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Prophets – Muhammad
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fatima
 
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 11 March 2007 at 10:19am

Some Significant Instances of Devotion

  1. The Prophet [pbuh] advised his companions to preserve the lives of Banu Hashim who had gone out to Badr with the polytheists unwillingly because they had feared the censure of their people. Among them, he named Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib and Abu Bukhtari bin Hisham. He ordered the Muslims to capture, but not to kill them. Abu Hudhaifah bin ‘Utbah showed great surprise and commented saying: "We kill our fathers, children, brothers and members of our clan, and then come to spare Al-‘Abbas? By Allâh! If I see him I will surely strike him with my sword." On hearing these words, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], addressing ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, said "Is it fair that the face of the Messenger’s uncle be struck with sword?" ‘Umar got indignant and threatened to kill Abu Hudhaifah; the latter later said that extreme fear had taken firm grip of him and felt that nothing except martyrdom could expiate for his mistake. He was actually killed later on during Al-Yamamah events.
  2. Abu Al-Bukhtari bin Hisham had already done his best to restrain his people, the Makkans, from committing any act of folly against the Prophet [pbuh] while the latter was still in Makkah. He also neither hurt nor was reported to have uttered anything repugnant with regard to the Prophet [pbuh]. He had as well been among the people who tried to invalidate the boycott alliance taken against Banu Hashim and Banu ‘Abdul Muttalib.

    Here, however, in the battle of Badr he insisted on fighting unless his compatriot was spared. Al-Mujdhir bin Ziyad Al-Balwi, with whom he was engaged in combat, replied that the other was not included in the Prophet [pbuh]’s recommendation. The combat went on to end in Al-Bukhtari’s death.

  3. ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf and Omaiyah bin Khalaf had been close friends during the pre-Islamic era. When the battle of Badr ended, ‘Abdur-Rahman saw Omaiyah and his son among the captives. He threw away the armour he had as spoils, and walked with them both. Bilal, the Prophet [pbuh]’s caller for prayer, saw Omaiyah and soon all the torture he had been put to at the hand of this man dawned upon him, and swore he would have revenge on Omaiyah. ‘Abdur-Rahman tried to ease the tension and address embarrassing situation amicably but with no success. The Muslims gathered around and struck Omaiyah’s son with swords. At this point, ‘Abdur-Rahman called upon his old friend to run for his life but he was put to swords from different people and lay down dead. ‘Abdur-Rahman, completely helpless and resigned said: May Allâh have mercy on Bilal, for he deprived me of the spoils, and I have been stricken by the death of my two captives.
  4. On the moral level, the battle of Badr was an inescapable conflict between the forces of good and those of evil. In this context, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab did not spare the life of any polytheist even his uncle on the maternal side Al-‘As bin Hisham bin Al-Mugheerah.
  5. Abu Bakr shouted at his son ‘Abdur-Rahman, still a polytheist and fighting with them, "Where is my wealth, you wicked boy?" The son answered that it was gone with the wind.
  6. When the battle ended, the Muslims began to hold some polytheists in captivity. The Prophet [pbuh] looked into the face of Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, the Head of the Prophet [pbuh]’s guards, and understood that he was hateful to taking the enemy elements as prisoners. Sa‘d agreed to what the Prophet [pbuh] said and added that it was the first victory for the Muslims over the forces of polytheism, and he had more liking for slaying them than sparing their lives.
  7. On the day of Badr, the sword of ‘Ukashah bin Mihsan Al-Asdi broke down so the Prophet [pbuh] gave him a log of wood which he shook and it immediately turned into a long strong white sword. ‘Ukashah went on using that same sword in most of the Islamic conquests until he died in the process of the apostasy wars.
  8. When the war activities had been concluded, Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair Al-‘Abdari saw his brother, still a polytheist, being handcuffed by a Ansari. Mus‘ab recommended that the Helper tighten the knot for the prisoner’s mother was wealthy enough to ransom her son. ‘Abu ‘Aziz, Mus‘ab’s brother, tried to appeal to his brother through the family ties, but the latter firmly replied that the Helper was more eligible for brotherhood than him.
  9. When the Prophet [pbuh] ordered that the corpses of the polytheists be dropped into an empty well, Abu Hudhaifah bin ‘Utbah looked sadly at his dead father, who fought on the side of the polytheists. The Prophet [pbuh] noticed that and asked him about it. Hudhaifah said that he had never held the least doubt that his father met his fate deservedly, but added that he wished he had been guided to the path of Islam, and that is why he felt sad. The Prophet [pbuh] whispered in his ears some comforting words.

The outcome of the battle was as aforementioned an ignominious rout for the polytheists and a manifest victory for the Muslims. Fourteen Muslims were killed, of whom six were from the Emigrants and eight from the Helpers. The polytheists sustained heavy casualties, seventy were killed and a like number taken prisoners. Many of the principal men of Makkah, and some of Muhammad [pbuh]’s bitterest opponents, were among the slain. Chief of these was Abu Jahl.

On the third day, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] went out to look at the slain polytheists, and said:

"What an evil tribe you were as regards your Prophet, you belied me but the others have believed; you let me down while the others have supported me; you expelled me, whereas the others have sheltered me."

He stood over the bodies of twenty-four leaders of Quraish who had been thrown into one of the wells, and started to call them by name and by the names of their fathers, saying: "Would it not have been much better for you if you had obeyed Allâh and His Messenger? Behold, we have found that our Lord’s promise do come true; did you (also) find that the promises of your Lord came true?" Thereupon, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: "O Messenger of Allâh! Why you speak to bodies that have no souls in them?" The Prophet [pbuh] answered: "By Him in Whose hand is Muhammad [pbuh]’s soul! You do not hear better what I am saying than they do."

 

Reaction in Makkah

The polytheists having received a large dose of disciplining and heavy defeat, fled away in great disorder in the vales and hillocks heading for Makkah panicked and too ashamed to see their people.

Ibn Ishaq related that the first herald of bad tidings was Al-Haisaman bin ‘Abdullah Al-Khuza‘i. He narrated to them how their notables were killed. People there did not believe him at first and thought that he had gone mad, but soon the news was confirmed and a state of incredible bewilderment overwhelmed the whole Makkan scene. Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith gave Abu Lahab a full account of the massacre and the disgraceful rout they sustained, with emphasis on the role that the angels played in bringing about their tragic end. Abu Lahab could not contain himself and gave vent to his feelings of resentment in beating, abusing and slapping Abu Rafi‘, a Muslim, but reticent on his conversion, for reiterating the role of the angels. Umm Al-Fadl, another Muslim woman, greatly exasperated by Abu Lahab’s thoughtless behaviour, struck him with a log and cracked his head. Seven days later, he died of an ominous ulcer and was left for three days unburied. His sons, however, for fear of shameful rumours, drove him to a pit and keeping their distance, hurled stones and dust at him.

The defeat was a matter of great shame and grief for the Makkans. In almost every house there were silent tears for the dead and the captives. They were burning with humiliation and were thirsting for revenge. Wailing, lamenting and crying however were decreed strictly forbidden lest the Muslims should rejoice at their affliction.

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 18 March 2007 at 10:44am

Madinah receives the News of Victory

Two heralds, ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah and Zaid bin Harithah were despatched to Madinah, to convey the glad tidings of victory to the Muslims there.

The multi-ethnic and ideological structure of Madinah featured different respective reactions. Rumour-mongers amongst the Jews and hypocrites spread news to the effect that the Prophet [pbuh] had been killed, and tried to impress their false assumption on the fact that Zaid bin Harithah was riding Al-Qaswâ’, the Prophet [pbuh]’s she-camel. Having reached, the two messengers imparted to the Muslims the happy news of victory, and furnished accurate information about the course of events in order to establish the sense of reassurance deep in the hearts of the anxious, but now, joyous Muslims. They immediately started acclaiming Allâh’s Name and entertaining His praise at the top of their voices. Their chiefs went out of the city to wait and receive the Prophet [pbuh] on the road leading to Badr.

Usamah bin Zaid related that they received the news of the manifest victory shortly after Ruqaiyah, the Prophet [pbuh]’s daughter, and the wife of ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan had been committed to earth. She had been terminally ill and the Prophet [pbuh] had asked ‘Uthman to stay in Madinah and look after her.

Before leaving the scene of the battle, dispute concerning the spoils of war arose among the Muslim warriors, as the rule relating to their distribution had not yet been legislated. When the difference grew wider, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] suspended any solution whereof until the Revelation was sent down.

‘Ubadah bin As-Samit said: "We went out with the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and I witnessed Badr with him. The battle started and Allâh, the Exalted, defeated the enemy. Some of the Muslims sought and pursued the enemy, some were intent on collecting the spoils from the enemy camp, and others were guarding the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and were on the alert for any emergency or surprise attack. When night came and the Muslims gathered together, those who had collected the booty said: "We collected it, so no one else has any right to it." Those who had pursued the enemy said: "You do not have more right to it than we do; we held the enemy at bay and then defeated them." As for the men who had been guarding the Prophet [pbuh], they also made similar claims to the spoils.

At that very time, a Qur’ânic verse was revealed saying:

"They ask you (O Muhammad [pbuh]) about the spoils of war. Say: ‘The spoils are for Allâh and the Messenger.’ So fear Allâh and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]), if you are believers." [Al-Qur'an 8:1]

On their way back to Madinah, at a large sand hill, the Prophet [pbuh] divided the spoils equally among the fighters after he had taken Al-Khums (one-fifth). When they reached As-Safra’, he ordered that two of the prisoners should be killed. They were An-Nadr bin Al-Harith and ‘Uqbah bin Abi Muait, because they had persecuted the Muslims in Makkah, and harboured deep hatred towards Allâh and His Messenger [pbuh]. In a nutshell, they were criminals of war in modern terminology, and their execution was an awesome lesson to oppressors. ‘Uqbah forgot his pride and cried out, "Who will look after my children O Messenger of Allâh?" The Prophet [pbuh] answered, "The fire (of Hell).[Sunan Abu Da'ud with 'Aun-ul-Ma'bood 3/12]" Did ‘Uqbah not remember the day when he had thrown the entrails of a sheep onto the head of the Prophet [pbuh] while he was prostrating himself in prayer, and Fatimah had come and washed it off him? He had also strangled the Prophet [pbuh] with his cloak if it had not been for Abu Bakr to intervene and release the Prophet [pbuh]. The heads of both criminals were struck off by ‘Ali bin Abi Talib.

At Ar-Rawhâ’, a suburb of Madinah, the Muslim army was received by the joyous Madinese who had come to congratulate the Prophet [pbuh] on the manifest victory that Allâh had granted him. Usaid bin Hudair, acting as a mouthpiece of the other true believers, after entertaining Allâh’s praise, he excused himself for not having joined them on grounds that the Prophet [pbuh]’s intention was presumably, an errand aiming to intercept a caravan of camels only, he added that if it had occurred to him that it would be real war, he would have never tarried. The Prophet [pbuh] assured Usaid that he had believed him.

The Prophet [pbuh] now entered Madinah as a man to be counted for in a new dimension — the military field. In consequence, a large number of the people of Madinah embraced Islam, which added a lot to the strength, power and moral standing of the true religion.

The Prophet [pbuh] exhorted the Muslims to treat the prisoners so well to such an extent that the captors used to give the captives their bread (the more valued part of the meal) and keep the dates for themselves.

Prisoners of war constituted a problem awaiting resolution because it was a new phenomenon in the history of Islam. The Prophet [pbuh] consulted Abu Bakr and ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab as to what he should do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr suggested that he should ransom them, explaining this by saying: "They are after all our relatives, and this money would give us strength against the disbelievers, moreover, Allâh could guide them to Islam." ‘Umar advised killing them, saying, "They are the leaders of Kufr (disbelief)." The Prophet [pbuh] preferred Abu Bakr’s suggestion to that of ‘Umar’s. The following day, ‘Umar called on the Prophet [pbuh] and Abu Bakr to see them weeping. He showed extreme astonishment and inquired about the situation so that he might weep if it was worth weeping for, or else he would feign weeping.

The Prophet [pbuh] said that a Qur’ânic verse had been revealed rebuking them for taking ransom from the captives rather than slaying them:

"It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allâh desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allâh, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took." [Al-Qur'an 8:67,68]

The previous Divine ordainment went as follows,

"Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom." [Al-Qur'an 47:4]

Which included an area providing permission to take ransom, that is why no penalty was imposed. They were rebuked only for taking prisoners before subduing all the land of disbelief. Apart from this, the polytheists taken to Madinah were not only prisoners of war but rather archcriminals of war whom modern war penal law brings to justice to receive their due sentence of death or prison for life.

The ransom for the prisoners ranged between 4000 and 1000 Dirhams in accordance with the captive’s financial situation. Another form of ransom assumed an educational dimension; most of the Makkans, unlike the Madinese, were literate and so each prisoner who could not afford the ransom was entrusted with ten children to teach them the art of writing and reading. Once the child had been proficient enough, the instructor would be set free. Another clan of prisoners were released unransomed on grounds of being hard up. Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet [pbuh], paid the ransom of her husband Abul-‘As with a necklace. The Muslims released her prisoner and returned the necklace in deference to the Prophet [pbuh] but on condition that Abul-‘As allow Zainab to migrate to Madinah, which he actually did.

In captivity, there was also an eloquent orator called Suhail bin ‘Amr. ‘Umar suggested that they pull out his front teeth to disable him from speaking, but the Prophet [pbuh] turned down his suggestion for fear Quraish should retaliate in the same manner on one hand, and on the other for fear of Allâh’s wrath on the Day of Resurrection.

Sa‘d bin An-Nu‘man, a lesser pilgrim detained in Makkah, was released in return for setting Abu Sufyan’s son, a captive, free.

 

The Battle of Badr in its Qur’ânic Context

The Chapter of Al-Anfal (spoils of war) was revealed on the occasion of the battle of Badr, Ramadan 17th 2 A.H. It constituted a unique Divine commentary on this battle.

Allâh, the All-High, in the context of this Chapter draws on major issues relating to the whole process of Islamization. Allâh, here draws the attention of the Muslims to the still lingering moral shortcomings in their character. He wants them to build an integrated, purified society. He speaks about the invisible assistance he sent down to His obedient servants to enable them to accomplish their noble objectives. He wants the Muslims to rid themselves of any trait of haughtiness or arrogance that might sneak in. He wants them to turn to Him for help, obey Him and His Messenger [pbuh].

After that He delineated the noble objectives for which the Messenger [pbuh] launched that bloody battle, and directed them to the merits and qualities that brought about the great victory.

The polytheists, hypocrites, the Jews and prisoners of war were also mentioned, being admonished to surrender to the Truth and adhere to it only.

The question of the spoils of war was resolved and the principles and basics relevant to this issue were clearly defined.

The laws and rules pertinent to war and peace were legalized and codified, especially at this advanced stage of the Islamic action. Allâh wanted the Muslims to follow war ethics dissimilar to those of pre-Islamic practices. The Muslims are deemed to outdo the others in ethics, values and fine ideals. He wants to impress on the world that Islam is not merely a theoretical code of life, it is rather mind cultivation-orientated practical principles. In this context, He established inter and intra-state relations.

The fast of Ramadan was established as an obligatory observance in the year 2 A.H., appended by the duty imposed upon Muslims of paying Zakat (alms tax, poor-due) in order to alleviate the burden of the needy Emigrants.

A wonderful and striking coincidence was the establishment of Shawwal ‘Eid (the Festival of the Fast-Breaking) directly after the manifest victory of Badr. It was actually the finest spectacle ever witnessed of Muslims leaving their houses praying, acclaiming Allâh’s Name and entertaining His praise at the top of their voices in recognition of His favour and grace, and last but not least, the support He rendered them and through which the forces of the Truth overpowered those of evil.

"And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land, and were afraid that men might kidnap you, but He provided a safe place for you, strengthened you with His help, and provided you with good things so that you might be grateful." [Al-Qur'an 8:26]

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 25 March 2007 at 5:14am

The Military Activities between Badr and Uhud

The battle of Badr was the first armed encounter between the Muslims and Quraish. It was in fact a decisive battle that gained the Muslims a historic victory acknowledged by all the Arabs, and dealt a heavy blow to the religious and economic interests of the polytheists. There were also the Jews who also used to regard each Islamic victory as a heavy blow to their religioeconomic entity. Both parties were burning with rage and fury since the Muslims had achieved that great victory:

"Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and Al-Mushrikűn (polytheists, pagans, idolators and disbelievers, etc.)." [Al-Qur'an 5:82]

Both resentful parties had their much more indignant suite in the form of hypocrites who faked Islam just to save their faces; at the head of whom came ‘Abdullah bin Ubai and his retinue. The desert bedouins living in tents pitched in the vicinity of Madinah, who depended on plundering and looting as a means of living, were totally indifferent to this axial question of belief and disbelief. Their worry derived from fear of losing their perverted avenues of subsistence in case a powerful nascent Muslim state should rise up and put an end to such ill-practices, hence the grudge they nursed against Islam and the Muslims, in general, and the person of Muhammad [pbuh], in particular.

The whole cause of Faith was thus at stake with four furious parties laying ambushes against the new religion, each in its style: Pretension to Islam embedded with conspiracy plots and provocative deeds within Madinah, explicitly uncovered animosity pregnant with indignation and fire of rage on the part of the Jews, and there in Makkah open and persistent calls for vengeance coupled with open intentions to mobilize all potential resources available to silence the voice of Islam once and for all. This was later translated into military action, Uhud Invasion, which left a very bad impression on the good name and esteem that the Muslims were painstakingly working to merit and preserve.

The Muslims were always obliged to be on the lookout for any hostile movements, and it was imperative on them to launch pre-emptive strikes in all directions in order to enjoy a reasonable degree of security in this great instability-provoking ocean of unrest. The following is a list of military activities conducted in the post-Badr era:

 

Al-Kudr Invasion

The scouting body of Madinah reported that Banu Saleem of Ghatafan were engaged in mustering troops to invade the Muslims. The Prophet [pbuh] took the initiative himself and mounted a surprise attack on them in their own homeland at a watering place called Al-Kudr. Banu Saleem, on receiving the news, had fled before he arrived. He stayed there for three days, took their 500 camels as booty and distributed them to the fighters after he had set aside the usual one-fifth; each one gained two camels.

This invasion took place in Shawwal in the year 2 A.H., seven days after the event of Badr.[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/90; Ibn Hisham 2/43,44; Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.236]

 

An Attempt on the Life of the Prophet [pbuh]

The impact of defeat at Badr was so great that the Makkans began to burn with indignation and resentment over their horrible losses. To resolve this situation two polytheists volunteered to quench their thirst and muffle the source of that humiliation i.e. the Prophet [pbuh].

‘Umair bin Wahab Al-Jumahi, a terrible polytheist, and an archenemy Safwan bin Omaiyah sat together privately lamenting their loss and remembering their dead and captives. ‘Umair expressed a fervent desire to kill the Prophet [pbuh] and release his captured son in Madinah, if it was not for the yoke of debts he was under and the large family he had to support. Safwan, also had his good reasons to see the Prophet [pbuh] killed, so he offered to discharge ‘Umair’s debts and support his family if he went on with his plan.

‘Umair agreed and asked Safwan to be reticent on the whole scheme. He left for Madinah, having with him a sword to which he applied some kind of lethal poison. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab saw him at the door of the Mosque and understood that he had come with evil intentions. He immediately went into the Mosque and informed the Prophet [pbuh]. He was let in looped by the sling of his sword and in greeting he said "good morning", to which the Prophet [pbuh] replied that Allâh had been Gracious and taught them the greeting of the dwellers of the Paradise: "peace be upon you!" To a question raised by the Prophet [pbuh], about his object, ‘Umair said that he had come to see that his captured son was well treated. As for the sword, which the Prophet [pbuh] asked him about, he cursed it and said that it gained them nothing. On exhorting him to tell his real goal, he remained obdurate and did not divulge the secret meeting with Safwan. Here the Prophet [pbuh] got impatient and he himself revealed to ‘Umair his secret mission. ‘Umair was taken by surprise, and incredible astonishment seized him, and immediately bore witness to the Messengership of Muhammad [pbuh]. He then began to entertain Allâh’s praise for having been guided to the ‘Straight Path’. The Prophet [pbuh] was pleased and asked his Companions to teach ‘Umair the principles of Islam, recite to him the Noble Qur’ân and release his son from captivity.

Safwan, meanwhile, was still entertaining false illusions as to the approaching redemption of honour, and burying the memory of Badr into oblivion. He was impatiently awaiting ‘Umair’s news but to his great surprise, he was told that the man had embraced Islam and changed into a devoted believer. ‘Umair later came back to Makkah where he started to call people unto Islam and he did actually manage to convert a lot of Makkans into Islam.[Ibn Hisham 1/661-663]

Invasion of Bani Qainuqa‘

We have already spoken about the treaty that the Prophet [pbuh] signed with the Jews. He was very careful to abide by it to the letter and the Muslims did not show the least violation of any of its provisions. The Jews, however, whose natural disposition is closely linked to treachery, betrayal and covenant-breaching, could not rid themselves of the tradition of theirs, and started a process of intrigues and troublemaking with the aim of producing schism in the growing solid Muslim ranks. Here is a relevant model of their behaviour: Shas bin Qais, an elderly Jew, a terrible disbeliever and a greatly envious man of the Muslims, passed by a group of Muhammad [pbuh]’s followers of Aws and Khazraj. He perceived a prevalent spirit of reconciliation and an atmosphere of rapport and amity enveloping the whole group; an unusual scene categorically in conflict with the animosity and hatred that characterized their pre-Islam behaviour. He, therefore, sent a youth of his to sit among them, remind them of Bu‘ath war between them and recite some of their verses which they used to compose satirizing each other; all of this with the intention of sowing the seeds of discord and disagreement and undermining the new Islamically-orientated inter-tribal relations. The youth did in fact succeed and the two parties at no time recalled the old days and pre-Islam tribal fanaticism sprang to the front to bring about a state of war.

The Prophet [pbuh] was reported of this account, and immediately, at the head of some Emigrants, set out to see to the situation. He began to rebuke them but in the manner of the great instructor and the tolerant spirit of the understanding guide: "O, Muslims! Do you still advance pre-Islamic arguments after I have been sent to you (as a Messenger). Remember that it is not rightful for you to turn backward after Allâh has guided you to the Straight Path, delivered you from disbelief and created amity between you." The Muslims readily realized that it was a Satanic whim and a plot hatched by the enemies. They directly embraced each other and went back home quite satisfied and in full obedience to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh].[Ibn Hisham 1/555, 556]

Such were the practices of the Jews, trouble-making, dissension-sowing, falsehood-fabrication, faking belief in the day, and practising disbelief at night. In everyday life, they used to tighten the ropes of financial dealings on the Muslims. If they happened to owe a Muslim something, they would shirk their obligations on grounds that he had converted into a new religion and they would allege the basis of agreement was no longer valid. If it was the other way, they would never cease to harass him day and night to pay back the debt, all of which in a desperate attempt to demolish the great edifice of the new religion that was rapidly gaining ground and speedily towering up skyward.

 

The Qainuqa‘ Jews breach the Covenant

Seeing that Allâh sided with the believers and granted them a manifest victory and perceiving the Muslims’ awesome presence in Madinah, the Jews could no longer contain themselves or conceal indignation. They started a series of provocative and harmful deeds publicly. The most wicked amongst them were the tribe of Banu Qainuqa‘, who lived in quarters within Madinah named after them. As for jobs, they took up goldsmithery, blacksmithing and crafts of making household instruments, that is why war weaponry was available in large quantities in their houses. They counted 700 warriors, and were the most daring amongst the Jewish community in Arabia, and now the first to breach the covenant of cooperation and non-aggression which they had already countersigned with the Prophet [pbuh]. Their behaviour grew too impolite and unbearable. They started a process of trouble-making, jeering at the Muslims, hurting those who frequented their bazaars, and even intimidating their women. Such things began to aggravate the general situation, so the Prophet [pbuh] gathered them in assemblage, admonished and called them to be rational, sensible and guided and cautioned against further transgression. Nevertheless they remained obdurate and paid no heed to his warning, and said: "Don’t be deluded on account of defeating some Quraishites inexperienced in the art of war. If you were to engage us in fight, you will realize that we are genuine war experts."

In this regard, the Words of Allâh were revealed saying:

"Say (O Muhammad [pbuh] ) to those who disbelieve: ‘You will be defeated and gathered together to Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest.’ There has already been a Sign for you (O Jews) in the two armies that met (in combat — i.e. the battle of Badr): One was fighting in the cause of Allâh, and as for the other (they) were disbelievers. They (the believers) saw them (the disbelievers) with their own eyes twice their number (although they were thrice their number). And Allâh supports with His Victory whom He pleases. Verily, in this is a lesson for those who understand." [Al-Qur'an 3:12,13] [Sunan Abu Da'ud with Aunul-Ma'bood 3/115; Ibn Hisham 1/552]

The answer of Banu Qainuqa‘ amounted, as seen, to war declaration. The Prophet [pbuh] suppressed his anger and advised the Muslims to be patient and forbearing and wait for what time might reveal.

The Jews, went too far in their transgression, presumptuous behaviour and licentious practices. One day a Jewish goldsmith provoked a Muslim woman whose genitals become uncovered when he had tied the edge of the garment to her back. A Muslim man happened to be there and killed the man; the Jews retaliated by killing that Muslim. The man’s family called the Muslims for help and war started.[Ibn Hisham 2/47,48]

On Saturday, Shawwal 15th, 2 A.H., the Prophet [pbuh] marched out with his soldiers, Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, carrying the standard of the Muslims and laid siege to the Jews’ forts for 15 days. Allâh cast fear into their hearts, and they were obliged to defer to the Messenger[pbuh]’s judgement on their lives, wealth, women and children; their hands were tied behind their backs.

At this point, ‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul started his hypocritical role and began to intercede for them persistently on grounds of former alliance between those Jews and His tribe Khazraj. Muhammad [pbuh] dealt with this man as being a Muslim -- He had faked conversion into Islam for only one month, by that time -- and so he granted him his request; for Islam accepts people at their face value. Banu Qainuqa‘ handed over all materials, wealth and war equipage to the Prophet [pbuh], who set aside one fifth and distributed the rest to his men. After that they were banished out of all Arabia to Azru‘a in Syria where they stayed for a while and soon perished away.



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 01 April 2007 at 8:53am

As-Sawiq Invasion

Two-pronged hostile activities were being independently conducted against the Prophet [pbuh]; plots and intrigues being hatched by Safwan bin Omaiyah, the hypocrites and Jews on the one hand, going on and on parallel lines with military hostilities being prepared by Abu Sufyan aiming at saving the face of his people and impressing on the other Arabs that Quraish was still a military power to be counted for. In the aftermath of Badr, Abu Sufyan was burning for revenge and took a solemn vow he would never bathe off impurity unless he had avenged himself on Muhammad [pbuh] and his followers. He set out at the head of 200 men towards Madinah but was not brave enough to attack it in broad daylight. He, instead resorted to acts of piracy that are performed in the dark. He infiltrated into the Prophet [pbuh]’s town and went to see an old ally Huyai bin Akhtab, who was too cowardly to let him in, so he left for Salam bin Mashkam, chief of Bani Nadeer, a tribe of Jews. The Jew entertained and gave him a full account of the situation therein. Late at night he despatched a group of his men to raid Al-‘Uraid, a suburb of Madinah. There, the men felled and burnt the palm trees, killed two Muslims and then took swiftly to their heels.

On hearing the news, the Prophet [pbuh] gathered his men and set out at their heels, but could not catch them. The Muslims brought back the provisions (Sawiq, a kind of barley porridge) which the polytheists had thrown aside in order to lighten their loads and hasten their escape; hence this campaign was called As-Sawiq Invasion. It took place in Dhul-Hijjah 2 A.H., two months after the event of Badr.[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/90,91; Ibn Hisham 2/44,45]

 

Dhi Amr Invasion, Muharram, 3 A.H

The Prophet [pbuh]’s intelligence personnel reported that Banu Tha‘labah and Banu Muhârib were mustering troops with the aim of raiding the outskirts of Madinah. The Prophet [pbuh] at the head of 450 horsemen and footmen set out to handle this new situation. ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan was asked to dispose the affairs of the Muslims in Madinah. On their way, they captured a man who embraced Islam and acted as a guide for the army. When the enemies heard of the approach of the Muslims, they hurriedly dispersed in the mountains and disappeared. The Muslims encamped at a watering place called "Dhi Amr" for the whole of Safar 3 A.H. The Prophet [pbuh] aimed to impress upon the desert bedouins in the area, that the Muslims were then powerful enough to cast fear and awe into the hearts of their enemies.[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91; Ibn Hisham 2/46]

 

Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, killed

Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf was the most resentful Jew at Islam and the Muslims, the keenest on inflicting harm on the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and the most zealous advocate of waging war against him. He belonged to Tai’ tribe but his mother to Banu Nadeer. He was a wealthy man known for his handsomeness, and a poet living in luxury in his fort south east of Madinah at the rear of Banu Nadeer’s habitations.

On hearing the news of Badr, he got terribly exasperated and swore that he would prefer death to life if the news was true. When this was confirmed he wrote poems satirizing Muhammad [pbuh], eulogizing Quraish and enticing them against the Prophet [pbuh]. He then rode to Makkah where he started to trigger the fire of war, and kindle rancour against the Muslims in Madinah. When Abu Sufyan asked him which religion he was more inclined to, the religion of the Makkans or that of Muhammad [pbuh] and his companions, he replied that the pagans were better guided. With respect to this situation, Allâh revealed His Words:

"Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They believe in Jibt and Taghűt, and say to the disbelievers that they are better guided as regards the way than the believers (Muslims)." [Al-Qur'an 4:51]

He then returned to Madinah to start a fresh campaign of slanderous propaganda that took the form of obscene songs and amatory sonnets with a view to defaming the Muslim women.

At this stage, the situation became unbearable and could no longer be put up with. The Prophet [pbuh] gathered his men and said: "Who will kill Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf? He had maligned Allâh, and His Messenger." Thereupon, Muhammad bin Maslamah, ‘Abbad bin Bishr, Al-Harith bin Aws, Abu ‘Abs bin Hibr and Salkan bin Salamah, Ka‘b’s foster brother, volunteered to do the job.

Muhammad bin Maslamah said: "O Messenger of Allâh, do you wish that I should kill him?" He said: "Yes." He said: "Permit me to talk (to him in the way I deem fit)." He said: "Talk (as you like)." So, Muhammad bin Maslamah came to Ka‘b and talked to him, saying: "This man (i.e. the Prophet [pbuh]) has made up his mind to collect charity (from us) and this has put us to a great hardship." When he heard this, Ka‘b said: "By Allâh you will be put to more trouble by him." Muhammad bin Maslamah answered: "No doubt, now we have become his followers and we do not like to forsake him until we see what turn his affairs will take. I want that you should give me a loan." He said: "What will you mortgage?" Muhammad answered: "What do you want?" The immoral and heartless Jew demanded women and children as articles of security against the debt. Muhammad said: "Should we pledge our women whereas you are the most handsome of the Arabs; and the son of one of us may be abused by saying that he was pledged for two wasq (measurement unit of weight) of dates but we can pledge you (our) weapons." Ka‘b agreed. Salkan bin Salamah, Abu Na’ilah, at another time, went to see Ka‘b for the same purpose and there were more or less the same subjects, only that Abu Na’ilah would bring him some companions. The plan was successful and provided for the presence of both men and weapons. On Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 14th, at night, the year 3 A.H. the people said good bye to the Prophet [pbuh] and set out in the Name of Allâh to implement the carefully drawn plan. The Prophet [pbuh] stayed back praying for them and supplicating Allâh to render them success. The men went and called upon him at night. He came down although his wife warned him not to meet them alleging that: "I hear a voice which sounds like the voice of murder." He said: "It is only Muhammad bin Maslamah and my foster brother Abu Na’ilah. When a gentleman is called at night even if he be pierced with a spear, he should respond to the call." Abu Na’ilah said to his companions: "As he comes down, I will extend my hand towards his head to smell and when I hold him fast, you should do your job." So when he came down, they talked together for about an hour. They then invited him to go out and spend a nice time in the moonlight. On the way out, Abu Na’ilah remarked: "I smell the nicest perfume from you." Ka‘b said: "Yes, I have with me a mistress who is the most scented of the women of Arabia." Abu Na’ilah again said: "Allow me to smell (the scent on your head)". He said: "Yes, you may smell." So he caught it and smelt. Then he said: "Allow me to do so(once again)." He then held his head fast and said to his companions: "Do your job." And they killed him. The group of men came back after fulfilling their mission. One of them Al-Harith bin Aws was wounded by mistake with the swords of his men, and was bleeding badly. When they reached Baqee‘ Al-Gharqad, they shouted, "Allâh is Great". The Prophet [pbuh] heard them and realized that they had killed the enemy of Allâh. As they saw him, he said: "Cheerful faces are yours." In reply, they said: "And yours O Messenger of Allâh." They handed the head of the tyrant over to him. He entertained Allâh’s praise for their success. He then applied his saliva to Al-Harith’s wound and it healed on the spot.[Ibn Hisham 1/51-57; Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/341, 425, 2/577; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91' and Sunan Abu Da'ud with 'Aun-ul-Ma'bood 2/42,43]

When the Jews learned about the death of their tyrant, Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, they were scared and even their stonelike hearts were in the grip of inexpressible panic. They realized that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] would thenceforth never hesitate to use force when good words and admonition failed. They remained silent and resigned, and faked adherence to covenants.

Now the Prophet [pbuh] was free to collect his thoughts and give himself up to resolving foreign affairs, and facing dangers that could be carried with hostile wind blowing again from Makkah.

 

The Invasion of Buhran

In Rabi‘ Ath-Thani, the year 3 A.H. the Prophet [pbuh] led a campaign comprising 300 warriors to Buhran in the area of Al-Furu‘. He stayed there till Jumada Al-Ula, 3 A.H. No fighting took place in the process of this patrolling invasion.[Ibn Hisham 2/50,51; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91]

 

Zaid bin Harithah leads a Campaign on the Trade Routes of Quraish

This was the most successful campaign prior to Uhud Battle. It took place in Jumada Ath-Thaniyah, the year 3 A.H.

Summer approached and it was high time for the Makkan trade caravans to leave for Syria. The people of Quraish whose lives depended mainly on a mercantile economy consisting of summer caravans to Syria and winter caravans to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), were now at a loss as to what route they would have to follow in order to avoid the backbreaking military strikes that the Muslims successfully inflicted on the polytheists.

They held a meeting to discuss the chances of escaping the economic blockade and decided to go along a trade route across Najd to Iraq. Furat bin Haiyan was appointed as a guide for the caravan. Safwan bin Omaiyah led the caravan along the new route. News of the meeting leaked out through Na‘im bin Mas‘ud Al-Ashja‘i under the effect of wine, and it flew fast to Madinah by Sulit bin An-Nu‘man. The Prophet [pbuh] immediately mustered 100 horsemen under the leadership of Zaid bin Harithah Al-Kalbi and despatched them to intercept and capture the caravan. They caught up with the camels at a place called Al-Qardah. They took the polytheists by surprise and arrested their guide and two other men. Safwan and his guards fled away without showing the least resistance. The caravan was carrying silver and wares whose value amounted to 100 thousand dirhams. The booty was distributed among the Muslim warriors after one-fifth had been set aside for the Prophet [pbuh]. Furat bin Haiyan embraced Islam out of his own sweet free will.[Ibn Hisham 1/50,51; Fiqh As-Seerah p.190; Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 2/219]

As a result of this episode, the Muslims foiled Quraish’s plans to find a new trade route. The economic siege laid to Makkah was thus consolidated and had a great impact on the mercantile economy of Makkah. The Makkans were terribly anxious and worried about their prospects of life now at stake with no hope whatsoever for any possible rehabilitation of commercial life or redemption of former prestige at the socio-political level except through two avenues categorically contrasting: Relinquishing all symbols of arrogance and all attitudes of haughtiness through reconciliation with the new status quo, and peaceableness with the Muslims; or launching a decisive overwhelming war with the aim of crushing down the military forces of Madinah. It was apparent through the process of events that Quraish had opted for the second alternative. Loud cries were being heard everywhere in Makkah demanding immediate vengeance and quick retaliatory action. These movements on all levels constituted the direct preliminaries to the battle of Uhud.

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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 09 April 2007 at 3:49am

The Battle of Uhud

The defeat at Badr was an ignominy which the Quraishites pride could not leave unavenged. Revenge was, therefore, the catchword all over Makkah. The Makkans even forbade lamenting over their murdered people, or ransoming their captives at Badr Battle lest the Muslims should realize the grave degree of sadness and feeling of tragedy they were experiencing.

In the wake of Badr event, Quraish was in common consent and started fresh preparations to launch an overall war against the Muslims in order to restore their blemished prestige and wounded pride. The most enthusiastic polytheists desiring to go into a new battle were ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Safwan bin Omaiyah, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a. They were determined to crush the commonwealth of Islam once and for all. Emissaries were sent to all the tribes to make common cause against the rising Faith. As a consequence of this, they managed to enlist the support of two well-known tribes Kinana and Tihamah besides some desert bedouins Ahabish. It was also decided that the profits of the escaped caravan headed by Abu Sufyan, which amounted to 1000 camels and 50 thousand Dinars, should be devoted for providing equipment to the army. The Noble Qur’ân has alluded to this decision of theirs in the following words:

"Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the path of Allâh, and so will they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they will be overcomed." [Al-Qur'an 8:36]

They also devised other ways of recruitment including hiring poets to entice the tribes into fighting the Muslims. Safwan bin Omaiyah allured Abu ‘Azza, the poet to work in this context in return for riches after the war or supporting his daughters if killed. Incidentally, this poet was prisoner of war (in the context of the Badr events) in the hands of the Muslims and the Prophet [pbuh] was gracious enough to release him unransomed provided he would not engage in fight against him.

Abu Sufyan nursed the most grudge against Muslims because he had lost most of his supplies in As-Sawiq invasion, let alone the heavy economic losses that Quraish had sustained in the aftermath of the events that featured the platoon of Zaid bin Harithah.

In the light of these successive failures, Quraish precipitated and accelerated their preparations for a decisive battle with the Muslims. At the turn of the year everything was ready for the move. The Makkans also decided to take their women along with them for they might arouse them to fight manfully. Thus a contingent of three thousand pitched warriors, of whom seven hundred were mailed soldiers and two hundred well-mounted[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/92; Fath Al-Bari 7/346] cavalry with three thousand camels and fifteen women marched towards Madinah. The general leader was Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the cavalry under the leadership of Khalid bin Al-Waleed assisted by ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, and Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar were entrusted with the flag.

Old deep-seated feelings of hatred, with heart-based grudge enveloped the whole process foreshadowing bitter, bloody revenge-instigated fighting between the two parties.

Meanwhile Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, was closely watching the military movements and preparations for war, and these were all included in an urgent message sent by him to Prophet [pbuh] who received it while he was in Qubâ’ Mosque. Ubai bin Ka‘b read the letter to the Prophet [pbuh], who asked him to be reticent with respect to its serious contents. He hurried back to Madinah, convened a meeting with the Helpers and Emigrants and conducted with them serious consultations as regards the measures to be taken.

The whole of Madinah was put on the alert and all men were heavily armed even during prayer in anticipation of any emergency. A group of Helpers volunteered to guard the Prophet [pbuh] and kept watchful eye all night at his door, amongst whom there were Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, Usaid bin Hudair and Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah. Lest they should be taken by surprise, armed groups of the Madinese began to police the entrances and roads leading to the city. To reconnoitre the movements of the polytheists, Muslim platoons began to patrol the routes for any probable enemy raids.

The Makkan army, on the other hand, continued the march along the usual western road. On reaching Al-Abwâ’, Hind bint ‘Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s wife, suggested that they dig up the grave of the Prophet [pbuh]’s mother, but the leaders of the army refused to do so for fear of the consequent results. The army then followed Wadi Al-‘Aqeeq and turned right to encamp themselves at a place called ‘Ainain near Uhud Mountain. That was on Friday, 6th Shawwal, 3 A.H.

 

A Consultation Assembly for a Defence Plan

The scouting party of Madinah conveyed the news of the Makkan army step by step. Then the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] held a head military consultation assembly to exchange views about the situation. He told them about a dream he had. He said: "By Allâh, I have dreamt of — I implore Allâh to be a dream of bounty — cows slaughtered and that there was a groove at the pointed top of my sword, and that I had inserted my hand into an immune armour."

The interpretation of ‘the cows’ was that some of his men were killed, and ‘the groove at the pointed top of his sword’ was that a member of his House would be hurt. As for ‘the armour’ it was Madinah. Then he offered a suggestion that his Companions should not go out of Madinah and that they should encamp themselves within the city. He was of the opinion that the enemies should be left in the open to exhaust themselves and thus the Muslims would not risk a battle. But if they thought of attacking Madinah, Muslim men would be ready to fight them at the mouths of lanes; whereas Muslim-women would help from over the house roofs." ‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul — the head of the hypocrites; who attended the meeting as a chief of Al-Khazraj — supported the Prophet [pbuh]’s plan.

As a matter of fact his agreement was not based on the righteousness of the plan but rather on personal benefit. He did not want to fight. On the contrary he secretly aimed at being far away from fight. However it was Allâh’s Will that he should be disclosed and disgraced in public — for the first time. It was His Will that the curtain which concealed their disbelief behind should be uncovered and pulled down. Allâh’s Will enabled the Muslims to recognize the reality of those snakes that were creeping within their garments and inside the sleeves of their clothes. Thanks to Allâh they recognized them in one of the most critical times of their lives.

Some of the best honourable Companions, who had missed Al-Jihâd in Badr invasion, suggested that the Prophet [pbuh] should go out of Madinah and urged him to accept their point of view. One of them said: "O, Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], for long time we have been looking forward to this day; and we have implored Allâh to make such a day draw near. Thanks to Allâh it is time to fight. So let us go out and fight our enemies lest they should think that we have lost heart and do not dare to fight them." Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib the paternal uncle of the Prophet [pbuh], who had already covered the ornaments of his sword with idolaters’ blood in Badr Battle, was ahead of those enthusiastics who urged him to go out and meet the disbelievers. He said to the Prophet [pbuh]: "By Allâh, Who has sent the Book down unto you, I will not taste food till I fight them with my sword outside Madinah."[As-Seerah Al-Halabiyah 2/14]

After weighing carefull the pros and cons of the issue, it was decided that the enemy should be resisted outside the city at Uhud.

 

Dividing the Islamic Army into Phalanxes and Departure to the Battle-field

Ascending the pulpit at the Friday congregational prayer, the Prophet [pbuh] urged the people in his sermon to fight courageously. "If you remain steadfast," he said "you will be helped by the Power of the All- Mighty." Then he commanded his men to make ready for the battle. Most of them rejoiced greatly.

He led the afternoon prayer with crowds of people. Then he entered his house accompanied by his two friends Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. They helped him dress and wear his headcloth. He armed himself and wore two armours one over the other. He wore his sword and went out to meet people.

People were waiting for him impatiently. Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Usaid bin Hudair blamed people for pressing on the Prophet [pbuh]. They said: "You have forced the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] to fight the enemy outside Madinah." Therefore they were determined to leave the whole matter to the Prophet [pbuh], and blamed themselves for what they had already done. When the Prophet [pbuh] came out, they said: "O Messenger of Allâh, we should have not disagreed with you. So, you are free to do what you desire. If you prefer to stay inside Madinah we will stay with you. Upon this the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] remarked: "It does not become a Prophet that once he had put on armour, he should take it off, until Allâh has decided between him and the enemy." [Quoted by Ahmad, Nasa'i, Hakim and Ibn Ishaq]

The Prophet [pbuh] divided his army into three battalions:

  1. Al-Muhajireen battalion, under the command of Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair Al-‘Abdari.
  2. Al-Ansari-Aws battalion was commanded by Usaid bin Hudair.
  3. Al-Ansari-Khazraj battalion with Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir to lead it.

The army consisted of a thousand fighters; a hundred of them armoured; another fifty horsemen. [Al-Huda 2,92] He appointed Ibn Umm Maktum to lead the people in prayer in Madinah. Departure was announced and the army moved northwards with the two Sa‘ds, who were armoured, running in front of the army.

Upon passing along Al-Wada‘ mountain trail he saw a well-armed battalion, which were detached from the main body of the army. The Prophet [pbuh] inquired who they were and he was told that they were Jews and were allies of Al-Khazraj. They told him that they wanted to contribute to the fight against the idolaters. "Have they embraced Islam?" The Prophet [pbuh] asked. "No," they said. So he refused admitting them and said that he would not seek the assistance of disbelievers against the idolaters.

 

Parading the Army

As soon as he reached a location called Ash-Shaikhan, he paraded his army. He dismissed those whom he considered to be disabled or too young to stand the fight. Among them were ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. Usama bin Zaid; Usaid bin Zaheer, Zaid bin Thabit, Zaid bin Arqam. ‘Araba bin Aws, ‘Amr bin Hazm, Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri, Zaid bin Haritha Al-Ansari, Sa‘d bin Habba and Al-Barâ’ bin ‘Azib, Sahih Al-Bukhari pointed out that he had shared in the fight that day.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] allowed both Rafi‘ bin Khadaij and Samura bin Jundub to join the army — though they were too young. The former proved to be skillful at shooting arrows; the latter wrestled the former and beat him. The admission of Rafi‘ made Samura say: "I am stronger than him, I can overcome him." When the Prophet [pbuh] heard this saying he ordered them to wrestle. They did. Samura won so he was also admitted.

 

Passing the Night between Uhud and Madinah

As night fell upon them there, they performed both the sunset and the evening prayers and spent the night there as well. Fifty people were chosen to guard the camp and go round it. Muhammad bin Maslama Al-Ansari, the hero of the brigade of Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, was in charge of the guards. Whereas Dhakwan bin ‘Abd Qais undertook the responsibility of guarding the Prophet [pbuh], in particular.

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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 16 April 2007 at 4:24am

The Rebellion of ‘Abdullah bin Ubai and his Followers

At the end of the night and just before it was daybreak, the Prophet [pbuh] moved and when he got to Ash-Shawt he observed the dawn prayer. There he was close enough to the enemy that they could see one another. It was there that ‘Abdullah bin Ubai — the hypocrite — rebelled against the Muslims. One-third of the army withdrew with him — that is to say three hundred fighters. He said, "We do not know why we shall kill ourselves." He claimed that his withdrawal was no more than showing protest against the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] who had already refused his opinion and accepted that of the others.

Undoubtedly that was not the real cause of his detachment. If it had been the refusal of his opinion — as the hypocrite claimed — there would have no sense whatsoever for his joining the Prophetic army. If it had been so, he would have refused to go out with the army from the very beginning of the march. As a matter of fact the real purpose of this rebellion, withdrawal and detachment — at this delicate and awkward position and time — was to produce bewilderment, confusion of mind, and disorder in the Muslims army who were within the sight and hear range of the enemy who were also looking forward to seeing more and more dissension on the side of the Muslims, like themselves. They also aimed at breaking the high morale of the believers. That would accelerate — in their opinion — the breakdown and consequently the death of Muhammad, his faithful Companions and Islam as a whole. The way would then be clear for the reclaim of presidency, which that hypocrite had lost on the advent of Islam into Madinah.

Short of Allâh’s Care, the hypocrite’s plot would have been successful. Banu Haritha of Al-Aws and Banu Salama of Al-Khazraj were partially impressed by the hypocrite’s behaviour. Both of them were overwhelmed by confusion and they had almost started to withdraw, but Allâh’s Care saved them from that disgrace. About their incident Allâh says:

"When two parties from among you were about to lose their heart, but Allâh was their Wali (Supporter and Protector). And in Allâh should the believers put their trust." [Al-Qur'an 3:122]

‘Abdullah bin Haram — the father of Jabir bin ‘Abdullah — attempted to stop their withdrawal. He reminded the hypocrites of their duty at this delicate and awkward condition, but in vain. He followed them, reproached them and urged them to go back saying: "Come and fight in the way of Allâh or at least be defenders." They said: "If we had known that you would really fight we would have not gone back." Having despaired of them, he addressed them saying: "May Allâh cast you away, you enemies of Allâh. Allâh will certainly suffice His Prophet." Allâh says about those hypocrites:

"And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: ‘Come, fight in the way of Allâh or (at least) defend yourselves.’ They said: ‘Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.’ They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to Faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allâh has full knowledge of what they conceal." [Al-Qur'an 3:167]

 

The Remainder of the Islamic Army are on the Move to Uhud

With the remainder of fighters, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] moved towards the enemy. After the rebellion and withdrawal of the hypocrites, the number of soldiers was reduced to seven hundred only.

The camp of idolaters was situated in such a place that the many roads leading to Uhud were almost blocked by them. So the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said to his men: "Which man of you can lead us to where the people (i.e. the idolaters) are, along a short track that does not pass by them?" Abu Khaithama said: "O Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], I am the man you need." Then he chose a short track that led to Uhud passing by Harrah Bani Harithah and their farms, leaving the idolaters’ army westwards.

On their way they passed by Ha’it (i.e. the field) of Marba‘ bin Qaizi, who was a blind hypocrite. When Marba‘ felt and realized that they were the Prophetic army, he started throwing earth at their faces, so they rushed to kill him, but the Prophet [pbuh] said:

"Do not kill him. He is blind in heart and eyes."

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] went along till climbed down the hillock of Uhud at the slope of the valley. He camped there with his army facing Madinah while their backs were to the hills of Uhud mountain. So the army of the enemy stood a barrier between the Muslims and Madinah.

 

The Defence Plan

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] mobilized his army. He arranged them into two rows to prepare them for fight. He selected fifty skillful archers that formed a squad and made them under the command of ‘Abdullah bin Jubair bin An-Nu‘man Al-Ansari Al-Awsi Al-Badri. He issued his orders to them to stay where they were — on a mountain(side) at the south bank of Qanat Al-Wadi (i.e. a canal of the valley), south east of Muslims camp at about one hundred and fifty metres from the Islamic army. Later on this mountain was called the Mountain of Archers.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] clarified the mission of this squad in words he directed to them. He said to their leader: "Drive off the horses from us by means of arrows, lest they should attack us from behind (the rear). Whether we win the battle or lose it, stand steadily in your position and mind that we are not attacked from your side."[Ibn Hisham 2/65,66]

He added:

"Defend our backs! If you see us slain. Do not come to assist us; and if you see gaining grounds, do not share us."[Fath Al-Bari 7/350]

In a version by Al-Bukhâri the Prophet [pbuh] said:

"If you see us snatched into pieces by birds, do not leave this position of yours till I send for you. And if you see that we have defeated the enemy and trodden on them do not desert your position till I send for you."[Sahih Al-Bukhari, the Book of Jihad 1/426]

With the assignment of this squad and locating it on the mountainside and the issuance of those strict military orders, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] blocked the only groove that might lead the idolaters stealthily to the rear of Muslim ranks and might even enable them to encircle them in an encompassment procedure.

The assignments of posts and responsibilities for the rest of the army were performed by the Prophet [pbuh] as follows: On the right wing, he appointed Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr. On the left he appointed Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam, and made Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad his assistant and supporter. Az-Zubair’s function was to standfast in the face of Khalid bin Al-Waleed’s horsemen. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] selected the top and the most courageous group to be in the vanguard of the army. They were notable for their readiness, alertness and bravery and estimated to be equal to thousands of men.

It was a wise and carefully-laid plan which revealed the genius of military leadership that the Prophet [pbuh] possessed. No other leader could have drawn a more accurate or wise plan. Although he approached the site later than the enemy, he managed to occupy better positions. He made the rocky mountainside to function as shield for the army’s rear and right flank. He was able, by blocking the only vulnerable gap on the side, to provide additional maximum protection for the rear as well as the left wing. For fear of possible defeat, and to deter the Muslims from fleeing, in which case they would fall easy prisoners in the hands of the enemy, he chose a high place for encampment. Moreover a strategic site of this sort would surely inflict heavy losses on the polytheists if they thought of approaching or occupying his positions. In a further step, he reduced the enemy to a narrow scope of choice when they were cornered for encampment in geographically low positions that would avail them nothing of the benefits of any possible victory; at the same time they would not be able to escape the pursuit of the Muslims in case victory sided with the latter. To make up for the quantitative shortage in fighting personnel, he chose a picked body of fighters to stand at the front.

The army of the Prophet [pbuh] was thus fully mobilized on Shawwal 7th, 3 A.H.

 

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] implants the Spirit of Bravery among his Armed Forces

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] forbade the Muslims to start the fight without having an order from him. He, then, wore two armours — a front armour and a back one. He urged his Companions to fight and spurred them to show stamina and steadfastness at fight. He started to implant the spirit of boldness and bravery in them. To wage and inflame his Companions and in order to standfast in the fight, he took a sharp sword, held it in his hand and called out unto his Companions and said: "Who is ready to take this sword and give it its proper due?" Many a man set out to take it. Some of them were ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam and ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. But it was granted to none. Abu Dujana Sammak bin Kharsha inquired: "O Messenger of Allâh, what is its price?" The Prophet [pbuh] said: "It is to strike the enemy’s faces with it till it was bent." So Abu Dujana said: "O Messenger of Allâh I will take it for that price." and he was given the sword.

Abu Dujana was a man of courage who used to swagger at war. He had a red band which he wore round his head. Whenever he was head-banded everybody knew that he was determined to fight to death. Therefore as soon as Abu Dujana took the Prophet [pbuh]’s sword, he banded his head and started strutting amongst the fighters.

Watching him doing that, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: "This is a sort of walking that Allâh detests except in such a situation."

 

Recruitment of the Makkan Army

The idolaters applied the rows system in the mobilization of their army. The general leadership of the army was entrusted to Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, who would be in the centre-position of the army. Khalid bin Al-Waleed was on the right wing; whereas ‘Ikrima, the son of Abu Jahl was on the left. Safwan bin Omaiya was in charge of infantry men. The archers were under the command of ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a.

As for the standard, a squad of Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar were in charge to bear it. Thus was the distribution of the posts of the army ever since ‘Abd Munaf had already assigned them. This assignment had been inherited from Qusai bin Kilab — as we have previously alluded to in an early phase of this book. No one had the right to compete them with it. It was consistent with their traditions that they had inherited from their ancestors.

Abu Sufyan, the general leader, reminded his men — the standard bearers — of what had happened to Quraish on Badr Day (i.e. battle) when their standard bearer, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, was captured. In an attempt to wage their anger and enmity to the Muslims he said: "O Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar! You have been assigned bearers of our standard and you know that the standard is the first thing that the enemy attacks. Should it fall, we fall down too. Therefore, I say either you guarantee its safety or leave it for us, and we will certainly suffice you that task."

Abu Sufyan’s attempt seemed to be fruitful. For his speech made Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar so extremely angry that they threatened him and almost attacked him for that. Addressing him, they said: "You want us to deliver you the custodianship of the standard? Tomorrow when we fight them, you will witness our deeds." As a matter of fact, they fought bravely and stoodfast in defence of the standard till they were all killed.

 

Political Manoeuvres of Quraish

A little time before the break out of the battle, Quraish made some endeavours to sow the seeds of discord and dispute among the Muslims. First, Abu Sufyan sent to the Helpers a message saying: "Leave us alone to fight our cousins and do not interfere. If you stand aside, we will not fight you; for fighting you is not a target of ours." But that attempt proved to be fruitless. What could such a wicked scheme do to those whose Faith was as solid and firm as mountains?! The Helpers reply was undoubtedly disappointing and contrary to Abu Sufyan’s expectations.

The zero-hour was due. The two parties drew nearer. Undespaired by the first failure, Quraish made another attempt, for the same purport but now with the assistance of a traitor called Abu ‘Amir Al-Fasiq, whose name was ‘Abd ‘Amr bin Saifi. He was called a monk, but the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] nicknamed him Al-Fâsiq (i.e. perverted transgressor; dissolute). As he was the head of Aws in Al-Jahiliya, he could not tolerate Islam when it came. He announced his enmity to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] in public. He left Madinah for the Quraishites in Makkah to rally them against the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and to urge them to start the fight against him. He claimed that he was obeyed and esteemed by his people and that as soon as they saw him come they would join him immediately.

So he was the first one among the mob and slaves of Quraish to show resistance. He called out unto his people, recognized them and said: "O kinfolk of Aws! I am Abu ‘Amir." Their reply was "No eyes of anybody shall be consoled by viewing you, O Fâsiq." Hearing them say so, he said: "My people must have been afflicted by an evil after my departure." Therefore when the fight broke out, he fought them fiercely and pelted his people with stones, as well.

That was how the second attempt of Quraish to sow the seeds of discord among people of Faith. This, however, revealed the great terror of the Quraishites cast in their hearts in spite of their supremacy in number and equipment.

 

The effort of Quraishite Women at waging the Zeal of Men

Quraishi-women participated in the battle led by the wife of Abu Sufyan, Hind bint ‘Utbah. They wandered among the rows of the idolaters, tapped on tambourines, encouraged men to fight, inflamed the emotions of heroes, lancers, swordsmen and brave fighters. At one time they addressed the standard-bearers:

"O Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar!
O home defenders,
Strike with your sharp swords …"

And at another time they would wage people’s zeal by singing:

"If you fight (bravely), we will embrace
and unfold mats to welcome you.
But if you flee from the battlefield, we leave you,
Desert you and no more love you."

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 22 April 2007 at 5:22am

The Combat

The two parties approached and grew very close to each another. The phases of fight started. The first combatant was the standard-bearer, Talha bin Abi Talha Al-‘Abdari, who was the most distinguished idolater. He was one of the bravest men of Quraish fighters. Muslims nicknamed him ‘the ram of the battalion.’ He came forth riding a camel and challenged the Muslims to a single combat. People refrained from fighting him due to his bravery; but Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam advanced for the fight. He did not give the ‘Ram’ any chance to fight but fell on him like a lion on his camel’s back, pulled him down to the ground and slaughtered him with his sword.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] who was watching that wonderful incident exclaimed: Allâhu Akbar that is ‘Allâh is the Greatest’ and the Muslims exclaimed Allâhu Akbar too. He praised Az-Zubair when he said:

"Every Prophet has a disciple and Az-Zubair is a disciple of mine."[As-Seerah Al-Halaiyah 2/18]

Soon the general engagement ensued and the fight of the two parties grew fierce everywhere on the battlefield. The strain of the fight was centred round the carriers of the standard. After the death of their leader Talha bin Abi Talha, Banu ‘Abd Ad-Dar alternated the mission successively. Talha’s brother, ‘Uthman, ran forward and seized the standard which lay by the lifeless body of his brother, chanting: "The standard-bearer has the right to dye its shaft in blood, till it be beaten in his hand." Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib attacked and dealt him a blow that cut his arm and shoulder and went down to his navel to uncover his lung.

The standard was raised up again by Abu Sa‘d bin Abi Talha; but Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas shot him with a deadly arrow that hit him at his throat and made his tongue hang out breathing his last.

In another version it was narrated that Abu Sa‘d lifted the standard up and challenged the Muslims to fight him. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib went forth. They exchanged two blows. Then ‘Ali gave him a terminal blow that finished him off.

Musafi‘ bin Talha bin Abi Talha then hoisted the standard, but was soon shot with an arrow by ‘Asim bin Thabit bin Abi Al-Aqlah. His brother Kilab bin Talha bin Abi Talha followed him picked the banner and lifted it up; but Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam attacked him and managed to kill him. Their brother Al-Jallas bin Talha bin Abi Talha lifted the banner up but Talha bin ‘Ubaidu-Allâh stabbed him to death. They also said that it was ‘Asim bin Thabit who managed to deal a terminal blow to him.

All those six people killed round and in defence of the standard, belonged to one house, the house of Abi Talha ‘Abdullah bin ‘Uthman bin ‘Abd Ad-Dar. Another man from Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar, called Artat bin Sharhabeel carried the standard but he also was killed by ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. Others said it was Hamzah who killed him not ‘Ali.

Then it was Shuraih bin Qariz who was killed by Quzman — he was a hypocrite who fought for prestige only, not in defence of Islam. Abu Zaid ‘Amr bin ‘Abd Munaf Al-‘Abdari lifted the standard up but he was killed by Quzman too. A son of Sharhabeel bin Hashim Al-‘Abdari hoisted it again and was also killed by Quzman.

So we see that ten fighters of Bani ‘Abd Ad-Dar — the standard-bearers — were annihilated. Seeing that none of ‘Abd Ad-Dars survived to carry the standard, a slave of theirs — called Sawab — came to raise it. The slave showed more admirable sorts of bravery and steadfastness than his former masters. Sawab, the slave went on fighting till his hand was cut off. So he knelt down and embraced the banner, leant it against his chest and neck lest it should fall down to the ground. He remained fighting steadily and steadfastly till he was killed. In the meanwhile he did not stop saying: "O Allâh, have I been excused?" After the death of the slave Sawab, the standard fell down to the ground, and remained there as there was no one to carry it.

Whilst the brunt of the battle centred around the standard, bitter fighting was going on everywhere on the battlefield. The spirit of Faith overwhelmed the Muslims’ ranks; so they rushed among the idolaters as if they had been an outbreak of a destructive flood that overflowed and knocked down all dams and barriers standing in its way "I seek death, I seek death." That was their announced motto on Uhud Day.

Abu Dujana, recognized by the red band worn round his head, came forth, fighting with the sword of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]. He was determined to pay its price at all costs. He killed all the idolaters that stood on his way splitting and dispersing their ranks. Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam said:

"I felt angry and discouraged when the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] refused to give me the sword but gave it to Abu Dujana. I said to myself: ‘I am his paternal cousin — the cousin of his aunt Safiya — a Quraishite, besides, I was the first who demanded it and yet he favoured him to me. By Allâh, I will watch how he will use it.’ So I followed him, I saw him take out his red band and wear it round his head. Seeing him like that, the Helpers said, ‘Abu Dujana had worn the band of death.’ Then he set out saying loudly:

‘I am the one whom my intimate friend made covenant with, when we were under the palm-trees on the mountain side.
The covenant that we made was that I should not fight at the rear.
But fight at the front heroically with the sword of Allâh and His Messenger.’

No one stood the way of Abu Dujana but was killed. There was a man among the idolaters whose only target was to finish off the wounded Muslims. During the fight Abu Dujana drew near that man; so I implored Allâh that they might engage in combat. They in fact did and exchanged two sword-strokes. The idolater struck Abu Dujana, but he escaped it and it pierced into his leather shield. The idolater’s sword now stuck to it, Abu Dujana struck him with the sword and killed him. Ibn Hisham 2/68,69] Into the thick of the battle, he rushed to kill a person who was inciting the enemy to fight the Muslims. Upon this the person shrieked and lo! it was a woman. Abu Dujana spared her saying: ‘I respect the Prophet [pbuh]’s sword too much to use it on a woman.’ The woman was Hind bint ‘Utbah."

Describing the same incident, Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam said: "I saw Abu Dujana raising a sword over the parting part of Hind bint ‘Utba’s head then he moved it off. I said to myself: ‘Allâh and His Messenger know best.’ (i.e. know why he acted like that). [bn Hisham 2/69]"

Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib displayed wonderful feats of gallantry against the overwhelming odds which stood unparalled and created consternation and confusion in the disbelieving hosts. Heroes dispersed off his way as if they had been tree-leaves blown away by strong wind. In addition to his effective contribution to the annihilation of the idolaters who stood in defence of the standard, he was even of much greater effect at fighting against men of bravery and distinguished horsemen. It was Allâh’s Will that he be murdered when he was at the top. He was not killed in a face-to-face fight on the battlefield — in the normal way by which heroes die — but rather assassinated in the dead-dark as was the custom of killing generous and noble men that were impossible to kill in an honourable fight.

 

Assassination of Asadullâh (the Lion of Allâh) Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib

Hamzah’s assassin, Wahshi bin Harb, described how he killed Hamzah. He said:

"I was a slave working to Jubair bin Mut‘im, whose paternal uncle Tu‘aimah bin ‘Adi was injured at Badr Battle. So when Quraish marched to Uhud, Jubair said to me: ‘If you kill Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad, stealthily you shall be manumitted.’ "

"So I marched with the people to Uhud." He used to describe himself as, "I am a picaro good at spearing." "So when the two parties fought, I set out seeking Hamzah. I saw him amidst people fighting. He was like a white and black striped camel, striking severely with his sword and no one could stand on his way. By Allâh! When I was getting ready and trying to seize the fit opportunity to spear him, hiding sometimes behind a tree or a rock hoping that he might draw nearer and be within range — at that moment I caught sight of Siba‘ bin ‘Abd Al-‘Uzza going closer towards him. When Hamzah observed him, he said: ‘Come on! O son of the ‘clitoris-cutter.’ — for his mother used to be a circumciser. Then he struck one strong stroke that could hardly miss his head."

Wahshi said: "Then I balanced my spear and shook it till I was content with it, then I speared him and it went down into his stomach and issued out between his legs. He attempted moving towards me but he was overcome by his wound. I left him there with the spear in his entrails till he died. Then I came to him, pulled out my spear and returned to the encampment place. I stayed there and did not go out, for he was the only one I sought. I only killed him to free myself. So as soon as I got back to Makkah, I became a free man." [Ibn Hisham 2/69-72; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/583]

 

Bringing the Situation under Control

Although the death of Asad (Lion) of Allâh and His Messenger — Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib — was a great loss, the Muslims maintained full control over the whole situation on the battlefield. On that day, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam, Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair, Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh, ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabî‘ and Anas bin An-Nadr and others — all of them fought so fiercely, effectively and efficiently that they broke the strong will of the idolaters and scattered them.

 

From his Wife’s lap to Sword-fights and Sorrows

One of the brave adventurers of that day was Hanzala Al-Ghaseel — He was Hanzala bin Abu ‘Amir. Abu ‘Amir was the very monk that was nicknamed ‘Al-Fâsiq’ (i.e. the dissolute, evildoer). He is the very one that we have recently mentioned. Hanzala, who was newly married, left his wife’s bed for Al-Jihâd (Fight in the cause of Allâh). He set out the moment he heard of the call to Al-Jihâd. When he faced the idolaters on the battlefield, he made his way through their ranks till he reached their leader Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb and had almost killed him, if he had not been ordained to be a martyr. For at that moment he was seen by Shaddad bin Al-Aswad who struck him to death.

 

The Contribution of the Archers Squad to the Battle

The archers squad whom the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] located on the Archers Mountain, had the upper hand in administering the war activities to go in favour of the Muslim army. The Makkan horsemen — commanded by Khalid bin Al-Waleed, supported by Abu ‘Amir Al-Fâsiq — had for three times attacked the left wing of the Muslim army with the aim of crushing it and then infiltrating into the rear to create a sort of confusion and disorder in the ranks of the Muslims and subsequently inflict heavy defeat on them. But thanks to the dexterity and great efforts of the archers, the three assaults were thwarted.[Fath Al-Bari 7/346]

War activities went on and on fierecly with the Muslims in full command of the whole military developments until the idolaters finally staggered and retreated, leaving all motives of alleged pride, and affected dignity in oblivion, and their standard trodden by the feet of the fighters with none ever courageous enough to approach it. It seemed as if the three thousand idolaters had been fighting thirty thousand Muslims and not merely several hundreds.

Ibn Ishaq said: "Then Allâh sent down His Help unto the Muslims and verified His Promise to them. They chased the idolaters and evacuated them from their camp. No doubt it was a certain defeat." In a version by ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair that his father had said: "By Allâh, I was watching the servants of Hind bint ‘Utbah and her women friends fleeing with their garments gathered up. No one was there to prevent us from capturing them."[Ibn Hisham 2/77]

In another version by Al-Barâ’ bin ‘Azib — mentioned in Sahih Al-Bukhâri — he said: "When we fought them, they fled, and their women could be seen fleeing in the mountains with their anklets and legs revealed."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/579] The Muslims pursued the enemies putting them to sword and collecting the spoils.

 

The Archers’ Fatal Mistake

While the small army of Islam were recording the second absolute and clear victory over the Makkans — which was no less in splendour and glory than the first one at Badr — the majority of the archers on the mountainside committed a fatal mistake that turned the whole situation upside down, and constituted a source of heavy losses amongst the Muslims. It has almost brought about the murder of the Prophet [pbuh], and left a very bad impression on the fame and dignity they deservedly earned at Badr Battle.

We have already spoken about the positive orders given to the archers to hold on to their position whatever the course of the main engagement. In spite of those strict orders, and their leader’s — ‘Abdullah bin Jubair — warning, forty archers deserted their posts, enticed by the too soon roar of victory as well as worldly avarice for the spoils of war.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/426] The others, however, nine in number and ‘Abdullah, their leader, decided to abide by the Prophet [pbuh]’s order and stay where they were until they were given leave or killed to the last. Consequently the cleft was left inadequately defended .

The shrewd Khalid bin Al-Waleed seized this golden opportunity to turn swiftly round to the rear of the Muslim army and encompass them. Exterminating Ibn Jubair and his group, they fell promptly upon the rear of the Muslims and his horsemen uttered a shout that signalled the new military developments. The polytheists returned once again to counterattack the Muslims. An idolist woman — called ‘Umra bint ‘Alqama Al-Harithiyah — rushed to the lying-on-earth standard, picked it up and hoisted it. The idolaters gathered together around the standard and called out unto one another till they encircled the Muslims and stoodfast to fight again.

The Muslims consequently got entrapped between two millstones.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was then among a small group of fighters — nine in number at the rear of the army[Sahih Muslim 2/107], watching the engagement and braving the Muslim fighters. Khalid and his men took him by utter surprise, and obliged him to follow either of two options:

  1. To flee for his life and abandon his army to its doomed end, or
  2. To take action at the risk of his life, rally the ranks of the Muslims again and work their way through the hills of Uhud towards the encompassed army.

The genius of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], his peerless and matchless courage made him opt for the second course. He raised his voice calling out unto his Companions: "Slaves of Allâh." He did that though he knew that his loud voice would be heard by the idolaters before it was heard by the Muslims. He called out unto them risking his life in this delicate situation.

The idolaters, indeed, recognized him and reached his position even before the other Muslims could do so.

The encompassment of the Muslims revealed three categories of people: The first group were those who were only interested in themselves and they went so mad that they fled. They left the battlefield and did not know what happened to the others. Some of this group fled as far as Madinah. Some others went up the mountain.

The second Muslim group were those who returned to the battle, but mixed with the idolaters in such a way that they could not recognize one another. Consequently some of them were killed by mistake. On the authority of Al-Bukhari, he states that ‘Aishah [R] said: "When it was Uhud Battle, the idolaters were utterly defeated. Satan then called out: ‘O slaves of Allâh. Beware the rear (i.e. the enemy is approaching from behind)’. So those who were at the front turned back and fought the ones who were behind."

Then Hudhaifah caught sight of his father ‘Al-Yaman’ about to be killed by other Muslims. So he said: "O servants of Allâh! Beware! This is my father. This is my father." ‘Aishah [R] said: "But they did not part with him till he was killed." Hudhaifah then said: "May Allâh forgive you." And ‘Urwa said: "By Allâh, from that time on Hudhaifah has always been blessed and wealthy till he died."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/539, 2/581; Fath Al-Bari 7/351, 362, 363] That was because he forgave them and refused to take any blood-money for his father’s murder but recommended that it be spent in charity.

This Muslim group suffered from great bewilderment, and disorder prevailed among them. A lot of them got lost and did not know where to go. At this awkward time they heard someone calling: "Muhammad is killed." This news made them even more bewildered and almost out of sense. Their morale broke down, or almost did in a great number of individuals. Some of them stopped fighting, slackened, and cast down their weapons. Others thought of getting in touch with ‘Abdullah bin Ubai — the head of the hypocrites — and seeking his assistance to fetch them a security pledge from Abu Sufyan.

Anas bin An-Nadr passed by those people who were shuddering of fear and panic, and inquired: "What are you waiting for?" They said: "The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] has been killed." "What do you live for after Muhammad [pbuh]? Come on and die for what the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] has died for." Then he said: "O Allâh I apologize for what these people (i.e. the Muslims) have done; and I swear disavowal of what the idolaters have perpetrated." Then he moved on till he was encountered by Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh who asked him: "Where to, Abu ‘Umar?" Anas replied: "Ah, how fine the scent of the Paradise is! I smell it here in Uhud." He went on and fought against the idolaters till he was killed. Nobody but his sister could recognize his dead body. It had been cut and stabbed by over eighty swords, arrows or spears. It was by the tip of his finger that she — after the battle — recognized him.[Za'd Al Ma'ad 2/93, 96; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/579]

Thabit bin Ad-Dahdah called unto his people saying:

"O kinfolk of Helpers, if Muhammad [pbuh] were killed, Allâh is Everlasting and He never dies. Fight in defence of your Faith. Allâh will help you and so you will be victorious." A group of Helpers joined him and all set out and attacked a battalion of Khalid’s horsemen. He kept on fighting till he and his friends were killed.[Ibn Hisham 2/81]

An Emigrant passed by a Helper who was besmeared by blood. He said: "O fellow! Have you heard of Muhammad [pbuh]’s murder?" The Helper answered: "If Muhammad [pbuh] were killed, then he must have completed the delivery of the Message. So fight in defence of your religion!"[Za'd Al Ma'ad 2/96]

With such boldness and encouragement, the Muslims soon recovered their spirits, came round to senses and desisted the idea of surrender or contacting the hypocrite ‘Abdullah bin Ubai. They took up arms and resumed the fight attempting to make way to the headquarters, particularly after the news of the Prophet [pbuh]’s death had been falsified. The glad tidings nerved them, and helped them to manage quite successfully the break of the military blockade, and concentrate their forces in an immune place to resume a relentless and fierce fight against the polytheists.

The third group of Muslims were those who cared for nothing except the Prophet [pbuh]. At the head of them were notable Companions like Abu Bakr, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib and others ŃÖě Çááĺ Úäĺă, who hastened to protect the Prophet [pbuh] through unrivalled devotion.

As those groups of Muslims were receiving the blows of the idolaters and resisting instantly, the fight flared up around the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], who had only nine people around him. We have already mentioned that when the idolaters started their encompassment there were only nine persons around the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]; and that as soon as he called out unto the Muslims: "Come on! I am the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]," the idolaters heard his voice and recognized him. So they turned back and attacked him with all their power before any of his Companions ran to his aid.

A violent raging struggle broke out between the nine Muslims and the idolaters during which peerless sort of love, self-sacrifice, bravery and heroism were revealed.

Muslim, on the authority of Anas bin Malik narrated that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] along with seven Helpers and two Emigrants, was confined to a trap when the idolaters attacked him. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] then said: " He who pushes back those idolaters, will be housed in Paradise." or "He will be my Companion in Paradise." One of the Helpers stepped forward and fought the idolaters in defence of the Prophet [pbuh] till he was killed. Then they attacked the Messenger [pbuh] again. The same process was repeated again and again till all the seven Helpers were killed. Then the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said to his two Quraishite Companions: "We have not done justice to our Companions."[Sahih Muslim 2/107]

The last of those seven Helpers was ‘Amara bin Yazeed bin As-Sakan, who kept on fighting till his wounds neutralized him and he fell dead.[Ibn Hisham 2/81]

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 04 May 2007 at 3:41am

The Most Awkward Hour in the Messenger’s Life

After the fall of Ibn Sakan, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] remained alone with only those two Quraishites. In a version by Abu ‘Uthman — authorized in As-Sahihain— he said: "At that time, there were none with the Prophet [pbuh] except Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh and Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/527, 2/581] That was the most awkward and dangerous hour for the Prophet [pbuh], but it was a golden opportunity for the idolaters who promptly took advantage of it. They concentrated their attack on the Prophet [pbuh] and looked forward to killing him.

‘Utbah bin Abi Waqqas pelted him with stones. One of the stones fell on his face. His lower right incisor Ruba‘iya (i.e. the tooth that is between a canine and a front tooth) was injured. His lower lip was wounded. He was also attacked by ‘Abdullah bin Shihab Az-Zuhri who cleaved his forehead. ‘Abdullah bin Qami’a (Qami’a means ‘a humiliated woman’), who was an obstinate strong horseman, struck him violently on his shoulder with his sword; and that stroke hurt the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] for over a month — though it was not strong enough to break his two armours. He dealt a heavy blow on his cheek. It was so strong that two rings of his iron-ringed helmet penetrated into his holy cheek. "Take this stroke from me, I am Ibn Qami’a." He said while striking the Messenger with his sword. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] replied — while he was wiping the blood flowing on his face: "I implore Allâh to humiliate you."[Fath Al-Bari 7/373, 366] (i.e. Aqma’aka Allâh). In Al-Bukhâri it is stated his incisor broke, his head was cleaved, and that he started wiping the blood off it and saying: "(I wonder) how can people who cut the face of their Prophet [pbuh] and break the incisor of his — he who calls them to worship Allâh. How can such people thrive or be successful?" About that incident, Allâh, Glory is to Him, sent down a Qur’ânic verse saying:

"Not for you (O Muhammad [pbuh] but for Allâh) is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardons) them or punishes them; verily, they are the Zâliműn (polytheists, disobedients, and wrong-doers)." [Al-Qur'an 3:128] [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/582; Sahih Muslim 2/108]

At-Tabarani states that the Prophet [pbuh] said: "Allâh’s Wrath is great on those who besmear the face of His Messenger," observed silence for a short while and then resumed saying:

"O Allâh, forgive my people for they have no knowledge." [Fath Al-Bari 7/373]

In Sahih Muslim it is stated that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said:

"My Lord, forgive my people for they have no knowledge." [Sahih Muslim 2/108]

In Ash-Shifa — a book by ‘Ayad Al-Qadi — it is related that the Prophet [pbuh] said:

"O Allâh, guide my people for they have no knowledge." [Ash-Shifa 1/81]

It is quite certain that killing the Prophet [pbuh] was their primary aim, but the two Quraishites — Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas and Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh, who showed great and rare courage and fought so fiercely and boldly that — though they were only two — were able to stop the idolaters short of realizing their aim. They were of the best skillful Arab archers and kept on militating in defence of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] till the whole squad of idolaters was driven off him [pbuh].

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] emptied his quiver of arrows and said to Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas: "Shoot, an arrow Sa‘d. May my father and mother be sacrified for you.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/407, 2/580, 581]" The Prophet [pbuh] had never gathered his parents except in the case of Sa‘d — a privilege granted to him for his efficiency.[ibid 1/407, 2/580,581]

In a version by Jabir — authorized by An-Nasa’i — concerning the attitude of Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh towards the gathering of idolaters around the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] — when there were only some Helpers with him — Jabir said: "When the idolaters reached him, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: ‘Who will suffice us their evils (i.e. fight them back)?’ Talha said: ‘I will.’" Then Jabir mentioned the advance of the Helpers to fight and how they were killed one after the other in a similar way to Muslim’s narration — "When all the Helpers were killed, Talha proceeded forward to fight as much as the other eleven ones did till his hand was hurt and his fingers were cut off. So he said: ‘Be they cut off!’ The Prophet [pbuh] said: ‘If you had said: In the Name of Allâh, the angels would have raised you up before the people’s very eyes.’" Then he said: "Allâh drove the idolaters off them."[Fath-al-Bari 7/361; An-Nasa'i 2/52,53] In Al-Ikleel — a book by Hakim — it is stated that Talha had sustained thirty-nine or thirty-five wounds, and his fingers (i.e. the forefinger and the one next to it — got paralyzed.[ibid 7/361]

In a version by Qais bin Abi Hâzim — authorized by Al-Bukhari, he said: "I saw the hand of Talha paralyzed. That was because he protected the Prophet [pbuh] with it in Uhud Battle."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/527, 2/581]

At-Tirmidhi stated that the Prophet [pbuh] then said about Talha: "He who desires to see a martyr walking on the ground, let him look at Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh."[Mishkat 2/566; Ibn Hisham 2/86]

Abu Da’űd At-Tayalisi on the authority of ‘Aishah [R], said: "Whenever Uhud Day (i.e. battle) was mentioned, Abu Bakr used to say: ‘That was Talha’s day (i.e. battle)’.[Fath Al-Bari 7/361] Abu Bakr recited a verse of poetry about him: ‘O Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh! Paradise is due to you as water-springs are due to deer to drink out of.’ [Mukhtasar Tareekh Damishq, 7/82] At the awkward and most delicate circumstances, Allâh, Glory is to Him, sent down His invisible Help. In a version by Sa‘d — cleared and authorized in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim — he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on Uhud Day with two men — dressed in white defending him fiercely — I have never seen similar to them neither before Uhud nor after it." In another version: "He means to say that they were Gabriel and Michael".[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/580]

All those events happened in no time. If the Prophet [pbuh]’s elite Companions had realized the grave situation immediately, they would have rushed on the spot and would not have left him sustain these wounds. Unfortunately, they got there after the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] had been wounded and six of the Helpers killed, the seventh was staggering under the brunt of wounds and desperately militating in defence of the Prophet [pbuh]. However as soon as they arrived they encircled the Messenger with their bodies and weapons and were alert enough to prevent the enemies from reaching him. The first one who returned to give help, was his cavemate Abu Bakr As-Siddiq [R].

In a version by ‘Aishah [R] recorded in Ibn Hibban’s Sahih, she narrated that Abu Bakr had said:

"When it was Uhud Day and at the time that the Prophet [pbuh] was left behind, I was the first to go back and see him. Before him I saw a man fighting to shield him from the enemies. I said to myself: ‘I wish he were Talha. Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you. (O Allâh) Let him be Talha! Let my parents be sacrificed for you!’ On the way, I was overtaken by Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah, who was then moving as swiftly as a bird. We both rushed to dress the Prophet [pbuh]’s wounds. There we found Talha suffering from serious wounds before the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh]. The Prophet [pbuh] said: ‘See to your brother. His deed entitled him for an abode in Paradise.’ I noticed that two rings of the iron-ringed helmet had penetrated his cheek. So I set out to take them out; but Abu ‘Ubaidah demanded: ‘By Allâh, O Abu Bakr — I beseech you, let me do it myself.’ Fearing to hurt the Prophet [pbuh] he started pulling one of the two rings out very slowly and carefully with his mouth. Then he pulled the arrow out by his mouth, too. Consequently, his front tooth fell. Then I proceeded to pull the second out; but Abu ‘Ubaidah besought me to leave it: ‘O, Abu Bakr, I adjure you by Allâh to let me do it.’ He pulled the second ring very slowly and carefully with his mouth — till it came out. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: ‘See to your brother. He has proved to be worthy of being housed in Paradise.’ We approached Talha to cure him but found out that he had had some ten sword-strokes in his body. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/95] (This showed how efficiently Talha had fought and struggled on that day)."

At those awkward moments of that day, a group of Muslim heroes gathered around the Prophet [pbuh] forming a shield to protect him from the idolaters. Some of them were Abu Dujana, Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Sahl bin Haneef, Malik bin — Sinan the father of Abu Sa‘îd Al-Khudri, Umm‘Amara, Nusaiba bint Ka‘b Al-Mâziniya, Qatada bin An-Nu‘man, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, Hatib bin Abi Balta‘a and Abu Talha.

The number of idolaters was steadily increasing; and their attacks, naturally, got severer. Their press had increased to an extent that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] fell into one of the holes dug and designed by Abu ‘Amir Al-Fasiq to be used as traps. His knee scratched and ‘Ali helped him by grasping his hand up. Talha bin ‘Ubaidullâh took him in his lap till he could stand upright. Nafi‘ bin Jubair said: I heard an Emigrant say: "I have witnessed Uhud Battle and watched how arrows had been hurled from all directions at the Prophet [pbuh]. None of them however hit him. ‘Abdullah, bin Shihab Az-Zuhri said: ‘Guide me to Muhammad [pbuh]! By Allâh, If I didn’t kill him, I would not hope to live.’ Although the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was next to him, alone — but he did not observe him. Safwan, a co-polytheist of his, blamed him (for not translating his words into deeds), but ‘Abdullah swore that he did not see him (the Prophet [pbuh]) and added that he might be immune to our attempts on his life. He also said that four of them pledged to make a fresh attempt and kill him, but also to no avail. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97]

The Muslims showed unprecedented rare heroism and marvellous sacrifices. Abu Talha — for instance — shielded the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] by his body and used his chest to protect him against the enemy arrows. Anas related that on Uhud Day when people dispersed off the Prophet [pbuh], Abu Talhah was a skillful sort of archer who would pull arrows so much that he broke two or three bows that day. When a man passed along with a quiver full of arrows, the Prophet [pbuh] would say: "Spread the arrows to Abu Talhah!" Then when the Prophet [pbuh] watched people shooting, Abu Talhah would say: "I sacrifice my father and mother for your safety. Do not go too close lest an arrow of theirs should hit you. I would rather die than see you hurt."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/581]

Abu Dujana stood before the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and used to protect him from the arrows by his back. Hatib bin Balta‘a followed ‘Utbah bin Abi Waqqas — who broke the honourable incisor (of the Prophet [pbuh]) — struck him with the sword, cracked his head and took his mare and sword. Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas was so keen to kill his brother ‘Utbah, but he could not; however, Hatib could.

Sahl bin Haneef — a hero archer — who had pledged to die in the cause of Allâh, also played a prominent part in Uhud hostilities.

The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] himself was involved in shooting arrows. In a version by Qatadah bin An-Nu‘man that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] shot so many arrows that the two ends of his bow were flattened. So Qatadah bin An-Nu‘man took it to remain with him for good. On that day his eye was so hurt that it fell down onto his cheek; but the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] reput it in its socket with his hand and it became the better and the more sharp-sighted of the two.

On that day ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf kept on fighting till his mouth was hurt and got broken. He sustained over twenty wounds, some in his leg, and that lamed him.

Malik bin Sinan, the father of Abi Sa‘eed Al-Khudri sucked the blood out of the Prophet [pbuh]’s cheek till he cleaned it. The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Spit it!". But Malik said: "By Allâh, I will never spit it". Then he set out to fight. The Prophet [pbuh] then said: "He who wants to see a man of the people of Paradise, let him look at this one." No sooner had he resumed fighting than he was martyred in the thick of the battle.

Umm ‘Amarah participated in the fight too. She encountered Ibn Qami’a in combat, and sustained a slight wound on her shoulder, but she herself also struck him with her sword several times but he survived because he was wearing two armours. She, however, went on striking until her wounds counted twelve.

Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair, in his turn, fought fiercely and violently defending the Prophet [pbuh] against the attacks of Ibn Qami’a and his fellows. He was carrying the standard with his right hand. In the process of fighting, it was cut off, so he grabbed the standard in his left hand till this was also amputated so he knelt down and shielded it with his chest and neck. Ibn Qami’a then killed him, mistaking him for the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] on account of resemblance in appearance. Only then did Ibn Qami’a shout ‘Muhammad [pbuh] has been killed.’[Ibn Hisham 2/73; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97]

No sooner had Ibn Qami’a uttered that ominous sentence than consternation spread among Muhammad [pbuh]’s followers, and their morale was drastically reduced. Consequently, confusion and a miserable state of disorder prevailed amongst them. Whilst the rumours managed to adversely act amongst the Muslims, it alleviated the sharp impact of the assaults of the polytheists who came to believe that they did really achieve their final objective and so they turned towards mutilating the dead bodies.

When Mus‘ab was killed, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] delivered the standard to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. ‘Ali, in conjunction with the other Companions, went on fighting bravely and set marvellous examples of heroism, courage and endurance in both defence and attack.

Then the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] made his way to his encircled army. Ka‘b bin Malik, who was the first one to recognize the approaching Prophet [pbuh], shouted as loudly as he could: "O folks of Muslims, be cherished! The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] is here." But the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] signed to him to stop lest his position should be located by the idolaters. Upon hearing the shout, the Muslims immediately raced towards the source of the shout which brought about thirty Companions to gather around the Prophet [pbuh]. With this assembled number of his Companions, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] started drawing a planned withdrawal to the hillocks nearby.

Hostilities of the enemy grew fiercer than ever with the aim of foiling the plan of withdrawal of the Muslims. Their attempts however proved to be fruitless due to the heroic steadfastness of the lions of Islam.

‘Uthman bin ‘Abdullah bin Al-Mugheerah — one of the enemy horsemen — progressed towards the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] while saying: "Either I kill him (i.e. Muhammad [pbuh]) or I will be killed." The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] moved to encounter him but his mare tripped into some holes. So Al-Harith bin As-Simma combated with the enemy, and struck him on his leg so he went lame, then he finished him off, took his arm and overtook the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh].

But later on another Makkan horseman, called ‘Abdullah bin Jabir, attacked Al-Harith bin As-Simma, and struck him on the shoulder with his sword and he was carried to the camp of the Muslims suffering from serious wounds. Anyway that very idolater did not escape death, for Abu Dujana — the red head-banded hero and adventurer — struck him heavily and cut his head off.

During this bitter fight, a desire to sleep overwhelmed the Muslims — that was a security and tranquillity to help His slave Muslims as the Qur’ân spoke in this context. Abu Talhah said: "I was one of those who were possessed by a desire to sleep on Uhud Day. On that day my sword fell off my hand several times. Again and again it fell down and again and again I picked it up."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/582]

In a regular withdrawal and with great bravery and boldness, the Muslims finally retreated to the cover of Mountain Uhud. Then, the rest of the army followed them to that safe position. In this manner, the genius of Muhammad [pbuh] foiled that of Khalid bin Al-Waleed.

Ibn Ishaq related that: "When the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was going up the hillock, he was followed by Ubai bin Khalaf who was saying: ‘Where is Muhammad [pbuh]? Either I kill him or I will be killed.’ The Companions of Muhammad [pbuh] said: ‘O Messenger of Allâh, do you mind if one of us combats with him?’ But the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: ‘Leave him!’ So when he drew nearer, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] took the spear from Al-Harith bin As-Simma. He shivered violently in such a way that made all of them scatter in all directions violently and impulsively. Then he faced him, observed his clavicle through a gap between the wide opening of the armour and the part of his neck enclosed by. He speared him in that spot. The effect of the stroke was so strong that it made him roll off his horse over and over. When he returned to Quraish, they found that he had only had a small scratch in his neck. So when blood became congested he said: ‘By Allâh, Muhammad has killed me.’ Hearing him say so, they said: ‘By Allâh you are afraid to death. By Allâh, you are possessed by a devil.’ He replied: ‘He had already told me when we were in Makkah: ‘I will kill you.’ By Allâh, had he spate on me, he would have killed me.’ Eventually, the enemy of Allâh breathed his last at a place called Sarif, while they were taking him back to Makkah."[Ibn Hisham 2/84; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97] In a version by Abul-Aswad, on the authority of ‘Urwa: He was lowing like a bull and saying: "By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if (the pain) I am suffering from now were distributed among the people of Al-Majaz, it would cause them to die."[Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.250]

During the withdrawal of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] up to the cover of the mountain, a big rock blocked his way. The Prophet [pbuh] tried to mount it, but having worn a short heavy armour, and being seriously wounded — he could not ascend it. Readily enough Talha sat in a position that enabled the Prophet [pbuh] to stand on his back. Then he lifted him up till he stood on it. The Prophet [pbuh] then said: "Talha, after this job, is eligible for the Garden (Paradise)."[Ibn Hisham 2/86]

When the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] settled down in his head quarters in the hillock, the idolaters started their last attack upon the Muslims. Ibn Ishaq related that: "While the Prophet [pbuh] was on the way to the hillock, a group of Quraishite elite ascended the mountain. They were led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed and Abu Sufyan. So the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] implored his Lord saying: ‘O Allâh, they (i.e. the idolaters) should not be higher (i.e. in position or in power) than us (i.e. the Muslims). Therefore ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab and some of the Emigrants fought the idolaters till they drove them down the mountain.[Ibn Hisham 2/86]

In Al-Maghazi — a book by Al-Umawi — it is stated that the idolaters went up the mountain. So the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said to Sa‘d: "Drive them off." "How can I drive them off by myself (i.e. without anyone to assist)." But the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] repeated the phrase three times. Sa‘d then took an arrow out of his quiver, shot it at one of them and killed him. He said: "Then I took another one I know (to be good) and I shot with it another man. Then I took a third I know and killed a third one. Consequently they climbed down the mountain. I said to myself, ‘this must be a blessed arrow.’ I put it in my quiver." He kept it with him till he died. His children kept it with them ever after. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/95]

 

Mutilation of the Martyrs

That was the last attack made by the idolaters against the Prophet [pbuh]. Being almost certain of his death, the idolaters returned to their camp and started preparations to go back to Makkah. Some of them involved themselves in mutilating the killed Muslims, and so did their women. Women and men cut off the ears, the noses, the genitals of the martyrs. They even cut open their bellies. Hind bin ‘Utbah — for instance — ripped open the liver of Hamzah and chewed it; but finding it unpleasant, she spat it out. She even made the ears and noses of Muslims into anklets and necklaces. [Ibn Hisham 2/90]

Two incidents occurred during the last hours of the fight. Which revealed for certain how far the Muslims were ready to fight and sacrifice in the way of Allâh:

  1. Ka‘b bin Malik said: I was one of those Muslims who fought in Uhud and witnessed the polytheists’ act of barbarity in mutilating the dead bodies, but I passed them because I couldn’t stand it. Then I saw an armed stout idolater pass through the Muslims and say: "Gather them up and combine them in the way that sheep are gathered and slaughtered." Similarly I saw an armed Muslim waiting for him. I walked towards them till I stood behind him. Comparing both of them, I found that the disbeliever was better than the other in arms and figure. I kept on watching them till they were engaged in single combat. The Muslim thrust at the disbeliever with his sword that went down his hip and split it into two. When the Muslim unveiled his face, he said: "What about that, Ka‘b. I am Abu Dujana." [Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya 4/17]
  2. Some Muslim women came to the battlefield when the fight was over. Anas said: I saw ‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr [R] with Umm Sulaim. Their garments were gathered up so I could see their anklets. They carried water bags on their shoulders and emptied them into the mouths of people. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/403, 2/581] Then they would go back to fill them and come back to do the same. ‘Umar said: "Umm Saleet used to carry water bags to us on Uhud Day." [ibid 1/401]

When Umm Aiman, who was one of those Muslim women who saw the defeated Muslim fighters entering Madinah, she started throwing dust at their faces rebukingly saying: "Here is a spinning wheel, take it! and give up carrying swords." Then she raced to the battlefield. There she watered the wounded. Hibban bin Al-‘Arqa shot an arrow at her, she fell down and her clothes were lifted up. Seeing that, the enemy of Allâh, burst into laughter. That sight upset the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], so he gave Sa‘d bin Abi Waqqas an arrow lacking an arrow-head and said "Shoot it". Sa‘d shot it, it pierced the idolater’s throat. He fell down and some parts of his body were revealed. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] then laughed so much that his molars could be seen. Sa‘d avenged her and Allâh responded to her supplication. [As-Seerat Al-Halabiyah 2/22]

As soon as the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] reached the defile, ‘Ali bin Abu Talib went out and filled his water container with water from Al-Mihras. ‘Al-Mihras’ is said to be hollow (concaved) rock containing plenty of water. It was also said that it is a water spring in Uhud mountain. Anyway, ‘Ali brought that water to the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] to drink. Finding that it smelt bad he refused to drink it, but only washed the blood off his face and poured some of it over his head saying: Allâh’s Wrath is great on those who besmeared His Messenger’s face with blood. [Ibn Hisham 2/85]

Sahl said: "By Allâh, I know who washed the wound of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] and who poured out water for him and what (substances) his wound was treated with: His daughter Fatimah washed it, whereas ‘Ali poured water out of the container. When Fatimah realized that water increased the flow of blood, she took a piece of straw mat, burnt it a little and stuck it to the wound so blood ceased flowing." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/584]

Muhammad bin Maslamah brought him fresh water to drink. The Prophet [pbuh] drank and supplicated Allâh to provide him with good things. [As-Seerat Al-Halabiyah 2/30] Owing to the wounds and their bad effects on his body, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] led his followers in prayer in a sitting posture and so did the Muslims. [Ibn Hisham 2/87]

When the preparations of the idolaters for departure came to an end, Abu Sufyan went up the mountain and called out: "Is Muhammad [pbuh] among you?" They did not answer him. Then he asked "Is Ibn Abi Quhafah (i.e. Abu Bakr) among you?" They did not answer. He asked again: "Is ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab among you?" They did not answer him; for the Prophet [pbuh] forbade them answering him. He only asked about those three. That is because he and his people knew quite well that the call to Islam depended to a large degree on those men. Abu Sufyan then said: "As for those three, we have relieved you of." ‘Umar could not help but talking, so he said, "O enemy of Allâh, those whom you have just mentioned, I tell you that they are still alive. Allâh has maintained what you hate." Abu Sufyan answered: "The mutilation of your killed is something I did not order it; but it did not displease me." Then he shouted: "Hubal (an idol), let it be sublime!" The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Why do you not reply?" "What shall we say?" They asked him. "Say: Allâh is more Sublime and Exalted and Mightier as well."

He said: "Al-‘Uzza (i.e. an idol) is ours but you have no ‘Uzza." "Why do you not reply?" The Prophet [pbuh] said. "What shall we say?" They inquired. He said: "Say Allâh is our Protector, but you have no protector."

Abu Sufyan said: "Well deeds! Today is a vengeance for Badr Day. This for that. War is attended with alternate success." ‘Umar’s reply was: "No. They are not the same. Our killed men are housed in Paradise; but yours are in Fire."

Then Abu Sufyan said: "Come on, ‘Umar!" The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said: "Go and see what the matter is." He went there. Abu Sufyan asked him: "I beseech you by Allâh’s Name to tell me the truth: Have we killed Muhammad [pbuh]?" ‘Umar said: "O Allâh, ‘No’ and now he is listening to you words." He said: "For me, you are more truthful than Ibn Qami’a, and even more reliable." [Ibn Hisham 2/93,94; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/94; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/579]

Ibn Ishaq said: When Abu Sufyan and those who were with him were leaving he called out notifying: "We will meet again at Badr next year." The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said to one of his men: "Say: ‘Yes, it is an appointment for both of us.’" [Ibn Hisham 2/94]

Later on, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] dispatched ‘Ali bin Abi Talib to trace them out. He said to him: "Pursue them and see what they are going to do, and what they aim at. If they dismount horses and ride on camels’ back, this means that they are heading for Makkah; but if they ride horses and lead camels unmounted, they are leaving for Madinah. By the One, in Whose Hand my soul is, if they attacked Madinah I would march to them there and I would fight them." ‘Ali said: "I went out and traced them to see what they were up to. I saw them mounting camels and leaving the horses unmounted. They were heading for Makkah." [Ibn Hisham 2/94]

After the departure of the Quraishites, people went out to check the identity of the killed and the wounded. Zaid bin Thabit said: "The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] sent me on Uhud Day to seek Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabî‘ and said: "When you see him, say: ‘peace be upon you from me.’ and say to him ‘the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] says: How do you feel?’" Zaid said: "I started wandering about checking the killed till I came across Sa‘d when he was dying — with about seventy strokes or stabs of a sword, a spear and an arrow in his body.So I said: "O Sa‘d, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] sends you his greetings. and says ‘peace be upon you, tell me how do you feel?’" Sa‘d said: "And let peace be upon the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], too. Tell him, I smell the scent of the Paradise. And tell the Helpers, my people, ‘you shall not be excused before Allâh if the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] is hurt and your eyes are blinking’ (i.e. you are still alive and not dead)." Then he died. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/96]

They came across Al-Usairim — ‘Amr bin Thabit, whom they had already urged to embrace Islam but refused. They saw him among the wounded on the verge of close death. "What has he come here for? We have parted with him and he was still too obdurate to accept Islam as his religion". They asked him: "What made you come here? Is it out of zeal to defend your people or is it because of an inclination to Islam?" He said: "It is (certainly) an inclination to Islam. I believe in Allâh and in His Messenger. I have fought with the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] till I have got what you see," and then he immediately died. They told the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] about him. Hearing that, he said: "He is one of the inhabitants of Paradise." "Although he had not offered one single prayer," narrated Abu Hurairah. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/94; Ibn Hisham 2/90]

Qazman, who was found among the wounded, fought heroically, and killed seven or eight idolaters. He was weakened by the wounds he had sustained, they carried him to the habitation of Bani Zufr. The Muslims gave him glad tidings of the Paradise. But he said: "By Allâh I have fought out of a zeal to my people. Had it not been for that I would have never fought." When his wounds worsened he committed suicide. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] had already said whenever he was mentioned to him: "He is an inhabitant of Fire." [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97; Ibn Hisham 2/88] This is the end of those who fight for a national cause or in a way other than that of raising up the Word of Allâh, though they fought under the banner of Islam or even in the army of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] or of his Companions.

Contrary to Qazman there was a Jew of Bani Tha‘labah among the killed. He said to his people, "O folk people of Jews! By Allâh you have already known that it is imperative to support Muhammad [pbuh]." They said: "Today is Saturday." He said: "There is no Saturday for you." He took his sword and the war equipment and said: "If I were killed, my property should be put at Muhammad [pbuh]’s disposal". Then next morning he kept on fighting till he was killed. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] said about him, "Mukhaireeq is the best Jew." [Ibn Hisham 2/88,89]

 

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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