essence (sifaatu dhaatu) that have been established by proofs (daleel us-sam’iyyah) and we do not try to comprehend them.

The second saying is: al-Ayn is a metonym for the attribute of Seeing (al-baSr), al-Yad is a metonym for the attribute of Power (al-qudrah) and al-Wajh is a metonym for the attribute of Himself (al-wujood).

And the third - passing on what has come while delegating it's meaning to Allah ta'ala.


And Shaykh Shihab al-Din in his book of Aqida said that Allah has informed in His book and it is authenticated from His Prophet: al-istiwa, al-nuzool, al-nafs, al-yad, al-ayn so do not alter them with Tashbeeh [likening Allah to His creation] or Ta'teel [negation]. If there is no report from Allah or his Rasool then don't engage with your intellect in such dangerous matters. Al-Tibiyy has said: this is the relied upon madhab and the sayings of the righteous predecessors.

 

 

Shaikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi on Tafwid




Sidi Djibril recently provided me with a quote from the contemporary Sh. Yusuf al-Qaradawi - someone who most would consider a "salafi" [although this is likely to be untrue!].

Shaikh Al-Qaradawi in his work published last year, the 6th book of the silsila mubaraka about the unification of thoughts, section on the 'aqida between salaf and khalaf:

للقرضاوى بعنوان {{فصول فى العقيده بين السلف و الخلف و هو الكتاب السادس من سلسلته المباركهنحو وحد فكريه
يقول القرضاوى


بعد دراسه و بحث إستمر سنوات أرى أن الراجح أن مذهب
السلف هو تفويض المعنى لا الإثبات و أن هذا هو رأى أكثرالسل 01;



“After study and research which lasted for years, I realised that the most relied upon opinion as being the opinion of the salaf is the tafwid of the meaning (i.e. to leave the knowledge of the meaning to Allah) and not the ithbat of the meaning (i.e. to take the literal meaning), and that this opinion is the opinion of the majority of the salaf.”  

cont.....insha'Allah

A feeling of discouragement when you slip up is a sure sign that you put your faith in deeds. -Ibn 'Ata'llah
http://www.sunnipath.com
http://www.sunniforum.com/forum/
http://www.pt-go.com/
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Andalus
 
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Quote Andalus Replybullet Posted: 16 June 2007 at 10:30pm
Originally posted by Abu Mujahid

Bro Abuzaid,

Well said. The sad part of this man is he is convert and Kabbani Sufi, Kowthari/Dahlani..and list goes on. North American muslims make this mistake again and again. Convert let we put in drive seat!!. The result is like this disastor. The sect he belong...Hisham Kabbani sufi spy is well documented in west their hostile to true Islam. I will never forget the day he went to Michael Wienner *Savage* (Jew) and savaged real Islam. Among lies he fed to this Jew and State Department was 80 percent of American masajids is run by extermist. In other word....Al-qaeda. He went further kissing the feet of White house and Congress just to get attention and respect. What a sad convert Sufi!!!

The list of his citation is also laughing.....among many include Dahlani and Saqaf. The latter teachs Amman University carrying huge hatred venom against the sunnah people. When scholars correct him he went silent crying for help from Jordan King, the Jewish lover .

To debate with him in civility long like tall order. I put Kitab altowhid li Muhammad Ibnu Abdulwahab and asked him to show where he deviated from Ahlu sunnah waljamah. He couldn't answer because he knows I caught him red handed.  Instead he went on his way adopting hit and run game.

This is a man who refused correct hadith in muslim just his American sufi ego says otherwise. So I decided to counter his above post by this sunni post. My aim is to remind the people who don't know the core of this what Sunni people says in this regard. Second, expose their ignornance in this serious matter. Third: Their sufism in America is danger to our muslim national security even if they call themselves Ahlu sunna waljama. 

May Allah guide him to right path.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Who is Allaah? By Mahmud Murad

Allaah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allaah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness, Divinity, and Ruboobiyyah[1], and to the uniqueness of His attributes and names.

His essence does not resemble the essences. He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything inhere in Him. "There is none like unto Him." He is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible. He is the Rubb[2] who accomplishes all affairs, Allaah is the Omnipotent and the Omniscient.

His knowledge comprehends in perfect manner all things, hidden or manifest. He is greater than can be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. He knows everything, and He is aware of all that takes place in the earth and the heavens. Allaah, the Supreme, is the Rubb of everything and has a free hand in disposal of all affairs.

His mercy encompasses everything. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny. He is wise in all His actions, just in all His decrees. His justice ensures order in the universe in which nothing is out of order.

There is no one to share His dominion, nor does He take an aide or supporter from His creatures. He is nearer to man than man's own jugular vein[3]. Whenever a believer is in need or distress calls on Him, He responds.

Allaah has revealed His final Scripture, the Qur'an, to that last of His Messengers, Muhammed (SAW) who was responsible for conveying the Message of Islam to mankind. He is the Exalted Allaah. Glory is due to Him.

Where is Allaah?

Allaah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger (SAW) as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'an is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allaah.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allaah without distorting their meaning, and that Allaah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.

This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allaah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allaah with which Allaah has created mankind. Although the Aqeedah of Loftiness of Allaah is part of man's innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.

All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allaah. Whoever believes that Allaah is above His 'Arsh[4] and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allaah, and believes as well that the heavens and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allaah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.

Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites[5] and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims' minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allaah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allaah clashes with the clear Qur'ânic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allaah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allaah.

The essential divine attributes of Allaah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'h without questioning the 'how' of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy.

It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allaah, or the question, 'Where is Allaah?' with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur'an and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.

cont from last contribution:

Shaikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi on Tafwid




Sidi Djibril recently provided me with a quote from the contemporary Sh. Yusuf al-Qaradawi - someone who most would consider a "salafi" [although this is likely to be untrue!].

Shaikh Al-Qaradawi in his work published last year, the 6th book of the silsila mubaraka about the unification of thoughts, section on the 'aqida between salaf and khalaf:

للقرضاوى بعنوان {{فصول فى العقيده بين السلف و الخلف و هو الكتاب السادس من سلسلته المباركهنحو وحد فكريه
يقول القرضاوى


بعد دراسه و بحث إستمر سنوات أرى أن الراجح أن مذهب
السلف هو تفويض المعنى لا الإثبات و أن هذا هو رأى أكثرالسل 01;



“After study and research which lasted for years, I realised that
the most relied upon opinion as being the opinion of the salaf is the tafwid of the meaning (i.e. to leave the knowledge of the meaning to Allah) and not the ithbat of the meaning (i.e. to take the literal meaning), and that this opinion is the opinion of the majority of the salaf.”

Imam al-Nawawi RH on Tafwid




Imam An-Nawawi writes in Sharh Sahih Muslim (3/19):

‏اِعْلَم 18; أَنَّ لِأَهْلِ الْعِلْم فِي أَحَادِي 79; الصِّفَا 78; وَآيَات الصِّفَا 78; قَوْلَيْ 06;ِ :

أَحَدهمَ 75; : وَهُوَ مَذْهَب مُعْظَم السَّلَف أَوْ كُلّهمْ أَنَّهُ لَا يُتَكَلّ 14;م فِي مَعْنَاه 14;ا , بَلْ يَقُولُو 06;َ : يَجِب عَلَيْنَ 75; أَنْ نُؤْمِن بِهَا وَنَعْتَ 02;ِد لَهَا مَعْنًى يَلِيق بِجَلَال 16; اللَّه تَعَالَى وَعَظَمَ 78;ه مَعَ اِعْتِقَ 75;دنَا الْجَازِ 05; أَنَّ اللَّه تَعَالَى لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِ 07;ِ شَيْء وَأَنَّه 15; مُنَزَّه عَنْ التَّجَس 17;ُم وَالِانْ 78;ِقَال وَالتَّح 14;يُّز فِي جِهَة وَعَنْ سَائِر صِفَات الْمَخْل 15;وق , وَهَذَا الْقَوْل هُوَ مَذْهَب جَمَاعَة مِنْ الْمُتَك 14;لِّمِينَ , وَاخْتَا 85;َهُ جَمَاعَة مِنْ مُحَقِّق 16;يهِمْ وَهُوَ أَسْلَم
.

وَالْقَو 18;ل الثَّانِ 10; : وَهُوَ مَذْهَب مُعْظَم الْمُتَك 14;لِّمِينَ أَنَّهَا تُتَأَوّ 14;ل عَلَى مَا يَلِيق بِهَا عَلَى حَسَب مَوَاقِع 07;َا , وَإِنَّم 14;ا يَسُوغ تَأْوِيل 07;َا لِمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْله بِأَنْ يَكُونَ عَارِفًا بِلِسَان 16; الْعَرَب وَقَوَاع 16;د الْأُصُو 04; وَالْفُر 15;وع , ذَا رِيَاضَة فِي الْعِلْم , فَعَلَى هَذَا الْمَذْه 14;ب يُقَال فِي قَوْله صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم 14; : ( فَيَأْتِ 10;هِمْ اللَّه ) أَنَّ الْإِتْي 14;ان عِبَارَة عَنْ رُؤْيَته 05;ْ إِيَّاهُ ; لِأَنَّ الْعَادَ 77; أَنَّ مَنْ غَابَ عَنْ غَيْره لَا يُمْكِنه 15; رُؤْيَته إِلَّا بِ الْإِتْي 14;انِ , فَعَبَّر 14; بِ الْإِتْي 14;انِ وَالْمَج 16;يء هُنَا عَنْ الرُّؤْي 14;ة مَجَازًا , وَقِيلَ : الْإِتْي 14;ان فِعْل مِنْ أَفْعَال اللَّه تَعَالَى سَمَّاهُ إِتْيَان 11;ا , وَقِيلَ : الْمُرَا 83; ( يَأْتِيه 16;مْ اللَّه ) أَيْ : يَأْتِيه 16;مْ بَعْض مَلَائِك 14;ة اللَّه




The people of knowledge hold two views regarding the ahādīth and verses about the attributes of Allah:

1. The view of the majority or all of the salaf is that its meaning should not be discussed; rather it should be said: we are obliged to believe in them with conviction that they have a meaning suited to the majesty and glory of Allah – which is in accordance with one of our fundamental beliefs that there is nothing like Allah – and that He is transcendent beyond taking on a form, having movement, having direction and from all elements particular to creation. This view is the madhhab of a great mass of the theologians (mutakallimun) and it is the preferred opinion of many of the verifiers (muhaqqiqun). This is the safest option.

2. The view of majority of the scholars of kalam is that they are figuratively interpreted according to their appropriate contextual meanings; this figurative interpretation is only possible for one who is native to the language such that he is well aware of the Arabic language and the primary and secondary principles, which require great intellectual ability. So, for example, according to this madhhab, it is said about the Prophet’s
صلى الله عليه وسلم words: “Allah will come to them” that the coming here refers to their vision of Him (in a metaphorical sense) because the norm is that it is not possible to see one who is absent from another without his arrival – so, in this example, coming and arriving is interpreted to mean a metaphoric vision; it has also been said that coming is from amongst the actions of Allah and it has been named “coming”; it has also been said the intent of “Allah will come to them” is that some of Allah’s Angels will come to them.






Note: Elsewhere, Sh. GF Haddad quotes Imam al-Nawawi as saying in relation to al-Istiwa:

"We believe that {the Merciful established Himself over the Throne} (20:5), and we do not know the reality of the meaning of this nor what is meant by it (la na`lamu haqiqata mi`na dhalika wa al-murada bihi), while we do believe that {There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him} (42:11) and that He is exalted far above the most elevated of created things. That is the way of the Salaf or at least their vast majority, and it is the safest because one is not required to probe into such matters."

[al-Majmu` Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (1:25)]

 

Al-Hafiz Qasim ibn Qutlubugha [RH] on Tafwid




Hafiz Qasim bin Qutlubughah al-Hanafi writes in Al-Musamarah Sharh Al-Musayarah (Al-Musayarah being a work of his teacher, Ibn Al-Hummam):


وقال سلفنا في جملة المتشابه : نؤمن به ونفوض تاويله الى الله تعالى مع تنزيهه عما يوجب التشبيه والحدوث ، بشرط أن لايذكر الاّ ما في القرآن و الحديث




Our salaf have said about the mutashabih (ambiguous) verses: we believe in them and commit their interpretations to Allah absolving Him of anything which would require similarity with created beings (tashbih) or contingency (huduth) with the condition that nothing is mentioned except that which appears in the Qur’an and hadith.






Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah rahmatullahi alaih (802-879 AH) Zain al din Abu al Adl Qasim bin Qutlubughah al Jamali. He grew as an orphan and began his search for knowledge at a very young age. He studied under some of the most famous authorities of his time such as Hafidh Badr al din al Aini, Hafidh Ibn Hajar and Hafidh Kamal al din Ibn al Hummam. Despite being his teacher Hafidh Ibn Hajar once described him as ‘The eminent Sheikh, the unique and ideal muhaddith’ and on another occasion as ‘The Imam, Allamah, muhaddith, fiqih, hafidh
His students include Hafidh Shams al din al Sakhawi and Sharaf al din Yahya al Munawi. Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah authored over eighty works, most of which were on hadith and its narrators. He died in Cairo in the year 879 AH. May Allah shower His mercy on him. (The Salah of a Believer pg. 199)

I felt it was necessary to give accounts by scholars on the notion of “tafweed”, and this was necessary as the author attempted to deceptively insert his narrow view of “tafweed” without any argument or discussion, and then assert that if you are against it, then you are of the jahmiyya. Keep in mind that I am not denying that other positions have been made concerning the divine attributes, what I am denying is that the position proposed in this work is the major, stronger position.  

Shaikh Nuh Keller gave a discussion about this this topic, I will paste a segment that I feel gives this topic context:

To summarize everything I have said tonight, we have seen three ways of understanding the mutashabihat, or ‘unapparent in meaning’ verses and hadiths: tafwid, ‘consigning the knowledge of what is meant to Allah,’ ta’wil, ‘figurative interpretation within the parameters of classical Arabic usage,’ and lastly tashbih, or ‘anthropomorphic literalism.’

We saw that the way of tafwid or ‘consigning the knowledge of what is meant to Allah,’ was the way of Shafi‘i, Ahmad, and many of the early Muslims. A second interpretive possibility, the way of ta’wil, or ‘figurative interpretation,’ was also done by the Companions (Sahaba) and many other early Muslims as reported above. In classical scholarship, both have been considered Islamic, and both seem needed, though tafwid is superior where it does not lead to confusion about Allah’s transcendence beyond the attributes of created things, in accordance with the Qur'anic verse,

"There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him" (Qur'an 42:11).

As for anthropomorphism, it is clear from this verse and from the entire history of the Umma, that it is not an Islamic school of thought, and never has been. In all times and places, Islam has invited non-Muslims to faith in the Incomparable Reality called Allah; not making man a god, and not making God a man.

This can be further studied at http://www.masud.co.uk/ISLAM/nuh/littlk.htm

I will now provide some evidences of how many classical scholars thought about divine “loftiness”. 

· Umm Salama the Prophet's wife said the following about istiwa' as quoted by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-bari: "The establishment is not unknown (ghayr majhul) and its modality is inconceivable in the mind (ghayr ma`qul); one does not ask "how" about Him; "how" is inapplicable to Him."

· Sufyan al-Thawri (d. 161) forwarded an interpretation of istiwa' in verse 20:4 as "a command concerning the Throne" (amrun fi al-`arsh), according to Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni (d. 478) in his al-Irshad ila qawati` al-adilla fi usul al-i`tiqad (The guidance to the decisive proofs in the foundations of belief), as quoted by al-Yafi`i in the latter's book Kitab marham al-`ilal al-mu`dila fi daf` al-shubah wa al-radd `ala al-mu`tazila (Book of the resolution of difficult problems for the removal of doubts and the refutation of the Mu`tazila):

The understanding of istiwa' as Allah's turning to a particular command concerning the Throne is not far-fetched, and this is the ta'wil of Imam Sufyan al-Thawri, who took as corroborating evidence for it the verse: "Then turned He (istawa) to the heaven when it was smoke" (41:11).

· Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150) says in his Wasiyya: "Had He been in a place and needing to sit and rest before creating the Throne, then the question 'Where was Allah?' would have applied to Him, which is impossible... We assert that Allah is established on the throne without His need (haja) nor settlement (istiqrar) upon it, for He it is Who preserves the Throne and other than it without needing any of them."

He said in his al-Fiqh al-akbar: "Allah has no limits, nor any rivals... He who says: 'I do not know if my Lord is in the heavens or on the earth' is a disbeliever, and he who says: 'He is on the Throne, and I do not know whether the Throne is in the heaven or on the earth,' he is also a disbeliever." Imam Abu Mansur al-Maturidi explained this to mean: "The reason is that by such words he suggests a place for Allah and this is idolatry."

· A man asked Imam Malik (d. 179): "How did Allah make istiwa' on the throne?" Imam Malik inclined his head and was silent until the sweat of fever covered his brow, then he looked up and said: "Istiwa' is not unknown (ghayru majhul), the modality of it is inconceivable in the mind (al-kayfu minhu ghayru ma`qul); but belief in it is obligatory, and inquiring about it is a heretical innovation. You are an innovator." And he gave orders for him to be taken out.

· Imam Shafi`i (d. 204) in his small treatise entitled al-Fiqh al-akbar said: "Whoever says: al-Rahmanu `ala al-`arsh istawa, it is said to him: This verse is one of the mutashabih (ambiguous matter) concerning which one is perplexed to give an answer, and the same is said regarding similar verses."

· Others who list the verse of istiwa' among the mutashabihat are Imam Malik ibn Anas, the fuqaha' of Madina, and al-Asma`i according to Abu Mansur `Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi in Usul al-Din.

· The Imam of Ahl al-Sunna, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari (d. 324), says in his Al-ibana fi usul al-diyana: "Allah is above the heavens, above the Throne, above everything, with a loftiness (fawqiyya) which does not make Him any closer to the Throne or the heavens, just as it does not make Him any further from the earth. He is close to everything in existence, He is closer to the servant than his jugular vein, and He is a witness over all things."

He also says, as reported by Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi in Usul al-Din: "Allah's establishment on the Throne is an action He has created named istiwa' and related to the Throne, just as He has created an action named ityan (coming) related to a certain people; and this implies neither descent nor movement."

· Al-hafiz Abu Hatim Ibn Hibban al-Busti (d. 354) flatly denied that Allah had limits and was expelled from Sijistan under pain of death by the anthropomorphists, as mentioned above.

· Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310) said in his Tafsir: "Allah made himself exalted over the heaven with the exaltation of sovereignty and power, not that of displacement and movement."

· Imam Abu Mansur `Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi (d. 429) in Usul al-Din says: "The correct position according to us is the interpretation of the Throne in this verse to mean the sovereignty (al-mulk), as if He meant that the sovereignty has not been established for any but Him. This interpretation is taken from the saying of the Arabs: "So-and-so's Throne has toppled" if he lost his power." He then cites three examples from poetry illustrating this. He says about the characteristics of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a in his al-Farq bayn al-firaq (The differences between the sects): "Ahl al-Sunna are in consensus (ajma`u) that Allah, the Flawless, the Exalted, is not bounded by location." He then reports the saying of Sayidina `Ali: "Allah created the Throne as an indication of His power, not for taking it as a place for Himself."

· Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni (d. 478) said in his al-Irshad as quoted by al-Yafi`i in the latter's book Kitab marham al-`ilal al-mu`dila:

Care must be taken to show the vulgar anthropomorphists (hashwiyya) the verses upon which they do practice ta'wil so that when they invoke as proof of their belief in Allah's "settling" (istiqrar) the external meaning of "The Merciful is established on the Throne" (20:4), ask them for the meaning of "And He is with you wheresoever you are" (57:4). If they take the latter according to its external sense also, then they annul the external sense of His being established on the Throne which they claim, and they also proclaim the disgrace of their beliefs for all resonable persons to see; however, if they understand it as referring to His encompassing us with His knowledge, then they have applied ta'wil, and it is no longer forbidden for us to do the same in interpreting His establishment as "subduing" (qahara) and "prevailing over" (ghalaba), as is permitted by the Arabic language... Moreover, istiwa' in the sense of istiqrar, or settling, presupposes a prior state of disturbance, and to hold this is disbelief (kufr)....

If they say: Why don't you let the verse pass according to its external sense without interpreting it, and only say that it is among the mutashabihat whose meaning only Allah knows? We say: If the questioner wants to let istiwa' pass according to the external sense it commonly suggests, which is physical settlement, then such a sense drives us to anthropomorphism, but if that is explicitly shown to be impossible, then the external sense ceases... at which time it is not far-fetched to understand the verse rightly and reasonably according to the demands of the divine Law and the obligation to avoid ta'wil, lest wrong belief results.

· Imam Abu Hamid Ghazali (d. 505) says almost the same thing as Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi in the Ihya', section on qawa`id wa `aqa'id (principles and doctrines), and something related to it in the Iljam which we have excerpted already.

· The grammarian al-Raghib (d. 507?) says: "The expression istawa `ala has the meaning of istila' or holding mastery over something, as in the verse of Qur'an: al-rahmanu `ala al-`arsh istawa... It means that everything is alike in relation to Him in such manner that no one thing is nearer to Him than another thing, since He is not like the bodies that abide in one place exclusive of another place."

· Imam Fakhr al-Din Razi (d. 606) in his al-Tafsir al-kabir says in his commentary to verse 19:93: "Since it is affirmed by this verse that "All those in the heavens and the earth must come to Allah as His slave," and since it is obligatory that Allah is clear of being a slave, He is therefore clear of being in a place or direction, or on the Throne or the Chair."

· Imam Abu Mansur Ibn `Asakir (d. 620) says in his `Aqida: "It must not be said: When was He, or where was He, or how was He. He exists without a place."

· Ibn al-Jawzi said: "Whoever says: He is established on the Throne "in person" (bi dhatihi), has diverted the sense of the verse to that of sensory perception. Such a person must not neglect that the principle is established by the mind, by which we have come to know Allah, and have attributed pre-eternity to Him decisively. If you said: We read the hadiths and keep quiet, no one would criticize you; it is only your taking them in the external sense which is hideous. Therefore do not bring into the school of this pious man of the Salaf -- Imam Ahmad -- what does not belong in it. You have clothed this madhhab with an ugly deed, so that it is no longer said "Hanbali" except in the sense of "anthropomorphist"....

Then they say: We take them according to their external senses. O wonder! What is the "external sense" of what Allah alone knows? Is the "external sense" of istiwa' other than sitting down? and is the "external sense" of nuzul other than displacement?...

They said: He is established on the Throne "in person." But this addition is not related by anyone! It is only what they understood with their senses, namely, that one is not established other than with his own person...

· Imam al-`Izz ibn `Abd al-Salam (d. 660) was asked in his Fatawa: "What do you say about Abu Zayd al-Qayrawani al-Maliki's (d. 386) saying: "Allah is above His exalted Throne in person (bi dhatihi), and He is in every place with His knowledge": Does such an affirmation attribute a direction to Allah or not? And is the one who holds such belief declared a disbeliever (kafir) or not?" He replied: "The apparent meaning of what Ibn Abi Zayd said attributes direction for Allah, because he has made a difference between Allah's being on the Throne and His being with His creation. As for the second question: the more correct position is that the one who holds belief in Allah's direction is not declared a disbeliever, because the scholars of Islam did not bring such as these out of Islam, rather, they adjudicated inheritance from Muslims for them, burial in Muslim grounds, sanctity of their blood and property, and the obligation to pray over their remains. The same is true of all the upholders of innovations: People never ceased to apply to them the rulings that apply to Muslims. Pay no attention to what the common people claim about their disbelief."

· Imam Nawawi (d. 676) said in Sharh al-muhadhdhab: "It is said: We believe that the Merciful is established over the Throne, and we do not know the reality of the meaning of this nor what is meant by it (la na`lamu haqiqata mi`na dhalika wa al-murada bihi), while we do believe that "There is nothing like Him whatsoever" and that He is exalted far above the most elevated of created things. That is the way of the Salaf or at least their vast majority, and it is the safest because one is not required to probe into such matters."

· Ibn al-Hammam al-Hanafi (d. 681) said in al-Musayara: "It is obligatory to believe that Allah is established on the Throne while negating any likeness to creation. As for saying that His establishment (istiwa') is a conquering (istila'), it is permissible but not obligatory since there is no evidence for it specifically... However, if it is feared that the common people will not understand istiwa' without conceiving of contact and other corporeal characteristics, and if they do not negate the latter, then there is no harm in directing their understanding to istila', as its usage and meaning for istiwa' is established in language from the poet's saying: "Bishr has conquered (istawa `ala) Iraq" and "When we towered above them and conquered them (istawayna `alayhim)..."

· Shaykh `Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi's (d. 1143) statement already quoted: "Whoever believes that Allah permeates the Heavens and the Earth, or that He is a body sitting on His Throne, is a disbeliever, even if he thinks he is a Muslim."

· Al-Dhahabi disavowed the term "in person": "There is no need for this expression, and it disturbs the soul."

· Ibn Hajar also rejected the statement that Allah is on the Throne "in person" as equally preposterous as saying that He is everywhere:

Some of the Mu`tazila have claimed that Allah was everywhere on the basis of the hadith "If one of you stands in prayer, let him not spit in front of him for Allah is in front of him." This is evident ignorance, because the hadith then states that he should spit under his foot, which invalidates their principle. The hadith also constitutes a refutation of those who say that Allah is on the Throne "in person."

· Even Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab (d. 1817 CE), the Wahhabi founder's grandson, declared as unbeliever anyone who used the term "in person" in relation to Allah being in a place, whether one place or an infinite number: "Whoever believes or says: Allah is in person (bi dhatihi) in every place, or in one place: he is a disbeliever (kafir). It is obligatory to declare that Allah is distinct from His creation, established over His throne without modality or likeness or examplarity. Allah was and there was no place, then He created place and He is exalted as He was before He created place."

http://www.sunnah.org/aqida/aqida1.htm

 

 

I will, insha’Allah continue with the rest of this piece.

 

A feeling of discouragement when you slip up is a sure sign that you put your faith in deeds. -Ibn 'Ata'llah
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Andalus
 
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Quote Andalus Replybullet Posted: 16 June 2007 at 10:41pm
Originally posted by fatima

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

JazakumAllah khair brothers, mashaAllah very informative posts. Is it me or did any one else notice that cocept of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala above His Arsh is same in both aqaaid? So basically Muhammad saleh al-uthaymeen was presenting his own views rather than an original one when he said, 'Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne.

Nice catch sister.

The Author was being deceptive, and not coming forth and explain what extacly "Divine Loftiness" is, and his view boils down to God having a position in time and space, somehow "propelling" Himself above and down to the throne.

 

Brother abu Mujahid can you also shed some light on first two points raised by Brother Andalus, as to whether they are personal belief of Bilal philips and ibn baaz? and what is the real aqida regarding those matters?

Wassalam

He cannot explain it, expect deflection from him through being belligerent and just denying everything. That is how a deviant group operates.

bin Bazz inserted words into a scholars mouth, words that were not there nor were they implied. This is their style. It is horrible that people who call themselves Muslims tamper with texts to fit their whims. This is what Christians did in a manjor effort to prove their views in inter-sect debates in the third century.

  http://www.islamicity.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=9528& ;PN=1&TPN=1

 

A feeling of discouragement when you slip up is a sure sign that you put your faith in deeds. -Ibn 'Ata'llah
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