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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 11 April 2007 at 6:19am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

The construct phrase (aliđāfatu)


Rule No. 30


Iđāfah consists of two nouns of any gender which are combined together in a phrase indicating their close relationship and generally imparting the meaning of possession.  The first noun of the construct phrase (muđāf) provides the meaning of ‘being possessed’ and the second noun (muđāf ilayh) denotes the ‘possessor’.


(A)           The second noun ‘the possessor’:

·        Always remains in genitive case.

·        It can remain either definite or indefinite.

·        It can be a pronoun suffix.


(B)           The first noun ‘being possessed’:

·        Always appears as indefinite with a ĥarakah, short vowel.

·        Depending on its case it can remain in nominative, accusative or genitive form.

·        It agrees in meaning in both cases of definiteness and indefiniteness of the second noun.


(1)           ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ (Kitābullahi) The Book of Allah. / Allah’s Book

Both nouns ﻜﺘﺎﺐKitābu and ﺍﷲ Allahi are closely related with each other and this construction forms a phrase. The first noun ﻜﺘﺎﺐ is written and pronounced as indefinite with a đammah ُ ĥarakah because it is in the nominative case but it gives the definite meaning for its close relationship with the second noun of the phras ﺍﷲ. The second noun is definite and it is in the genitive case (carrying kasrahِ).

ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ ﺍﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ (AlQur’ānu Kitābullahi) The Qur’ān is the book of Allah. ﺍﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ is subject and is ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ predicate.

ﺒﻠﺪ ﻋﺎﻠﻢ (‘Ālimu baladin) A scholar of a town, the second noun is indefinite. It is in the genitive case carrying kasrah tanwīn. Because of this the first noun is also indefinite, it is an active participle and is in the nominative case.

ﻛﺘﺎﺒﻪ (Kitābuhu) His book, Kitābu is the first noun and Hu the pronoun suffix stands for the second noun and is free from any genitive effect. In construct phrase pronoun suffix becomes possessive pronoun.


ﺍﷲ ﺒﺎﺴﻢ ﻛﺘﺒﺕ (katabtu Bismillahi) I wrote in the name of Allah. Here ﻛﺘﺒﺕ katabtu is the subject and ﺍﷲ ﺒﺎﺴﻢ Bismillahi (in the name of Allah) is the predicate. This predicate is comprised of a construct phrase ﺍﷲ ﺎﺴﻢ (the name of Allah), which is preceded by a preposition Bi (in / with). The second noun of the construct phrase ﺍﷲ is definite and it is in the genitive case (carrying kasrah). The first noun Ismu gives definite meaning, and is in the genitive case (carrying kasrah) because it is preceded by a preposition Bi (in / with).


Rule No. 31


If the first noun of a construct phrase is preceded by an interjection / vocative particle ﻴﺎ Yā then its case will be changed into the accusative (carrying a ĥarakah faĥah). The second noun always remains in the genitive case.


Example Analysis:

؟ ﺤﺎﻠﻚ ﻛﻴﻒ  ﺍﷲ!  ﻋﺒﺪ ﻴﺎ (Yā ‘AbdAllah! Kayfa ĥāluka?) O! servant of Allah how are you? ﺍﷲ  ﻋﺒﺪ ‘AbdAllah is a construct phrase and the first noun ‘Abda is preceded by yā, a vocative, therefore it carries fatĥah. It is therefore in the accusative and carries fatĥah.


Rule No. 32


A few nouns in Arabic including ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun on phonological grounds receive special treatment when any possessive pronoun is attached to them.

  • In the nominative case Wāw, is added between the noun and the possessive pronoun.
  • In the genitive case Ya, is added between the noun and the pronoun suffix.
  • In the accusative case Alif, is added between the noun and the possessive pronoun.


Example Analysis:

ﺃﺧﻭﻩ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺃﺒﻭﻩ ﻫﺫﺍ (Hāza Abuhu wa Hāza Akhuhu) This is his father and this is his brother. ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun are in nominative case, therefore Wāw is added between them and the pronoun suffix Hu.

ﻷﺨﻳﻪ ﺍﻠﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻷﺑﻳﻪ ﺍﻠﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ (Hāzal kitābu liabihi wahāzal kitābu liakhihi) This book is for his father and this book is for his brother. In this sentence ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun is preceded by the preposition Li (for), therefore they are in the genitive case. Ya is added between them and the possessive pronoun Hi.


ﻤﻊ M’ā (with, together with / and ﻋﻨﺪ ‘inda at, with) are prepositions which change the nouns into the genitive case.

ﺍﻠﻮﻠﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻠﻛﺗﺎﺏ ﻨﻠﻚ  (Dhalikal kitābu ‘indal waladi) That book is with the boy. The noun ﺍﻠﻮﻠﺪ alwaladu is preceded by the preposition ﻋﻨﺪ ‘inda at, with, therefore it is in the genitive case and carries a kasrah.



Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote Serik Replybullet Posted: 23 July 2007 at 7:14am

Assolayam ualeikum ua rahmatullahi!

Bros and sis,I have a strong desire to learn reading quran,starting from alphabet,can you advice some softwares for it?


Jezaku Allahu Hayran

Aghuzubillahi min ash shaitani rodjim
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Quote minuteman Replybullet Posted: 22 November 2007 at 9:16am


 I have checked the lessons from Fatima. They are excellent. I wish there was some easy way of speaking arabic language, the colloquel way. Is there an easy way to learn to speak Arabic as in daily use, common language??? Thanks.

If any one is bad some one must suffer
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Quote Guests Replybullet Posted: 30 December 2007 at 10:15am 1a1.jpg">

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Quote Skr_of_knwldg Replybullet Posted: 28 July 2008 at 9:24pm
Assalmau alaikum,

May Allah Reward you Sister!!!

I hope you dont mind, I have copied all the recent post into a Word file to check for it frequently inshaAllah.

Thanks again,

Jazak Allahu Khayran,

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Quote BluePinkBlue Replybullet Posted: 12 February 2009 at 5:41pm
Thankyou Hanan your words are good.

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Quote Caringheart Replybullet Posted: 07 September 2012 at 4:55pm
I am not wanting, or trying, to hijack this thread, but if there is an Arabic scholar here, I am hoping you can direct me to a good english translation of the Qur'an.  I do not want any slanted translation... no pro-Islamic, nor anti-Islamic, but one with good literal translation.
You can private message me an answer if you can help so I do not interfere with the thread.
Much appreciation and thanks if you can help.  Smile
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Quote alfirdousacadmy Replybullet Posted: 19 January 2013 at 11:20pm
slamo alykom

mashallah very good
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