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Prophets – Muhammad
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fatima
 
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 13 May 2007 at 4:27am

Burial of the Martyrs

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] supervised the martyrs’ burial and said: "I bear witness that anyone who is wounded in the way of Allâh, Allâh will resurrect him with his wound bleeding a liquid which is blood-like in colour but musk-like in scent." [Ibn Hisham 2/98]

Some of the Companions carried their men killed in the war to Madinah, but the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] ordered that they should be sent back in order to be buried where they were killed. He ordered that they should not be washed but buried as they were after stripping them off their armours and leather clothes. He used to bury every two or three martyrs together in one grave and even join two men in one garment while saying: "Who is the more learned of the Qur’ân?" and he would commit him to earth first. He would say: "I bear witness to those on the Day of Resurrection." He buried both ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram and ‘Amr bin Al-Jamuh in one grave due to the affection they used to possess to each other. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/98; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/584]

They missed the coffin of Hanzalah, they sought it and found that it was on a spot nearby with water dripping off it. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] told his Companions that the angels were washing him and said: "Ask his wife". They asked her and she confirmed that he had been in a state of ceremonial impurity. That was why Hanzalah was called ‘Ghaseel Al-Malâ’ikah’ (i.e. the one washed by the angels). [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/94]

When the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] saw how his uncle and foster brother, Hamzah, was mutilated, he was extremely grieved. When his aunt Safiyah came to see her brother Hamzah, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] ordered her son Az-Zubair to dismiss her in order not to see what happened to her brother. She refused and said, "But why should I go away. I have been informed that they have mutilated him. But so long as it is in the way of Allâh, whatever happens to him satisfies us. I say: Allâh is Sufficient and I will be patient if Allâh wills." She approached, looked at him and supplicated Allâh for him and said: "To Allâh we all belong and to Him we will verily return." and she implored Allâh to forgive him. Then the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] ordered that he should be buried with ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh — who was his nephew as well as his foster brother.

Ibn Mas‘ud said: We have never seen the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] weeping so much as he was for Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib. He directed him towards Al-Qiblah, then he stood at his funeral and sobbed his heart out. [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.255]

The sight of the martyrs was extremely horrible and heart-breaking. Describing Hamzah’s funeral, Khabbab said: "No shroud long enough was available for Hamzah except a white-darkish garment. When they covered his head with it, it was too short to cover his feet. Similarly if they covered his feet his head would be revealed. Finally they covered his head with it and put some plant called ‘Al-Idhkhir’ to cover his feet." [Mishkat 1/140]

Al-Imam Ahmad reported that when it was Uhud Day and the time that the idolaters returned, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said:

"Istawoo (i.e. form rows as for prayer) so that I offer thanks and praise to my Lord, the Great and the All-Mighty."

So they stood in rows behind him. Then he said:

"O Allâh, no one can withhold what You permit or permit what You withhold. No one can guide whom You decree to go astray or make go astray the one whom You guide. No one can grant provisions you have withheld and no one can withhold what you grant. No one can near what You ordained to be distant, or detach what You decree to be close. O Allâh, spread onto all of us Your Mercy, Your Grace, and Provisions."

"O Allâh, I implore You to grant me permanent bliss that neither changes nor vanishes. O Allâh, You Alone we seek for Help at hardships. You Alone we resort to for security on a day of terror. O Allâh, to You Alone I resort to protect us from the evils of Your grants (i.e. the evils they may lead us to) and from the evils of Your deprivation. O Allâh, make us love Faith and make it pleasant and beloved wholeheartedly by us! Make disbelief, ungodliness and disobedience detestable to us. Let us be among those who are rightly guided. O Allâh, make us live as Muslims and cause us to die as Muslims; and make us join with the righteous but not with the disgraced and misled ones. O Allâh, make Your enmity befall the disbelievers, who belie Your Messenger and divert from Your righteous way. O Allâh, let Your wrath, Your chastisement and Your enmity befall the disbelievers, and those on whom You sent down the Book. Let them be afflicted with war decreed by You. O Allâh, the Author of Truth." [Musnad Imam Ahmad 3/424]

After committing all the martyrs to earth, and after offering praise and supplication to Allâh, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] went back to Madinah.

On his way back, matchless examples of love and devotion were revealed by the truthful women believers; in no way less great than the men’s heroic deeds in the fight.

Hamnah bint Jahsh met the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on the way back, and he announced the death of her brother — ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh — to her. She said: "To Allâh we belong and to Him we will verily return. I ask Allâh’s forgiveness." Then he announced the death of her maternal uncle Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib. She said: "To Allâh we belong and to Him we will verily return. I ask Allâh’s forgiveness." But when he announced the death of her husband Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair to her, she shouted and woed. Seeing her doing so, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: "The woman’s husband is extremely dear to her." [Ibn Hisham 2/98]

He passed by a woman of Bani Dinar whose husband, father and brother were all killed at Uhud. When their death announced, she said: "How is the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] ?" They said: "Well indeed. O mother of so... Thanks for Allâh; he is well and as good as you desire." She said: "Let me see him." They pointed at him. Seeing him she said: "All misfortunes are nothing so long as you are safe." [Ibn Hisham 2/99]

Umm Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh came running to see the Prophet [pbuh]. At that time her son was holding the rein of his mare. Seeing his mother, he said to the Prophet [pbuh]: "O Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]. This is my mother." The Prophet [pbuh] said: "She is welcome"; and he stopped and waited for her. When she drew near, he consoled her, for her killed son ‘Amr bin Mu‘adh. But she said: "So long as I see you are safe, my misfortune will certainly go into oblivion." Then the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] supplicated Allâh for the relatives of those who were killed at Uhud and said: "Cheer up! Umm Sa‘d and bear good tidings to their kindred that all their people killed in the battle are comrades in Paradise and they are intercessors for all their kinsfolk." She replied, "O Messenger of Allâh, we are satisfied. Who would cry on them after this cheerful news?" Then she resumed saying: "O Messenger of Allâh, invoke Allâh (for those who stayed behind)" He said: "O Allâh keep sorrow off their hearts! And console them with their misfortunes. Compensate those who stayed behind with goodness and welfare." [As-Seerat Al-Halabiyah 2/47]

In the evening of that day — i.e. Saturday, the seventh of Shawwal, 3rd year A.H. — the Messenger arrived in Madinah. As soon as he reached his house, he handed his sword to his daughter Fatimah and said: "O daughter, wash the blood off this sword. By Allâh it has been helpful to me today." ‘Ali bin Abi Talib handed her his sword and said: "And wash the blood of this sword too. By Allâh, it has been helpful to me today." So the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: "Sahl bin Haneef and Abu Dujana have been as courageous as you are in the fight." [Ibn Hisham 2/100]

Most of the narrations confirmed that seventy Muslims were killed and most of them, sixty-five, Helpers; forty-one of whom were from Khazraj and twenty-four from Aws. This, besides one Jew and four Emigrants.

As for the polytheists, twenty-two of them were killed, but some versions speak of thirty-seven; after all, Allâh knows best. [Ibn Hisham 2/122-129; Fath Al-Bari 7/351]

On Saturday night, the eighth of Shawwal, and after their return from Uhud, the Muslims spent that night in an emergency case — though they were dead-beat, extremely exhausted. They stayed on the alert, and spent that night guarding the outlets and inlets of Madinah. They were specially busy guarding their general leader, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] for fear that some suspects could commit an unexpected folly.

 

Hamrâ’ Al-Asad Invasion

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on his part, spent the night pondering over the situation. He feared that the idolaters might think — while they were still on their way to Makkah — of reversing their way and diverting to Madinah after they had realized that they had availed nothing of that victory. They might regret and decide to invade Madinah as a compensation. Therefore the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was determined to go out in pursuit of the Makkan army.

The Prophet [pbuh] called out unto people and ordered them to march to encounter the enemy of Islam. That was on Sunday morning — next day to Uhud — the eighth of Shawwal. He said: "Nobody will march to the fight except those who have already participated in Uhud fight." ‘Abdullah bin Ubai said: "I will march out with you." "No," said the Prophet [pbuh].

Whilst the Muslims were suffering a lot from painful pains and deep anxiety, they responded to his call positively. Jabir bin ‘Abdullah implored the Prophet [pbuh] to allow him join them in that fresh invasion on account that he always had a liking to witness all the battles that the Prophet [pbuh] was involved in. He had not participated in Uhud because his father asked him to stay in Madinah with his sisters . And he was granted his wish.

The Muslims marched out until they reached a place called Hamra’ Al-Asad — about eight miles from Madinah. He encamped there. In that place Ma‘bad bin Abi Ma‘bad came to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and professed Islam. Some people said that he remained an idolater; he simply desired to give the Messenger some advice out of abidance by a covenant between Khuza‘ah (his tribe) and Bani Hashim. He said "O Muhammad [pbuh]! By Allâh, we feel great sorrow for what had happened to you and to your Companions. We really hope you will not suffer again." So, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] suggested that he overtake Abu Sufyan and discourage him from pursuing his evil intentions.

The Messenger’s fears of a possible return of the idolaters proved to be absolutely true. For no sooner had the idolaters dismounted and encamped at Ar-Rawhâ’ — a place thirty-six miles from Madinah, than they started reproaching one another. A group of them said to another one: "You did nothing. You broke down their force but you left them. There are still some distinguished men among them who will probably gather people up to fight you again. So let us go back and annihilate them and crush down their forces."

It was in fact a hasty decision taken by shallow-minded people who misjudged the potential power and morale on both parties, that is why an eminent leader of Quraish, Safwan bin Omaiyah, tried to dissuade his people from pursuing that venture, saying: "O people. Do not do such a thing! For I fear that he will gather up those who had stayed behind and did not share in Uhud. Go back home as winners. For I am not sure of what turn will the consequences take if you get involved in such a fight. It might be to your prejudice in the final place." Notwithstanding that weighty argument, the majority of the polytheists were determined to embark on that risky undertaking.

Ma‘bad bin Abu Ma‘bad meanwhile arrived on the scene and tried to exaggerate the danger awaiting them in order to thwart their plan, he said: "Muhammad [pbuh] has marched to meet you with a large host of fighters, I have never seen something similar to it before. He has mustered all the troops who have tarried and did not share in Uhud. They surely regret what they have missed and want to compensate for it now. Their hearts are filled with hate and resentment." Abu Sufyan said: "Woe to you! What do you suggest?" He said: "By Allâh, I see that you would not leave till he comes and you see the heads of their horses; or till the vanguard of his army turns up to you from behind that hill."

Abu Sufyan said: "By Allâh, we have reached a common consent to crush down the Muslims and their power." The man, once more with an implied warning, advised him to stop it.

In the light of this news, the resolution and determination of the Makkan army failed and panic and terror took firm hold of them. They consequently deemed it safest to complete there withdrawal back to Makkah. They, however, as an alternative, started a hostile nerve propaganda aiming at dissuading the Muslims army from pursuing them. A caravan belonging to ‘Abd Qais happened to pass by towards Madinah. Abu Sufyan, in the context of his propaganda, asked them to communicate a message to Muhammad [pbuh] to the effect that the Makkans had rallied their ranks to annihilate the Messenger and his Companions, in return Abu Sufyan promised to give the people of the caravan loads of raisins at the forum of ‘Ukaz the following year.

The people of the caravan conveyed the message to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] at Hamrâ’ Al-Asad, but to no effect, on the contrary, Abu Sufyan’s words augmented them in Faith. Allâh says:

"… And they said: ‘Allâh (Alone) is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs (for us). So they turned with Grace and Bounty from Allâh. No harm touched them; and they followed the good Pleasure of Allâh. And Allâh is the Owner of Great Bounty." [Al-Qur'an 3:173,174]

After the arrival of the caravan on Sunday, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] stayed at Hamrâ’ Al-Asad for three days — Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday — 9-11 Shawwal, 3 A.H. and then returned to Madinah. Before his return, he took Abu ‘Azza Al-Jumahi as a prisoner of war. Incidentally, this man had also been captured at Badr but on account of his poverty, and the large family he supported, the Prophet [pbuh] had been gracious enough to release him on condition that he would not involve himself in war against the Muslims again. Abu ‘Azza did not keep his promise and took part in Uhud hostilities on the side of the polytheists. Here again he implored Muhammad [pbuh] for pardon but the latter told him that a believer wouldn’t be taken twice in the same snare. He then deservedly merited the sentence of death which was executed by Az-Zubair or, in another version, by ‘Asim bin Thabit.

A Makkan spy, called Mu‘awiyah bin Al-Mugheerah bin Abi Al-‘As, was sentenced to death too. This spy was the grandfather of ‘Abdul Malik bin Marwan on his mother side. When the idolaters went back after Uhud, Mu‘awiyah came to his paternal cousin ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan ŃÖě Çááĺ Úäĺ. ‘Uthman gave him shelter — after securing the Prophet [pbuh]’s permission — on condition that if he was caught there after three days, he would be killed. But he did not comply with it, so when the Muslim army left Madinah, he stayed there for more than three days during which he was spying for Quraish. So when the army returned, Mu‘awiyah fled out of Madinah. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], on this account, ordered Zaid bin Harithah and ‘Ammar bin Yasir to pursue him and kill him. So he was killed. [Ibn Hisham 2/60-129; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91-108; Fath Al-Bari 7/345-377; Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.242-275]

Undoubtedly, the invasion of Hamrâ’ Al-Asad is not a separate invasion, but rather a part, or more specifically, a sequel to Uhud.

That was Uhud Invasion with all its stages and details. It has for long been discussed by scholars and men of research. Was it a defeat or not? Doubtlessly, the military superiority in the second phase of the battle was in favour of the polytheists who could successfully direct the steering mechanism of hostilities and inflict heavy losses in lives on the Muslims. Admittedly, a part of the believers were clearly defeated, but this could never be considered a Makkan victory.

The Makkan army failed to occupy the camp of the Muslims. The greater bulk of the Madinese army, chaos and confusion notwithstanding, did not take to escape, on the contrary they showed matchless and heroic resistance and managed to gather themselves again around their headquarters fighting bravely and courageously. They, moreover, did not allow the Makkans to run after them in pursuit. Neither Muslim captives were taken nor spoils were gained by the Makkans. The enemies of Islam were also too cowardly to conduct the third phase of war, and impress their superiority on the battlefield, on the contrary, they were in hot haste to evacuate the field even before the Muslims did. Madinah itself, the capital of the Muslims, was only a stone’s throw from the lines of the enemy, and vulnerably exposed, yet the polytheists were not bold enough to storm it to plunder its wealth or capture the Muslim women therein.

These suggestive details in fact support our argument that the event of Uhud was just a precious occasion on which the Makkans managed only to inflict heavy losses on the Muslims but failed to achieve their ultimate goals of annihilating the Muslim army in the process of their encompassment operation. After all, it is not unusual for conquerors to sustain such casualties and losses, but these could under no circumstances be regarded as victory for the hostile party.

The incident of Hamrâ’ Al-Asad is interesting in this regard. It is a curious sight indeed of a victorious army in retreat for fear of disgrace and defeat, and the crestfallen and crippled group of Muslims in pursuit.

Uhud Battle in the final judgement was just one phase of military activities in the whole process of war between two hostile parties each of whom earned their legitimate portion of both success and failure and then desisted further engagement but without cowardly escape or resigned surrender. In this sense, this battle could be rightly regarded as an inseparable war.

In this context, Allâh says:

"And don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allâh (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not." [Al-Qur'an 4:104]

The verse explicitly identifies both attitudes as regards losses and hardships as identical. Both parties concluded the war operations and went back neither victorious nor vanquished.

 

The Observations of the Noble Qur’ân on the Battle of Uhud

Some Qur’ânic verses were revealed to shed light on the most decisive phases of the battle successively, adduce quite clearly the cause that led to that heavy loss, and illustrate the vulnerable areas that were still persisting in the souls of some believers as regards their duties in forging a decisive attitude with respect to the noble objectives for which the Muslim Community, was created and was supposed to accomplish.

The Noble Qur’ân also spoke about the attitude of the pretenders to Faith and made clear the hostility and hatred that they harboured against Allâh and His Messenger. The Words of Allâh managed as well to erase all traces of ambiguities and insinuations, raised by the hypocrites and their allies, the Jews — the authors of conspiracy and intrigue hatching — and which were still in active operation in the hearts of some weak-of-heart Muslims.

The laudable judgement and long-sought objectives that were attributable to the battle of Uhud, were also another topic for the Noble Qur’ân to dwell on at length. Sixty verses relevant to the battle were revealed giving full account of the first phase of the battle:

"And (remember) when you (Muhammad [pbuh]) left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle (of Uhud)." [Al-Qur'an 3:121]

And to end in a comprehensive commentary on its results and moralities:

"Allâh will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allâh disclose to you the secrets of the Ghaib (unseen), but Allâh chooses of His Messengers whom He pleases. So believe in Allâh and His Messengers. And if you believe and fear Allâh, then for you there is a great reward." [Al-Qur'an 3:179]

 

Lessons and Moralities

Ibn Al-Qaiyim has made a pointed reference to the battle of Uhud and given full elucidation of the Divine benefits and moralities that resulted from it. Some Muslim scholars, on the authority of Ibn Hajar, said: The reverse in Uhud resulted from the neglect on the part of the archers of the explicit command of the Prophet [pbuh], and leaving the spot which they were ordered to safeguard to the end. In other words, the success of the Muslims depends upon their obedience to the Prophet [pbuh]. As long as they carry out his behests, Allâh will help them in facing all kinds of odds. But when they will set aside his commands in their pursuit of worldly riches, they are bound to come to grief. Another relevant issue of great significance says that it is customary for Prophets to be tried with different adversities; nevertheless, the final outcome is positively in their favour. Should the Muslims be victorious all the time, great many pretenders to Faith will enter the fold of Islam, and consequently the clear line of demarcation between true believers and hypocrites will become blurred. Contrarily, if the Muslims were to be defeated all the time, the final objective of the ministry of Prophets will not be effected. It is wise then to combine both success and failure so that sifting between true Muslims and hypocrites could be realized.

In the aftermath of the battle of Uhud, the hypocrites disclosed their real intentions in words and in deeds, consequently, the Muslims got to realize the existence of those wicked elements working secretly in their own homeland; and of course there would be appropriate measures to be taken in due course of time.

A third point in this context refers to purposeful deferment of victory in some areas in order to check the pride of the soul and teach the believers how to observe full patience in times of adversity. Trials and tests are provided by Allâh in order that the true believers could deservedly occupy their abode in the blessed Hereafter. Martyrdom, the highest ranks that the true friends of Allâh could occupy, is provided by Allâh to function as a passport, granted by the Lord, leading to Paradise. In brief, fight in the cause of Allâh is a golden opportunity for the true believers to have their sins effaced, and a Divinely-devised event for the disbelievers and enemies of Allâh to face destruction and annihilation in recompense for their disbelief, tyranny and transgression. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/99-108]

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 21 May 2007 at 4:20am

Military Platoons and Missions between the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Confederates

Uhud’s misfortune left a bad impact on both the credibility and military reputation of the Muslims. Their dignity and power in people’s eyes were impaired. Troubles and dangers spread everywhere in and out of Madinah. The Jews, hypocrites and bedouins declared publicly their enmity to the Muslims and each party was keen on degrading and, in the final place, exterminating their whole existence.

Two months had almost passed after this battle, when Banu Asad made preparations to raid Madinah, ‘Udal and Qarah tribes conspired against
the Muslims in the month of Safar, 4 A.H. and killed ten of the Prophet [pbuh]’s Companions. Similarly Banu ‘Amir plotted against them too, and seventy Companions were killed in the battle of Ma‘una Well. During that period, Banu Nadeer kept on announcing their enmity and were involved in a plot to kill the Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in 4 A.H. Banu Ghatfan were about to attack Madinah in Jumada Al-Ula in 4 A.H.

Thus we see that the Muslims turned into an attractive target of several potential dangers after they had lost their military credibility in the battle of Uhud. Muhammad [pbuh] most wisely managed to hold all those hostile currents at bay, and even redeem the lost dignity of the Muslims and gain them anew fresh glory and noble standing. The first initiative he took in this process was Hamra’ Al-Asad pursuit operation, whereby he could retain the Muslim military reputation. He succeeded in recovering his followers’ dignity and awe-inspiring position in such a manner that astonished or even astounded both the Jews and hypocrites, alike, then he proceeded to crown his successful attempts by despatching military errands and missions:

 

Abi Salamah Mission

The first people to take up arms against the Muslims in the aftermath of Uhud reverse were Banu Asad bin Khuzaimah. "The Intelligence Corps" of Madinah reported that Talhah and Salamah, sons of Khuwailid have mustered some volunteers to fight the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]. The Prophet [pbuh] immediately despatched a 150-man-platoon of Helpers and Emigrants headed by Abu Salamah. The Muslim leader took Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah by surprise in their own homeland, neutralized their attempts, dispersed them and captured their cattle. On his return, Abu Salamah had an inflammation of a previous wound he sustained in Uhud, and caused him to die soon after. This expedition took place on Muharram 1st, 4 A.H.[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/108]

 

An Errand led by ‘Abdullah bin Unais

On the fifth day of the same month Muharram, 4 A.H., it was reported that Khalid bin Sufyan Al-Hudhali was gathering some mob to raid the Muslim positions. ‘Abdullah bin Unais, at the behest of the Prophet Őáě Çááĺ Úáíĺ ć Óáă set out to destroy the enemies.

The Muslim military leader stayed away for eighteen days during which he successfully fulfilled his task, killed the head of the rebels and brought his head back to Madinah on Saturday, seven days before the end of Muharram. The Prophet [pbuh], as a reward, gave him a stick saying "This will function as a sign of recognition for you and me on the Day of Resurrection." On his death bed, ‘Abdullah requested that the log be with him in his shroud. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/109; Ibn Hisham 2/619, 620]

 

The Event of Ar-Raji‘

In Safar of the fourth year A.H., a delegation from the tribes of ‘Udal and Qarah came to Madinah and asked the Prophet [pbuh] to send a group of Companions to instruct them in religion, claiming the existence of some Muslims among them. He sent six of his Companions, in another version, ten headed by Murthid bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi, or, according to Al-Bukhari, ‘Asim bin Thabit, the grandfather of ‘Asim bin ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. When they reached a spot called Ar-Raji‘ between Rabigh and Jeddah, a hundred archers of Banu Lihyan clan surrounded the place and attacked them. The delegation of Muslims took shelter on some high ground, Fudfud, and the bedouins offered them a pledge that they would not be killed. ‘Asim refused to come down, instead he fought them until he and six of his companions were killed. Three men were left, Khubaib, Zaid bin Ad-Dathna and another one. Once again, the bedouins offered them a guarantee of safety and they accepted. When they descended, the bedouins treacherously bound them. The third man rebuked them for their insincerity and resisted them so they killed him. The other two men who had killed some notables of Quraish at Badr were taken and sold in Makkah. The first was Khubaib who was detained for some time and then it was unanimously decided to crucify him. He was taken from the Holy Sanctuary to At-Tan‘im for crucifixion. He requested a respite to offer a two-Rak‘a prayer. After the final greeting, he turned to his executioners, and said: "Had I not been afraid that you would think that I was afraid of death, I would have prayed for a long time." It was then that Khubaib first set the tradition of praying two Rak‘a before being executed. He then said:

"O Lord! Count them one by one, exterminate them to the last one."

He then recited some verses of poetry which speak eloquently of the atrocities borne by him, and testify to his Faith in Allâh at this hour of suffering:

The confederates have gathered their tribes around me,
And summoned all of them who could come.
They have gathered their women and children,
I am bound fastly to a lofty trunk.
To Allâh alone I complain of my helplessness and sufferings,
And of the death, the confederates have prepared for me.
Lord of the Throne! Give me endurance against their design,
They have cut my flesh bit by bit, and I have been deprived of sustenance.
They let me choose infidelity but death is preferable,
Tears roll out of my eyes, though not of fear.
By Allâh! I fear not if I die a Muslim,
On what side I fall for the sake of Allâh.
I will not show subservience to the enemy,
If Lord so desires, He will bless my torn limbs and broken joints.

Abu Sufyan then addressed him saying: "I adjure you by Allâh, don’t you wish that Muhammad [pbuh] were here in your place so that we might cut off his head, and that you were with your family?" Khubaib answered, "By Allâh, I do not wish that Muhammad [pbuh] now were in the place I occupy or that a thorn could hurt him, and that I were sitting with my family." Quraish ordered ‘Uqbah bin Al-Harith, whose father had been killed by Khubaib himself, to crucify him. They also appointed someone to guard his corpse. ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari played a cunning trick and carried the corpse stealthily at night to bury it somewhere. It was later reported that shortly before his crucifixion, he was seen eating a bunch of grapes although there was not even one date available in Makkah at that time. [In fact, it was nothing but sustenance bestowed upon him by Allâh.]

Safwan bin Omaiyah purchased the second man, Zaid bin Ad-Dathna, and killed him as an act of vengeance for his father’s murder.

Quraish, whom ‘Asim had killed one of their notables, sent someone to fetch a portion of his body, but to their disappointment, his corpse was inaccessible because a large swarm of hornets had been shielding him against any malicious tampering. ‘Asim had already given his Lord a pledge to remain immune against any polytheist tampering with respect to his body, and also stay detached from any contact with the enemies of Allâh. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, when hearing this piece of news exclaimed, "Allâh verily protects His believing slave after death just as He does during his lifespan." [Ibn Hisham 2/169-179; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/109; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/568,569,585]

 

The Tragedy of Ma‘una Well

Ma‘una Well tragedy, which was even more horrible than that of Ar-Raji‘, took place in the same month.

Abu Bara’ — ‘Amir bin Malik — nicknamed ‘Spear Player’ came to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] in Madinah. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] called him to embrace Islam but he neither agreed nor refused. He said: "O Messenger of Allâh, if you dispatch some of your Companions to the people of Najd to call them to Islam, I expect them to accept." "I am afraid the people of Najd will kill them." Said the Messenger. But he replied, "I will protect them." Ibn Ishaq confirms that forty men were sent to them; but As-Sahih states that they were seventy — Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr, one of Bani Sa‘ida, nicknamed ‘Freed to die’ — commanded that group, who were the best and most learned in the Qur’ân and jurisprudence.

On their way to Najd they used to gather firewood to buy food for the people of ‘Ahl As-Suffah’ as charity by day and study, meditate on the meanings of the Qur’ân by night. They kept on doing that till they arrived at Ma‘una Well — which was a well in between Bani ‘Amir, Harrah and Bani Saleem. They stayed there and sent the Message of the Prophet [pbuh] with Haram bin Milhan, the brother of Umm Sulaim to the enemy of Allâh ‘Amir bin At-Tufail. ‘Amir did not heed the Message but rather ordered a man to spear Haram in the back. When the spear penetrated Haram’s body, he saw the blood and said: "Allâhu Akbar! (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) By Lord of Al-Ka‘bah I have won!"

Then the enemy of Allâh, promptly, called out Bani ‘Amir to fight the rest. Bani ‘Amir refused because they were under the protection of Abu Bara’. Therefore he turned to Bani Saleem for help. The people of ‘Usaiyah, Ri‘al and Dhakwan, who were folks of Bani Saleem, responded to his call. The Companions of the Prophet [pbuh], who were encompassed by idolaters, kept on fighting till they were all killed. The only survivor was Ka‘b bin Zaid bin An-Najjar who was carried wounded from among the dead. It was in Al-Khandaq (the trench) Battle that he was killed.

‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari and Al-Mundhir bin ‘Uqbah bin ‘Amir, who were entrusted with the Muslims’ animals far from them, saw the birds circling in the air over the battleground. Al-Mundhir rushed to share in the fight till he was killed. But ‘Amr bin Omaiyah was captured. ‘Amir set him free when he knew that he was of Mudar tribe but that was after he had cut his hair. He did that to fulfil a pledge of his mother’s to set a slave free.

Returning to the Prophet [pbuh] ‘Amr bin Omaiyah conveyed the news of the painful disaster, which resulted in the murder of seventy of the best believers, and recalled the tragedy of Uhud but with the difference that those of Uhud were killed in a clear war but those of Ma‘una were killed in a disgraceful treachery. On his way back to Qarqara, ‘Amr bin Omaiyah rested in the shade of a tree, and there two men of Bani Kilab joined him. When they slept, ‘Amr killed them both, thinking that by doing that he would avenge some of his killed companions. Then he found out that they had been given a pledge of protection by the Prophet [pbuh]. He told the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] what he had done. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said to ‘Amr: "You have killed two people; their blood-money shall be a debt I have to discharge." He then engaged himself collecting their blood-money from the Muslims and their allies, the Jews [Ibn Hisham 2/183-188; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/109-110; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/584-586]. This very act was later to trigger the invasion of Bani An-Nadeer.

The Prophet [pbuh] was so deeply moved by this tragedy and that of Ar-Raji‘ that he used to invoke Allâh’s wrath against those people and tribes who killed his Companions. Anas reported that for thirty days the Prophet [pbuh] supplicated Allâh against those who killed his Companions at Ma‘una Well. Every dawn prayer he would invoke Allâh’s wrath against Ri‘l, Dhakwan, Lihyan and ‘Usaiyah. He would say, " ‘Usaiyah disobeyed Allâh and His Messenger." Therefore Allâh ÚŇ ćĚá, sent down unto His Messenger a Qur’ânic verse that we kept on reciting till it was abrogated later on: ‘Inform our folk that we have encountered our Lord and He is satisfied with us and we are satisfied with Him.’ So the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] stopped his invocation. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/586-588]

 

Bani An-Nadeer Invasion

We have already spoken about the disgraceful behaviour of the Jews and how they were always thirsting to shed the blood of the Muslims and undermine the cause of Islam despite all the covenants and pledges they had given to the Prophet [pbuh]. Their behaviour fluctuated between resignation and slackness after the Banu Qainuqa‘ event and the murder of Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, and rebellion coupled with treacherous clandestine contacts with Quraish and the hypocrites in order to establish an alliance against the Muslims after the battle of Uhud ['Aunul Ma'bood 3/116-117]. Being inexperienced in war tactics, they resorted to conspiracy and intrigue hatching. They first of all declared open hatred and enmity, and chose to play all sorts of tricks that might harm the Muslims, but were very careful not to initiate any sort of hostilities that might involve them in open war.

The Prophet [pbuh], on his part, exercised the highest degree of patience with them but they went too far in their provocative deeds, especially after Ar-Raji‘ and Ma‘una Well events; they even made an attempt on his life.

Once the Prophet [pbuh] with some of his Companions set out to see Banu Nadeer and seek their help in raising the blood-money he had to pay to Bani Kalb for the two men that ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari had killed by mistake. All of that was in accordance with the clauses of the treaty that both parties had already signed. On hearing his story they said they would share in paying the blood-money and asked him and his Companions Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Ali and others to sit under a wall of their houses and wait. The Jews held a short private meeting and conspired to kill the Prophet [pbuh]. The most wicked among them, ‘Amr bin Jahsh, volunteered to climb up the wall and drop a large millstone on his head. One of them, Salam bin Mashkam, cautioned them against perpetrating such a crime, predicting that Allâh would divulge their plot to him, and added that such an act would constitute a manifest violation of the pact concluded with the Muslims.

In fact, Gabriel did come down to reveal to the Prophet [pbuh] their wicked criminal intention, so he, with his Companions, hurried off back to Madinah. On their way, he told his Companions of the Divine Revelation.

Soon after, the Prophet [pbuh] delegated Muhammad bin Maslamah to communicate an ultimatum to Bani Nadeer to the effect that they should evacuate Madinah within ten days, otherwise, their heads would be cut off. The chief of the hypocrites, ‘Abdullah bin Ubai, urged the Jews not to pay heed to the Prophet [pbuh]’s words and to stay in their habitations, offering to run to their support with two thousands of his followers, and assuring them of help to come from Quraizah tribe and former allies Banu Ghatfan. In this regards, Allâh says:

"If you are expelled, we (too) indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you, and if you are attacked (in fight), we shall indeed help you." [Al-Qur'an 59:11]

The Jews regained their confidence and were determined to fight. Their chief Huyai bin Akhtab relied hopefully on what the chief of the hypocrites said. So he sent to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] saying: "We will not leave our houses. Do whatever you like to do."

Undoubtedly the situation was awkward for the Muslims. Launching a war against their opponents at this critical stage could entail terrible far reaching ramifications in the light of the unfavourable conditions they were passing through, besides the hostile environment growing in power and hatred around them, the harbinger of which assumed the form of killing the Muslim missions, as it has been already introduced.

The Jews of Bani Nadeer were also a power to count for, and the prospects of inflicting a military defeat on them was precarious; consequently forcing them into war engagement would be attended with unpredictable risks. On the other hand, the continual state of repeated assassinations and acts of treachery carried out against the Muslims individually and collectively brought about unbearable headache to Muhammad [pbuh]’s followers. Having judged all the prevalent status quo in this perspective, and in the light of the disgraceful attempt on the life of the Prophet [pbuh], the Muslims made the decisive decisions of taking up arms whatever turn the consequences could assume.

When the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] received the reply of Huyai bin Akhtab he said: "Allâhu Akbar, Allâhu Akbar." (Allâh is the Greatest of all) and his Companions repeated after him. Then he set out to fight them after appointing Ibn Umm Maktum to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence. The standard was entrusted to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. He laid siege to their forts for six nights — in another version, fifteen.

Banu Nadeer resorted to their castles, mounted them and started shooting arrows and pelting stones at the Muslims enjoying the strategic advantage that their thick fields of palm trees provided. The Muslims were therefore ordered to fell and burn those trees. In this respect, Allâh, the All-Mighty, states in the Qur’ân:

"What you (O Muslims) cut down of the palm-trees (of the enemy), or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allâh." [Al-Qur'an 59:5]

Quraizah tribe remained neutral, and the hypocrite ‘Abdullah bin Ubai as well as Ghatfan failed to keep their promises of support. In this regard Allâh says:

"(Their allies deceived them) like Satan, when he says to man: ‘Disbelieve in Allâh.’ But when (man) disbelieves in Allâh, Satan says: ‘I am free of you.’" [Al-Qur'an 59:16]

The siege did not last long for Allâh, the All-Mighty, cast horror into the hearts of the Jews, and they willingly offered to comply with the Prophet [pbuh]’s order and leave Madinah. The Prophet [pbuh] accepted their request and allowed them to carry as much luggage as their camels could lift, arms were excepted. Of course, they had no choice but to carry out the orders, so they took with them everything they could carry even the pegs and beams of ceilings. Their caravan counted 600 loaded camels including their chiefs, Huyai bin Akhtab and Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq, who left for Khaibar whereas another party shifted to Syria. Two of them embraced Islam, Yameen bin ‘Amr and Abu Sa‘d bin Wahab, and so they retained their personal wealth.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] seized their weapons, land, houses, and wealth. Amongst the other booty he managed to capture, there were 50 armours, 50 helmets, and 340 swords.

This booty was exclusively the Prophet [pbuh]’s because no fighting was involved in capturing it. He divided the booty at his own discretion among the early Emigrants and two poor Helpers, Abu Dujana and Suhail bin Haneef. Anyway the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] spent a portion of this wealth on his family to sustain their living the year around. The rest was expended to provide the Muslim army with equipment for further wars in the way of Allâh.

The invasion of Bani An-Nadeer took place in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, 4 A.H. i.e. in August 625 A.D. Almost all the verses of Sűrah Al-Hashr (Chapter 59 - The Gathering) describe the banishment of the Jews and reveal the disgraceful manners of the hypocrites. The verses manifest the rules relevant to the booty. In this Chapter, Allâh, the All-Mighty, praises the Emigrants and Helpers. This Chapter also shows the legitimacy of cutting down and burning the enemy’s land and trees for military purposes. Such acts cannot be regarded as phenomena of corruption so long that they are in the way of Allâh.

In this very Chapter, Allâh recommends the believers to be pious and prepare themselves for the world to come and He ends it with a compliment upon Himself and a manifestation of His Holy Names and Attributes.

As this Chapter concentrates on Bani An-Nadeer and their banishment, Ibn ‘Abbas used to describe it as ‘An-Nadeer Chapter’. [Ibn Hisham 2/190-192; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/71; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/574-575]

 

The Invasion of Najd

With the peaceful victory that the Muslims achieved at Bani An-Nadeer invasion, their control over Madinah was undisputedly established, and the hypocrites receded to a state of silence and stopped their artful machinations publicly. Consequently the Prophet [pbuh] had ample time to direct all his energies and human resources towards suppressing the desert bedouins and curbing their harmful provocations and wicked malicious practices of killing his missionaries and even contemplating an invasion of Madinah itself. [Fiqh As-Seerah p.214] Meanwhile, the Muslim scouting groups reported building up of bedouin troops of Bani Muharib and Tha‘labah of Ghatfan around Madinah. The Prophet [pbuh], with the Muslims, hurriedly set out to discipline those new outlaws, cast fear into their hearts and deter them from perpetrating further wicked practices. These deterring operations were carried out repeatedly and did produce effective results. The rebellious hard-hearted desert bedouins were terrorized into the mountains, and Madinah remained completely immune against their raids.

In the context of these invasions, it is interesting to draw some prominence to a significant one ľ Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ (rags) campaign ľ which some scholars claim, took place in Najd ( a large area of tableland in the Arabian Peninsula) in Rabi‘ Ath-Thani or Jumada Al-Ula, 4 A.H. They substantiate their claim by saying that it was strategically necessary to carry out this campaign in order to quell the rebellious bedouins in order to meet the exigencies of the agreed upon encounter with the polytheists, i.e. minor Badr Battle in Sha‘ban, 4 A.H. The most authentic opinion, however, is that Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign took place after the fall of Khaibar. This is supported by the fact that Abu Hurairah and Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari [R] witnessed the battle. Abu Hurairah embraced Islam only some days before Khaibar, and Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari came back from Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and joined the Prophet [pbuh] at Khaibar. The rules relating to the prayer of fear which the Prophet [pbuh] observed at Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign, were revealed at ‘Asfan Invasion and this beyond a shadow of doubt took place after Al-Khandaq (the trench) Battle in late 5 A.H.

 

The Invasion of Badr, the Second

When the Muslims destroyed the power of the Arab-desert tribes and guarded themselves against their evils, they started preparations to encounter their great enemy. A year elapsed since they fought Quraish at Uhud. So it was due time to meet them and start war again in order to determine which of the two parties was worthy of survival. [Fiqh As-Seerah p.315]

In Sha‘ban 4 A.H., January 626 A.D., the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] set out to Badr accompanied by one thousand and five hundred fighters and ten mounted horsemen, and with ‘Ali bin Abi Talib as standard bearer. ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah was given authority over Madinah during the Prophet [pbuh]’s absence. Reaching Badr, the Muslims stayed there waiting for the idolaters to come.

Abu Sufyan’s forces comprised two thousand footmen and fifty horsemen. They reached Mar Az-Zahran, some distance form Makkah, and camped at a water place called Mijannah. Being reluctant, discouraged and extremely terrified of the consequences of the approaching fight, Abu Sufyan turned to his people and began to introduce cowardice-based flimsy pretexts in order to dissuade his men from going to war, saying: "O tribe of Quraish! Nothing will improve the condition you are in but a fruitful year — a year during which your animals feed on plants and bushes and give you milk to drink. And I see that this is a rainless year, therefore I am returning now and I recommend you to return with me."

It seems that his army were also possessed of the same fears and apprehensions, for they readily obeyed him without the least hesitation.

The Muslims, who were then at Badr, stayed for eight days waiting for their enemy. They took advantage of their stay by selling goods and earning double as much the price out of it. When the idolaters declined to fight, the balance of powers shifted to rest in favour of the Muslims, who thus regained their military reputation, their dignity and managed to impose their awe-inspiring presence over the whole of Arabia. In brief, they mastered and controlled the whole situation.

This invasion had many a name. It is called ‘Badr the Appointment’, ‘Badr, the Second’, ‘Badr, the Latter’, and ‘Badr Minor’. [Ibn Hisham 2/209-210; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/112]

 

The Invasion of Doumat Al-Jandal

With the Messenger [pbuh]’s return from Badr, peace and security prevailed the whole area; and the Islamic headquarters, Madinah, enjoyed full security. The Prophet [pbuh] then deemed it fit and appropriate to head for the most distant areas of Arabia in order to subdue all hostile elements in order to force undisputed recognition out of friend and enemy alike.

After a six-month lull of military activities, the Prophet [pbuh] was reported that some tribes, in the vicinity of Doumat Al-Jandal, on the borders of Syria, were involved in highway robbery and plundering, and were on their way to muster troops and raid Madinah itself. He immediately appointed Siba‘ bin ‘Arfatah Al-Ghifari to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence, and set out at the head of 1000 Muslims in late Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, 5 A.H. taking with him a man, named Madhkur, from Bani ‘Udhrah, as a guide.

On their way to Doumat Al-Jandal, they used to march by night and hide by day, so that they might take the enemy by surprise. When they drew near their destination, the Muslims discovered that the highway men had moved to another place, so they captured their cattle and shepherds. The inhabitants of Doumat Al-Jandal had also fled in all directions for their lives and evacuated their habitations. The Prophet [pbuh] stayed there for 5 days during which he despatched expeditionary forces to hunt for the enemy personnel but they detected none. He then returned to Madinah but en route he entered into a peace treaty with ‘Uyainah bin Hisn. Doumat Al-Jandal is located at about a distance of fifteen days march from Madinah and five from Damascus.

With this decisive and steady progress and wise strict plans, the Prophet [pbuh] managed to spread security, control the situation and make peace prevail the whole area. He also succeeded in shifting the course of events for the welfare of the Muslims by reducing the incessant internal and external troubles. The hypocrites were silenced, a tribe of the Jews evacuated while the other continued to fake good neighbourliness and seemingly faithful adherence to the covenants, the desert bedouins subdued and finally the archenemy Quraish no longer keen on attacking the Muslims. This secure strategic attitude created optimum circumstances for the Muslims to resume their logical course in propagating Islam and communicating the Messages of the Lord to all worlds.

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 04 June 2007 at 4:22am

Al-Ahzab (the Confederates) Invasion

Once again, peace and security enveloped the Arabian Peninsula and this turbulent area began to experience a period of lull after a whole year war. The Jews, however, whose treachery, intrigues and disloyalty made them taste all types of humiliation and disgrace, were not admonished. After they had been exiled to Khaibar, they remained waiting anxiously for the results of the skirmishes going on between the Muslims and the idolaters. Contrary to their hopes, the events of the war were in favour of the Muslims, therefore they started a new stage of conspiracy and prepared themselves to deal a deadly blow against the Muslims, but were too cowardly to manoeuvre directly against them, so they laid a dreadful plan in order to achieve their objectives. Twenty chiefs of the Jews with some celebrities of Bani Nadir went to Makkah to negotiate an unholy alliance with Quraish. They began to goad the people there to attack the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] promising them full support and backing. People of Quraish, who had been languid and proved too weak to challenge the Muslims at Badr, seized this opportunity to redeem their stained honour and blemished reputation. The same delegation set out for Ghatfan, called them to do the same, and they responded positively. The Jewish delegation then started a fresh effort and toured some parts of Arabia and managed to incite the confederates of disbelief against the Prophet [pbuh], his Message and the believers in Allâh. Quraish, Kinanah and other allies from Tihama, in the south; rallied, ranked and recruited four thousand men under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. From the east there came tribes of Banu Saleem, Ghatfan, Bani Murrah, etc. They all headed for Madinah and gathered in its vicinity at a time already agreed upon. It was a great army of ten thousand fighters. They in fact outnumbered all the Muslims in Madinah, women, lads and elders included. To tell the truth, if they had launched a surprise attack against Madinah, they could have exterminated all the Muslims. However, the leadership inside the city was on the alert and the intelligence personnel managed to reconnoitre the area of the enemies, and reported their movement to the people in charge in Madinah. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] summoned a high advisory board and conducted a careful discussion of a plan to defend Madinah. After a lengthy talk between military leaders and people possessed of sound advice, it was agreed, on the proposal of an honourable Companion, Salman Al-Farisi, to dig trenches as defensive lines. The Muslims, with the Prophet [pbuh] at their head, encouraging, helping and reminding them of the reward in the Hereafter, most actively and diligently started to build a trench around Madinah. Severe hunger, bordering on starvation, could not dissuade or discourage them from achieving their desperately sought objective. Salman said: O Messenger of Allâh! When siege was to laid to us in Persia, we used to dig trenches to defend ourselves. It was really an unprecedented wise plan. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] hurriedly gave orders to implement the plan. Forty yards was allocated to each group of ten to dig. Sahl bin Sa‘d said: We were in the company of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], the men used to dig and we evacuate the earth on our backs.

Some preternatural Prophetic signs appeared in the process of trenching. Jabir bin ‘Abdullah, seeing the Prophet [pbuh] starving, slaughtered a sheep, cooked some barley and requested the Prophet [pbuh] and some Companions to accept his invitation, but the Prophet [pbuh] gathered all the thousand people engaged in digging the trench and they started to eat until they were all completely full and yet the shoulder of mutton and dough that was being baked remained as they were undiminished. A certain woman brought a handful of dates and passed by the Prophet [pbuh], who took the dates, threw them over his cloak and invited his followers to eat. The dates began to increase in number until they dropped over the trim of his robe. Another illustrious preternatural example went to the effect that an obstinate rock stood out as an immune obstacle in the ditch. The Prophet [pbuh] took the spade and struck, and the rock immediately turned into a loose sand dune. In another version, Al-Bara‘ said: On Al-Khandaq (the trench) Day there stood out a rock too immune for our spades to break up. We therefore went to see the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] for advice. He took the spade, and struck the rock uttering "in the Name of Allâh, Allâh is Great, the keys of Ash-Shâm (Geographical Syria) are mine, I swear by Allâh, I can see its palaces at the moment;" on the second strike he said: "Allâh is Great, Persia is mine, I swear by Allâh, I can now see the white palace of Madain;" and for the third time he struck the rock, which turned into very small pieces, he said: "Allâh is Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen, I swear by Allâh, I can see the gates of San‘a while I am in my place." The same version was narrated by Ishaq.[Ibn Hisham 3/330,331] The northern part of Madinah was the most vulnerable, all the other sides being surrounded by mountains and palm tree orchards, the Prophet [pbuh] as a skillful military expert, understood that the Confederates would march in that direction, so the trench was ordered to be on that side. The Muslims went on digging the trench for several days; they used to work on it during the day, and go back home in the evening until it had assumed its full dimensions militarily before the huge army of the idolaters;[ibid] which numbered, as many as ten thousand fighters, arrived and settled in the vicinity of Madinah in places called Al-Asyal and Uhud.

"And when the believers saw ‘Al-Ahzab’ (the confederates), they said: ‘This is what Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) had promised us, and Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) had spoken the truth, and it only added to their Faith and to their submissiveness (to Allâh)." [Al-Quran 33:22]

Three thousand Muslims, with Muhammad [pbuh] at their head, came out to encounter the idolaters, with Allâh’s Promise of victory deeply established in their minds. They entrenched themselves in Sila‘ Mountain with the trench standing as a barrier between them and the disbelievers.

On attempting to attack the Muslims and break into Madinah, the idolaters were surprised to see a wide trench, a new stratagem unknown in Arabia before, standing as an obstinate obstruction. Consequently they decided to lay siege to Madinah and began to manoeuvre around the trench trying hard to find a vulnerable spot through which they could infiltrate into Madinah. To deter their enemies from approaching or bridging any gap in their defences, the Muslims hurled arrows, and engaged in skirmishes with them. The veteran fighters of Quraish were averse to this situation waiting in vain in anticipation of what the siege might reveal. Therefore they decided that a group of fighters led by ‘Amr bin ‘Abd-e-Wudd, ‘Ikrima bin Abi Jahl and Dirar bin Al-Khattab, should work its way through the trench. They, in fact, managed to do that and their horsemen captured a marshy area between the trench and Sila‘ Mountain. ‘Amr challenged the Muslims to a duel, and ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was deputed. After a short but fierce engagement, ‘Ali killed ‘Amr and obliged the others to evacuate in a state of panic and confusion. However, some days later, the polytheists conducted fresh desperate attempts but all of them failed due to Muslims’ steadfastness and heroic confrontation.

In the context of the events of the Trench Battle, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] failed to observe some prayers in their right time. Jabir [R] narrated: On the Day of Trench ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab [R] came, cursing the disbelievers of Quraish and said: "O Allâh’s Messenger! I have not offered the afternoon prayer and the sun has set." The Prophet [pbuh] replied: "By Allâh! I, too, have not offered the prayer yet." The Prophet [pbuh] then went to Buthan, performed ablution and observed the afternoon prayer after the sun had set and then offered the sunset prayer after it."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/590] He was so indignant for this failure that he invoked Allâh’s wrath on his enemies and besought Allâh to fill their houses and graves with fire because they distracted him from observing the afternoon prayer. It was narrated by Ahmed and Shafa‘i that the events of that battle detained him from the noon, afternoon, evening and night prayers, but he observed them combined. The different narrations point to the fact that the situation lasted for a few days.[Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.287; Sahih Muslim 1/227]

It is clear that, and because of the trench standing between the two parties, no direct engagement took place, but rather there were military activities confined to arrow hurling, consequently the fight claimed the lives of a small number of fighters, six Muslims and ten polytheists, one or two killed by sword.

During the process of fighting, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh was shot by an arrow that pierced his artery. Perceiving his end approaching, he invoked Allâh saying: "Oh, Allâh, you know nothing is closer to my heart than striving in Your way against those people (disbelievers) who belied Your Messenger and banished him from his town. Oh, Allâh, I deeply believe that You have decreed that we should fight them, so if there is still more fighting to go with them, let me stay alive in order to strive more against them. If it has settled down, I beseech you to ignite it again so that I breathe my last in its context."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 3/591] He concluded his supplication beseeching Allâh not to let him die until he had had full revenge on Banu Quraiza. In the midst of these difficult circumstances, plottery and intrigues were in fervent action against the Muslims. The chief criminal of Bani Nadir, Huyai, headed for the habitations of Banu Quraiza to incite their chief Ka‘b bin Asad Al-Qurazi, who had drawn a pact with the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] to run to his aid in times of war. Ka‘b, in the beginning resisted all Huyai’s temptation, but Huyai was clever enough to manipulate him, speaking of Quraish and their notables in Al-Asyal, as well as Ghatfan and their chieftains entrenched in Uhud, all in one mind, determined to exterminate Muhammad [pbuh] and his followers. He, moreover, promised to stay in Ka‘b’s fort exposing himself to any potential danger in case Quraish and Ghatfan recanted. The wicked man went on in this manner until he later managed to win Ka‘b to his side and persuade him to break his covenant with the Muslims. [Ibn Hisham 3/337] Banu Quraiza then started to launch war operations against the Muslims especially the secluded garrisons that housed the women and children of the Muslims. On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, Safiyah [R], daughter of ‘Abdul Muttalib happened to be in a garrison with Hassan bin Thabit as well as some women and children. Safiyah said: "A Jew was spotted lurking around our site, which was vulnerable to any enemy attacks because there were no men to defend it. I informed Hassan that I was suspicious of that man’s presence near us. He might take us by surprise now that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and the Muslims are too busy to come to our aid, why don’t you get down and kill him? Hassan answered that he would not do it, so I took a bar of wood, went down and struck the Jew to death. I returned and asked Hassan to loot him but again Hassan refused to do that.[ibid 2/228] This event had a far reaching effect and discouraged the Jews from conducting further attacks thinking that those sites were fortified and protected by Muslim fighters. They, however, went on providing the idolaters with supplies in token of their support against the Muslims.

On hearing this bad news, the Messenger [pbuh] despatched four Muslim prominent leaders Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, Sa‘d bin ‘Ubada, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha and Khawat bin Jubair for investigation but warning against any sort of spreading panic amongst the Muslims and advising that they should declare in public that the rumours are groundless if they happen to be so. Unfortunately the four men discovered that the news was true and that the Jews announced openly that no pact of alliance existed any longer with Muhammad [pbuh]. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was briefed on this situation, and the Muslims understood their critical position with the horrible danger implied therein. Their back was vulnerable to the attacks of Banu Quraiza, and a huge army with no way to connive at in front, while their women and children unprotected standing in between. In this regard, Allâh says:

"And when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allâh. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking."
[Al-Qur'an 33:10, 11]

Now that the Muslims were shut in within the Trench on the defensive, the hypocrites taunted them with having indulged in delusive hopes of defeating Kisra, emperor of Persia, and Caesar, emperor of the Romans. They began to sow the seeds of defeatism, and pretended to withdraw for the defence of their homes, though these were in no way exposed to danger. Here, Allâh says:

"And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said, ‘Allâh and His Messenger ([pbuh]) promised us nothing but delusions!’ And when a party of them said: ‘O people of Yathrib (Al-Madinah), there is no stand (possible) for you (against the enemy attack!) therefore go back!’ And a band of them asked for permission of the Prophet ([pbuh]) saying: ‘Truly, our homes lie open (to the enemy).’ And they lay not open. They but wished to flee." [Al-Qur'an 33:12, 13]

The Messenger of Allâh, [pbuh] wrapped himself in his robe and began to meditate on the perfidy of Banu Quraiza. The spirit of hopefulness prevailed over him and he rose to his feet saying:

"Allâh is Great. Hearken you Muslims, to Allâh’s good tidings of victory and support."

He then started to lay decisive plans aiming at protecting the women and children, and sent some fighters back to Madinah to guard them against any surprise assault by the enemy. The second step was to take action that could lead to undermining the ranks of the disbelieving confederates. There, he had in mind to conclude a sort of reconciliation with the chiefs of Ghatfan on the basis of donating them a third of Madinah’s fruit crops. He sought the advice of his chief Companions, namely, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah, whose reply went as follows:

"O Messenger of Allâh! If it is Allâh’s injunction, then we have to obey, but if it is a new course you want to follow just to provide security for us then we don’t need it. We experienced those people in polytheism and idolatry and we can safely say that they don’t need the fruit of our orchards, they rather need to exterminate us completely. Now that Allâh has honoured us with Islam, I believe the best recourse in this situation is to put them to the sword." Thereupon the Prophet [pbuh] corrected their Belief saying: "My new policy is being forged to provide your security after all the Arabs have united to annihilate you (Muslims)."

Allâh, the Glorious, the Exalted, praise is to him, created something that led to the dissension of the enemies of Islam and later on to their full defeat. A man from the tribe of Ghatfan called Na‘im bin Mas‘ud asked to be admitted in the audience of the Prophet [pbuh]. He declared that he had embraced Islam secretly and asked the Prophet [pbuh] to order him do anything that might benefit the Muslims. The Prophet [pbuh] asked him to do anything that could help the Muslims in the present distress and use any strategem of avail. The man, in a shuttle movement, between the Jews, Quraish and Ghatfan managed to incite each party to let down the other. He went to see the chiefs of Banu Quraiza and whispered in their ears not to trust Quraish nor fight with them unless the latter pledged some hostages. He tried to lend support to his counsel by claiming that Quraish would forsake them if they perceived that victory over Muhammad [pbuh] was far fetched, and the Muslims then would have terrible revenge on them. Na‘im, then headed for the camp of Quraish and managed to practise a similar strategem in its final result but different in content. He claimed that he felt that the Jews regretted breaching their covenant with Muhammad [pbuh] and his followers. He told them that the Jews maintained regular correspondence with the Muslims to the effect that Quraishite hostages be sent to the camp of the Muslims with full Jewish allegiance paid to them as already agreed upon. Na‘im then exhorted Quraish not to send hostages to the Jews. On a third errand, he did the same with the people of Ghatfan.

On Saturday night, Shawwal 5 A.H., both Quraish and Ghatfan despatched envoys to the Jews exhorting them to go into war against Muhammad [pbuh]. The Jews sent back messages that they would not fight on Saturday. They added that they needed hostages from them to guarantee their consistency. On receiving the replies, Quraish and Ghatfan came to believe Na‘im’s words fully. Therefore, they sent a message to the Jews again inviting them to war and asking them to preclude that condition of hostages. Na‘im’s scheme proved successful, and a state of distrust and suspicion among the disbelieving allies prevailed and reduced their morale to deplorable degree.

Meanwhile, the Muslims were preoccupied supplicating their Lord to protect their homes and provide security for their families. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on his part invoked Allâh’s wrath on the Confederates supplicating:

"Oh, Allâh! You are quick in account, You are the sender of the Book, we beseech You to defeat the confederates." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/411,2/590]

Allâh the Glorious, the Exalted, responded to the call of the Muslims on the spot. Coupled with the dissension and variance that found their way into the hearts of the disbelievers, forces of nature — wind, rain and cold wearied them, tents were blown down, cooking vessels and other equipage overthrown.

That very cold night the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] despatched Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman to hunt around for news about the enemy. He found out that they were preparing to leave frustrated for their inability to achieve their target. Allâh did really fulfill His Promise, spared the Muslims fighting a formidable army, supported His slave (Muhammad [pbuh]) and inflicted a heavy blow on the Confederates.

The battle of the Trench took place in the fifth year Hijri. The siege of Madinah started in Shawwal and ended in Dhul Qa‘dah, i.e. it lasted for over a month. It was in fact a battle of nerves rather than of losses. No bitter fighting was recorded; nevertheless, it was one of the most decisive battles in the early history of Islam and proved beyond a shadow of doubt that no forces, however huge, could ever exterminate the nascent Islamic power growing steadily in Madinah. When Allâh obliged the Confederates to evacuate, His Messenger was in a position to confidently declare that thenceforth he would take the initiative in war and would not wait for the land of Islam to be invaded. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/590]

 

 

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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seekshidayath
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Quote seekshidayath Replybullet Posted: 09 September 2007 at 4:01am

Bismilla hirahmaa' niraheem

I wish to continue this thread in the absence of Sis Fatima.

                    Al-Ahzab (the Confederates) Invasion
Once again, peace and security enveloped the Arabian Peninsula and this turbulent  area began to experience a period of lull after a whole year war. The Jews, however,whose treachery, intrigues and disloyalty made them taste all types of humiliation and disgrace, were not admonished. After they had been exiled to Khaibar, they
remained waiting anxiously for the results of the skirmishes going on between the Muslims and the idolaters. Contrary to their hopes, the events of the war were in favour of the Muslims, therefore they started a new stage of conspiracy and prepared themselves to deal a deadly blow against the Muslims, but were too cowardly to
manoeuvre directly against them, so they laid a dreadful plan in order to achieve their objectives. Twenty chiefs of the Jews with some celebrities of Bani Nadir went to Makkah to negotiate an unholy alliance with Quraish. They began to goad the people there to attack the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] promising them full support and backing. People of Quraish, who had been languid and proved too weak to challenge the Muslims at Badr, seized this opportunity to redeem their stained honour and blemished reputation. The same delegation set out for Ghatfan, called them to do the same, and they responded positively. The Jewish delegation then started a fresh effort and toured some parts of Arabia and managed to incite the
confederates of disbelief against the Prophet [pbuh], his Message and the believers in Allâh. Quraish, Kinanah and other allies from Tihama, in the south; rallied, ranked and recruited four thousand men under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. From the east there came tribes of Banu Saleem, Ghatfan, Bani Murrah, etc. They all headed for
Madinah and gathered in its vicinity at a time already agreed upon. It was a great army of ten thousand fighters. They in fact outnumbered all the Muslims in Madinah,women, lads and elders included. To tell the truth, if they had launched a surprise attack against Madinah, they could have exterminated all the Muslims. However, the
leadership inside the city was on the alert and the intelligence personnel managed to reconnoitre the area of the enemies, and reported their movement to the people in charge in Madinah. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] summoned a high advisory board
and conducted a careful discussion of a plan to defend Madinah. After a lengthy talk between military leaders and people possessed of sound advice, it was agreed, on the proposal of an honourable Companion, Salman Al- Farisi, to dig trenches as defensive lines. The Muslims, with the Prophet [pbuh] at their head, encouraging,
helping and reminding them of the reward in the Hereafter, most actively and diligently started to build a trench around Madinah. Severe hunger, bordering on starvation, could not dissuade or discourage them from achieving their desperately sought objective.

Salman said: O Messenger of Allâh! When siege was to laid to us in
Persia, we used to dig trenches to defend ourselves. It was really an unprecedented wise plan. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] hurriedly gave orders to implement the plan. Forty yards was allocated to each group of ten to dig. Sahl bin Sa‘d said: We were in the company of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], the men used to dig and we
evacuate the earth on our backs. Some preternatural Prophetic signs appeared in the process of trenching.

Jabir bin‘Abdullah, seeing the Prophet [pbuh] starving, slaughtered a sheep, cooked some barley and requested the Prophet [pbuh] and some Companions to accept his invitation, but the Prophet [pbuh] gathered all the thousand people engaged in digging the trench and they started to eat until they were all completely full and yet the shoulder of mutton and dough that was being baked remained as they were undiminished. A certain woman brought a handful of dates and passed by the Prophet [pbuh], who took the dates, threw them over his cloak and invited his followers to eat. The dates began to increase in number until they dropped over the trim of his robe. Another illustrious preternatural example went to the effect that an
obstinate rock stood out as an immune obstacle in the ditch. The Prophet [pbuh] took the spade and struck, and the rock immediately turned into a loose sand dune.


In another version, Al-Bara‘ said: On Al-Khandaq (the trench) Day there stood out arock too immune for our spades to break up. We therefore went to see the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] for advice. He took the spade, and struck the rock uttering "in the Name of Allâh, Allâh is Great, the keys of Ash-Shâm (Geographical Syria) are mine, I swear by Allâh, I can see its palaces at the moment;" on the
second strike he said: "Allâh is Great, Persia is mine, I swear by Allâh, I can now see the white palace of Madain;" and for the third time he struck the rock, which turned into very small pieces, he said: "Allâh is Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen,I swear by Allâh, I can see the gates of San‘a while I am in my place." The same
version was narrated by Ishaq.[Ibn Hisham 3/330,331] The northern part of Madinah was the most vulnerable, all the other sides being surrounded by mountains and palm tree orchards, the Prophet [pbuh] as a skillful military expert, understood that the Confederates would march in that direction, so the trench was ordered to be on that
side. The Muslims went on digging the trench for several days; they used to work on it during the day, and go back home in the evening until it had assumed its full dimensions militarily before the huge army of the idolaters;[ibid] which numbered, asmany as ten thousand fighters, arrived and settled in the vicinity of Madinah in places called Al-Asyal and Uhud.


"And when the believers saw ‘Al-Ahzab’ (the confederates), they said: ‘This is what Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) had promised us, and Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) had spoken the truth, and it only added to their Faith and to their submissiveness (to Allâh)." [Al-Quran 33:22]
Three thousand Muslims, with Muhammad [pbuh] at their head, came out to encounter the idolaters, with Allâh’s Promise of victory deeply established in their minds. They entrenched themselves in Sila‘ Mountain with the trench standing as a barrier between them and the disbelievers.On attempting to attack the Muslims and break into Madinah, the idolaters were surprised to see a wide trench, a new stratagem unknown in Arabia before, standing as an obstinate obstruction. Consequently they decided to lay siege to Madinah and
began to manoeuvre around the trench trying hard to find a vulnerable spot through which they could infiltrate into Madinah. To deter their enemies from approaching or bridging any gap in their defences, the Muslims hurled arrows, and engaged in skirmishes with them. The veteran fighters of Quraish were averse to this situation
waiting in vain in anticipation of what the siege might reveal. Therefore they decided that a group of fighters led by ‘Amr bin ‘Abd-e-Wudd, ‘Ikrima bin Abi Jahl and Dirar bin Al-Khattab, should work its way through the trench. They, in fact, managed to dothat and their horsemen captured a marshy area between the trench and Sila‘
Mountain. ‘Amr challenged the Muslims to a duel, and ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was deputed.
After a short but fierce engagement, ‘Ali killed ‘Amr and obliged the others to evacuate in a state of panic and confusion. However, some days later, the polytheists conducted fresh desperate attempts but all of them failed due to Muslims’ steadfastness and heroic confrontation.

In the context of the events of the Trench Battle, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]failed to observe some prayers in their right time. Jabir [R] narrated: On the Day of Trench ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab [R] came, cursing the disbelievers of Quraish and said:
"O Allâh’s Messenger! I have not offered the afternoon prayer and the sun has set."
The Prophet [pbuh] replied: "By Allâh! I, too, have not offered the prayer yet."

The Prophet [pbuh] then went to Buthan, performed ablution and observed the afternoonprayer after the sun had set and then offered the sunset prayer after it."[Sahih Al-Bukhari2/590] He was so indignant for this failure that he invoked Allâh’s wrath on his enemies
and besought Allâh to fill their houses and graves with fire because they distracted him from observing the afternoon prayer. It was narrated by Ahmed and Shafa‘i that the events of that battle detained him from the noon, afternoon, evening and night
prayers, but he observed them combined.

The different narrations point to the fact that the situation lasted for a few days.[Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.287; Sahih Muslim 1/227]
It is clear that, and because of the trench standing between the two parties, no direct engagement took place, but rather there were military activities confined to arrow hurling, consequently the fight claimed the lives of a small number of fighters, six Muslims and ten polytheists, one or two killed by sword.
During the process of fighting, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh was shot by an arrow that pierced his artery. Perceiving his end approaching, he invoked Allâh saying: "Oh, Allâh, you know nothing is closer to my heart than striving in Your way against those people (disbelievers) who belied Your Messenger and banished him from his town. Oh, Allâh,I deeply believe that You have decreed that we should fight them, so if there is still more fighting to go with them, let me stay alive in order to strive more against them. If it has settled down, I beseech you to ignite it again so that I breathe my last in its context."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 3/591] He concluded his supplication beseeching Allâh
not to let him die until he had had full revenge on Banu Quraiza. In the midst of these difficult circumstances, plottery and intrigues were in fervent action against the Muslims. The chief criminal of Bani Nadir, Huyai, headed for the habitations of Banu Quraiza to incite their chief Ka‘b bin Asad Al-Qurazi, who had drawn a pact with the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] to run to his aid in times of war. Ka‘b, in the beginning
resisted all Huyai’s temptation, but Huyai was clever enough to manipulate him,speaking of Quraish and their notables in Al- Asyal, as well as Ghatfan and their chieftains entrenched in Uhud, all in one mind, determined to exterminate Muhammad [pbuh] and his followers. He, moreover, promised to stay in Ka‘b’s fort exposing himself to any potential danger in case Quraish and Ghatfan recanted. The wicked man went on in this manner until he later managed to win Ka‘b to his side and persuade him to break his covenant with the Muslims. [Ibn Hisham 3/337] Banu Quraiza then started to launch war operations against the Muslims especially the secluded garrisons that housed the women and children of the Muslims.

On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, Safiyah [R], daughter of ‘Abdul Muttalib happened to be in a garrison with Hassan bin Thabit as well as some women and children. Safiyah said: "A Jew was spotted lurking around our site, which was vulnerable to any enemy attacks because there were no men to defend it. I informed Hassan that I was suspicious of that man’s presence near us. He might take us by surprise now that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and the Muslims are too busy to come to our aid, why don’t you get down and kill him? Hassan answered that he would not do it, so I took a bar of wood, went down and struck the Jew to death. I returned and asked Hassan to loot him but again Hassan refused to do that.[ibid 2/228] This event had a far reaching effect and discouraged the Jews from conducting further attacks thinking that those sites were fortified and protected by Muslim fighters. They, however, went on providing the idolaters with supplies in token of their support against the Muslims.

On hearing this bad news, the Messenger [pbuh] despatched four Muslim prominent leaders Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, Sa‘d bin ‘Ubada, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha and Khawat bin Jubair for investigation but warning against any sort of spreading panic amongst the Muslims and advising that they should declare in public that the rumours are groundless if they happen to be so. Unfortunately the four men discovered that the news was true and that the Jews announced openly that no pact of alliance existed any longer with Muhammad [pbuh]. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was briefed on this situation, and the Muslims understood their critical position with the horrible danger implied therein. Their back was vulnerable to the attacks of Banu Quraiza,
and a huge army with no way to connive at in front, while their women and children unprotected standing in between. In this regard, Allâh says: "And when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allâh. There, the believers were tried and  shaken with a mighty shaking."
[Al-Qur'an 33:10, 11]


Now that the Muslims were shut in within the Trench on the defensive, the hypocrites taunted them with having indulged in delusive hopes of defeating Kisra, emperor of Persia, and Caesar, emperor of the Romans. They began to sow the seeds of defeatism, and pretended to withdraw for the defence of their homes, though these were in no way exposed to danger. Here, Allâh says:
"And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of
doubts) said, ‘Allâh and His Messenger ([pbuh]) promised us nothing but delusions!’ And when a party of them said: ‘O people of Yathrib (Al-Madinah), there is no stand (possible) for you (against the enemy attack!) therefore go back!’ And a band of them asked for permission of the Prophet ([pbuh]) saying: ‘Truly, our homes lie open (to the enemy).’ And they lay not open. They but wished to flee." [Al-Qur'an 33:12, 13]
The Messenger of Allâh, [pbuh] wrapped himself in his robe and began to meditate on the perfidy of Banu Quraiza. The spirit of hopefulness prevailed over him and he rose to his feet saying:
"Allâh is Great. Hearken you Muslims, to Allâh’s good tidings of victory and support."
He then started to lay decisive plans aiming at protecting the women and children,and sent some fighters back to Madinah to guard them against any surprise assault by the enemy. The second step was to take action that could lead to undermining the ranks of the disbelieving confederates. There, he had in mind to conclude a sort
of reconciliation with the chiefs of Ghatfan on the basis of donating them a third of Madinah’s fruit crops. He sought the advice of his chief Companions, namely, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah, whose reply went as follows:
"O Messenger of Allâh! If it is Allâh’s injunction, then we have to obey, but if it is a new course you want to follow just to provide security for us then we don’t need it. We experienced those people in polytheism and idolatry and we can safely say that they don’t need the fruit of our orchards, they rather need to exterminate us
completely. Now that Allâh has honoured us with Islam, I believe the best recourse in this situation is to put them to the sword." Thereupon the Prophet [pbuh] corrected their Belief saying: "My new policy is being forged to provide your security after all the Arabs have united to annihilate you (Muslims)."


Allâh, the Glorious, the Exalted, praise is to him, created something that led to the dissension of the enemies of Islam and later on to their full defeat. A man from the tribe of Ghatfan called Na‘im bin Mas‘ud asked to be admitted in the audience of the Prophet [pbuh]. He declared that he had embraced Islam secretly and asked the
Prophet [pbuh] to order him do anything that might benefit the Muslims. The Prophet [pbuh] asked him to do anything that could help the Muslims in the present distress and use any strategem of avail. The man, in a shuttle movement, between the Jews, Quraish and Ghatfan managed to incite each party to let down the other. He went to see the chiefs of Banu Quraiza and whispered in their ears not to trust Quraish nor fight with them unless the latter pledged some hostages. He tried to lend support to his counsel by claiming that Quraish would forsake them if they perceived that victory over Muhammad [pbuh] was far fetched, and the Muslims then would have
terrible revenge on them. Na‘im, then headed for the camp of Quraish and managed to practise a similar strategem in its final result but different in content. He claimed that he felt that the Jews regretted breaching their covenant with Muhammad [pbuh] and his followers. He told them that the Jews maintained regular correspondence with the Muslims to the effect that Quraishite hostages be sent to the camp of the Muslims with full Jewish allegiance paid to them as already agreed upon. Na‘im then exhorted Quraish not to send hostages to the Jews. On a third errand, he did the same with the people of Ghatfan.


On Saturday night, Shawwal 5 A.H., both Quraish and Ghatfan despatched envoys to the Jews exhorting them to go into war against Muhammad [pbuh]. The Jews sent back messages that they would not fight on Saturday. They added that they needed hostages from them to guarantee their consistency. On receiving the replies, Quraish
and Ghatfan came to believe Na‘im’s words fully. Therefore, they sent a message to the Jews again inviting them to war and asking them to preclude that condition of hostages. Na‘im’s scheme proved successful, and a state of distrust and suspicion among the disbelieving allies prevailed and reduced their morale to deplorable
degree. Meanwhile, the Muslims were preoccupied supplicating their Lord to protect their homes and provide security for their families. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on his part invoked Allâh’s wrath on the Confederates supplicating:
"Oh, Allâh! You are quick in account, You are the sender of the Book, we beseech You to defeat the confederates." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/411,2/590]
Allâh the Glorious, the Exalted, responded to the call of the Muslims on the spot.Coupled with the dissension and variance that found their way into the hearts of the disbelievers, forces of nature — wind, rain and cold wearied them, tents were blown down, cooking vessels and other equipage overthrown. That very cold night the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] despatched Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman to hunt around for news about the enemy. He found out that they were preparing to leave frustrated for their inability to achieve their target. Allâh did really fulfill His Promise, spared the Muslims fighting a formidable army, supported His slave (Muhammad [pbuh]) and inflicted a heavy blow on the Confederates.

The battle of the Trench took place in the fifth year Hijri. The siege of Madinah started in Shawwal and ended in Dhul Qa‘dah, i.e. it lasted for over a month. It was in fact a battle of nerves rather than of losses. No bitter fighting was recorded; nevertheless, it was one of the most decisive battles in the early history of Islam and proved beyond a shadow of doubt that no forces, however huge, could ever
exterminate the nascent Islamic power growing steadily in Madinah. When Allâh obliged the Confederates to evacuate, His Messenger was in a position to confidently declare that thenceforth he would take the initiative in war and would not wait for the land of Islam to be invaded. [Sahih Al -Bukhari 2/59

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “All the descendants of Adam are sinners, and the best of sinners are those who repent."
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Azzahra
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Quote Azzahra Replybullet Posted: 05 May 2009 at 5:55am

Muhammad Ibn’ Absullah (peace be on him and his progeny)

Name : Muhammad.
Title : Al-Mustufa.
Agnomen : Abu’l-Qasim.
Father’s Name : Abdullah ibn Abdi-I-Muttalib.
Mother’s Name : Aminah bint Wahib.
Birth : Born in Mecca on Friday, 17th Rabi’u’l-awwal, in the year of Elephant.
Death : Died at the age of 63 in Medina on Monday, 28th Safar, 11 A.H, buried in his apartment adjoining the mosque in Medina.

The Birth of Muhammad, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) of Islam (s.a.w.a.)

        Muhammad (s.a.) opened his eyes to the world on the 17th of Rabi’al-awwal of the 53rd year before the Hijrah (570 A.D.).
        His father, ‘Abdullah, was from the family of Hazrat Ismail, and had died before he could see his son. His mother was one most pious women of that time.
        Muhammad (s.a.) was entrusted to a virtuous women called Halimah, who suckled him and nursed him.
        One day, Muhammad (s.a.) who had not yet reached the age of four years asked Halimah if he could go into the desert with the other boys Halimah said: “I bathed Muhammad and annointed his hair with oil. I put collyrium on his eyes and hung a Yemenite stone on a string and put it round his neck so that no harm could come to him from the spirits of the desert. But Muhammad tore the stone from his neck and said, “Don’t worry about me. My God is taking care of me!”
        So we see that from childhood he was the object of God’s favour and grace and was always guided by Divine friendship and help in works that were in their right time and place.
        Mohammed’s behaviour and speech in childhood were such that everyone’s attention was attracted. In his youth, also, he was far from that which tainted those people in its environment. He took no part in their riotous poetry gatherings. He drank no wine, was an enemy of the idols; he was perfect in speech and act. Years before he became a prophet, the people called him ‘al-Amin (the trustworthy one). He had a pure mind and radiant intellect, and a godly and heavenly character. Every year for one month he went to the cave of Hira and was with God in His mysteries and in prayer. At the end of the month, before returning to his home, he went around the Ka’bah and made seven or more circumambulations.
        At the age of forty, while busy in worship in the cave of Hira, he was elevated to the status of Messengership.
        For three years the prophet of Islam (s.a.) received no command to call people openly to Islam, and during that only a few people had faith in Muhammad (s.a.)Among men, the first person who loved and followed him was Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and among women, Khadijah. (1) Then after three years he received the command to invite people openly to Islam, and he called his close family to be his guests; about forty of these people assembled together. The food which the Prophet (s.a.) had prepared was no more than enough to satisfy the appetite of one man, but by the power of God that little food filled everyone, and this was the cause of much amazement. Abu Lahab, without thinking what he was saying, cried out: “Muhammad is a magician!” That day the relatives dispersed before the prophet could speak, so he called them again the next day. After they had partaken of the food and hospitality, he spoke: “O Sons of ‘Abdul-muttalib! No youth has brought to his people better than what I bring to you. I have brought you the best of this world and of the world of the resurrection. I have been commanded by Allah to call you to Him. Which of you will extend his help to me and became my brother and successor? “Apart from Ali (a.s.), no-one answered. The prophet placed his hand on ‘Ali’s shoulder and said: “This is my brother and my executor among you. Listen what he says and obey him!“ (2)
        One day the prophet (s.a.) went up on to Mount Safa and called the people around him. He said: if I told you that an enemy was going to fall on you this morning or this evening, would you trust me ?” All together they replied: “Yes!” He said: “l warn you of a severe torment that is soon to fall on you. “ Out of fear that the speech of Muhammad (s.a.) would take effect the hearts of those present, Abu Lahab broke that silence and said to him: “Did we assemble here just to listen to this nonsense?”
        The Prophet of Islam (s.a) started his call with the slogan of tawhid and the worship of one God, and established tawhid as the basis of all other beliefs. He made known to men Allah, who is nearer to man than man himself; he abolished all forms of idol-worship, revolutionised the atmosphere of Mecca, and drew people to his religion. Meanwhile, the Quraysh (the most powerful tribe in Mecca, to which Muhammad (s.a.) belonged) were becoming ill at ease with the progress he was making and tried hard to stop his preaching, even once trying to kill him; but with the help and protection of Allah and with His care and intercession all their tortures, persecutions and schemes were without effect and came to nothing. Day by day the call to Islam, and also the acceptance by people, spread, even to those who came from outside Mecca. People rose up with their souls in answer to this Divine invitation.
        In the eleventh year of the prophethood, some people from Medina belonging to the Khazraj tribe came to Mecca to perform the ceremonies of Hajj. The Prophet invited them to Islam and they accepted, with this promise that when they went back to Medina they would call the people to Muhammad’s religion. They went to Medina and spread around the invitation of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.). The next year twelve Medinese accepted the faith of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.) at Aqaba and resolved; not to associate any with Allah, not to steal, not to fornicate, not to indulge in infanticide, not to bring malicious accusations against anyone, not to disobey the Prophet in anything which he indicated. Then the prophet sent a man by the name of Mus’ab along with them to teach the Qur’an and thus a large group in Medina pledged their faith in the prophet.

The prophet’s Migration (Hijrat)

        Till the thirteenth year of his mission, the Prophet (s.a.) called the people in Mecca to Islam, and stood firm when faced with the persecutions of the Quraysh. Eventually he got to know that the Quraysh had hatched an incredible plot to kill him, so he put Hazrat’ Ali (a.s.) to sleep in his bed in his place and left Mecca at night; he hid in a cave and then migrated from there to Medina.
        The hijrah of the Prophet opened an entirely new chapter in the history of Islam from which a stimulating and surprising leap forward was made. For this very reason, the hijrah of Muhammad (s.a.) became the beginning of the dating system of the Muslims.
        With the presence of the Prophet of Islam (s.a.) in Medina, the tribes of Awsh and Khazraj became brothers for life in the shadow of the teachings of Islam, and a blessed sincerity and cordiality was established between them.
        The example of Muhammad’s behaviour, his spiritual and moral superiority, and the naturalness of his pure religion, caused the people to come the people to Islam by the score, and in the end to accept it.
        The Prophet of Islam (s.a.) was from the people and with the people, and did not maintain a distance from them. He shared with them in their gains and losses. He firmly criticised oppression and aggression, and refrained from and prevented them. He set forth all the principles which were, in the light of Islam, effective for the development of the position of women, and put an end to the tyranny they had been subjected to previous to Islam, but he also vehemently fought against their unchastity and licentiousness for he wanted them to attain their real development on the basis of the true principles of Islam.
        He defended the rights of slaves, and had broad comprehensive programmers for their freedom. The Prophet of Islam created a society where black and White, rich and poor, great and small, were all equal and could enjoy the benefits of being human beings. In such an atmosphere, there could be no question of ‘racial discrimination’ , for there was a much higher basis in virtue, knowledge, piety, human values and ethical greatness.
        Let us look at a clear example of the great teachings of the Prophets (s.a.): Juwaybar was a young man, poor and rather ugly. He came to Medina with a great enthusiasm for Islam, and accepted it. The Prophet gave him a place in the mosque, and later in ‘ Saqifah ‘, a garden which was under the control of the Prophet, and made him its overseer.
        One day the Prophet told him: “it is good for a man to take to himself a woman, and to choose a wife, so that he may keep his chastity and have a home-life.”
        “May God bless you, but l am poor and ugly; in what woman could there be such a desire that she would take me as her husband? Especially as l am not from a noble family.”
        “Juwaybar, with the coming of Islam all the nobility of the age of ignorance (before Islam) has been broken down together, Black and white, Arab and non-Arab have all come from Adam, and God made Adam from the earth.
        “For this reason today there is no black and white, not even any results from imperfection or excess in something.
        “The dearest person to God is the virtuous person.”
        “Now go to the house of Ziyad and ask for his daughter, Dhalfa on my behalf.”
        Juwaybar did what the Prophet had told him, but Ziyad, who was one of the nobles of the Ansar tribe, did not accept, and said, “We only give our daughters to people like ourselves - and the Prophet himself knows that very well; so go back till l have consulted with him and give him my apologies myself.”
        He turned to go back, but because of his anger he cried out. “I swear by God, neither the Qur’an nor the Prophet have said that one must give one’s daughter to someone who is of equal status in family and in wealth!”
        Dhulfa heard the voice of Juwaybar, and sent someone to her father. He came to her and she asked him, “what have you said to that young man that has made him angry?”
        “The prophet sent him to me to take you, my daughter, with my agreement “Juwaybar would not tell a lie; send him back and go yourself to the prophet so that he may clarify the matter for you. “Ziyad did what his daughter had said. He sent Juwaybar back, and himself hurried to the prophet and said, “Juwaybar brought a message from you. I want to remind you that I am an Ansar, and that we do not give our daughters in marriage except to men of equal status from the same tribe.”
        “Juwaybar is a believer and a man of faith, and a man with faith is the equal of a women with faith. Give him your daughter as a wife.”
        Ziyad then returned home and told his daughter what the prophet had commanded. The daughter said,” father to disobey the prophet’s command is against the religion. And I am ready of my own accord, so accept Juwaybar as your son-in-law!”
        Ziyad brought Juwaybar in front of the people of his tribe and gave him in marriage to his daughter on the basis of the command of Islam. He even gave the dowry to his daughter from his pocket, and gave them a house with all necessities so that they would live happily.
        Truly, this light was dazzling; this source or warmth-giving radiance lit up a flame in every heart that was a guide to all pure hearts on the path. And thus it was that the muddled souls of the people were led forth from the harrassment of the gloom and turned in their hundreds towards Islam, seeking the protection of the illustrious, illuminating system of the Qur’an.

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