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fatima
 
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 22 December 2006 at 5:34am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 8-9)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 
{8}
{9}

(8. And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive is questioned (Su'ilat):) (9. For what sin was she killed)

 

Questioning the Female Infant Who was buried Alive

Allah says,

(And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive is questioned: For what sin was she killed)

The majority have recited it as Su'ilat (she is questioned), as it is here. Al-Maw'udah is the female infant that the people of the pre-Islamic time of ignorance would bury in the dirt due to their hatred of girls. Therefore, on the Day of Judgement, the female infant will be asked what sin she committed that caused here to be murdered. This will be a means of frightening her murderer. For verily, if the one who was wronged is questioned, what does the wrongdoer (the one who is guilty of the oppression) think then `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

(And when the female infant (Al-Maw'udah) buried alive Su'ilat:)

"This means that she will ask.'' Abu Ad-Duha made a similar statement when he said, "She will ask, meaning she will demand restitution for her blood.''[1][17] The same has been reported from As-Suddi and Qatadah.

Hadiths have been reported concerning the Maw'udah. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A'ishah, who reported from Judamah bint Wahb, the sister of `Ukkashah, that she said, "I was in the presence of the Messenger of Allah when he was with some people, and he said,

(I was about to prohibit sexual relations with breast feeding women, but then I saw that the Romans and the Persians have sexual relations with their women who breast feed their children and it does not harm the children at all.)

Then they asked him about interruption of sexual intercourse to prevent the male discharge from entering the womb of the woman, and he said,

(That is the minor infanticide and it is the female infant buried alive (Maw'udah) that will be questioned.)''[2][18]

Muslim, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, all recorded this Hadith as well.[3][19]

 

The Atonement for burying Infant Girls Alive

`Abdur-Razzaq said that Isra'il informed them from Simak bin Harb, from An-Nu`man bin Bashir, who reported from `Umar bin Al-Khattab that he said concerning Allah's statement,

(And when the female infant buried alive is questioned.)

"Qays bin `Asim came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Verily, I buried some daughters of mine alive in the period of pre-Islamic ignorance.' The Messenger of Allah said,

(Free a slave for each one of them.)

Then Qays said, `O Messenger of Allah! Verily, I am an owner of camels.' The Prophet said,

(Then sacrifice a camel for each one of them.)''[4][20]

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(81:8) and when the infant girl, buried alive, (81:9) is asked for what crime she was slain, *9

*9 The style of this verse reflects an intensity of rage and fury inconceivable in common life. The parents, who buried their daughters alive, would be so contemptible in the-sight of Allah that they would not be asked: "Why did you kill the innocent infant?" But disregarding them the innocent girl will be asked: "For what crime were you slain?" And she will tell her story how cruelly she had been treated by her barbarous parents and buried alive. Besides, two vast themes have been compressed into this brief verse, which though not expressed in words, are reflected by its style and tenor. First that in it the Arabs have been made to realize what depths of moral depravity they have touched because of their ignorance in that they buried their own children alive; yet they insist that they would persist in the same ignorance and would not accept the reform that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) was trying to bring about in their corrupted society. Second that an express argument has been given in it of the necessity and inevitability of the Hereafter. The case of the infant girl who was buried alive, should be decided and settled justly at some tune, and there should necessarily be a time when the cruel people who committed this heinous crime, should be called to account for it, for there was none in the world to hear the cries of complaint raised by the poor soul. This act was looked upon with approval by the depraved society; neither the parents felt any remorse for it, nor anybody in the family censured them, nor the society took any notice of it. Then, should this monstrosity remain wholly unpunished in the Kingdom of God?
This barbaric custom of burying the female infants alive had become widespread in ancient
Arabia for different reasons. One reason was economic hardship because of which the people wanted to have fewer dependents so that they should not have to bear the burden of bringing up many children. Male offspring were brought up in the hope that they would later help in earning a living, but the female offspring were killed for the fear that they would have to be reared till they matured and then given away in marriage. Second, the widespread chaos because of which the male children were brought up in order to have more and more helpers and supporters; but daughters were killed because in tribal wars they had to be protected instead of being useful in any way for defence. Third, another aspect of the common chaos also was that when the hostile tribes raided each other and captured girls they would either keep them as slave-girls or sell them to others. For these reasons the practice that had become common in Arabia
was that at childbirth a pit was kept dug out ready for use by the woman so that if a girl was born, she was immediately cast into it and buried alive. And if sometimes the mother was not inclined to act thus, or the people of the family disapproved of it, the father would rear her for some time half-heartedly, and then finding time would take her to the desert to be buried alive. This tyranny and hard-heartedness was once described by a person before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) himself. According to a Hadith related in the first chapter of Sunan Darimi, a man came to the Holy Prophet and related this incident of his pre-lslamic days of ignorance: "I had a daughter who was much attached to me. When I called her, she would come running to me. One day I called her and took her out with me. On the way we came across a well. Holding her by the hand I pushed her into the well. Her last words that I heard were: Oh father, oh father!!" Hearing this the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) wept and tears started falling from his eyes One of those present on the occasion said: O man, you have grieved the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet said: Do not stop him, let him question about what he feels so strongly now. Then the Holy Prophet asked him to narrate his story once again. When he narrated it again the Holy Prophet wept so bitterly that his beard became we with tears. Then he said to the man: "Allah has forgiven that you did in the days of ignorance: now turn to Him in repentance.'
It is not correct to think that the people of
Arabia had no feeling of the baseness of this hideous, inhuman act. Obviously, no society, however corrupted it may be, can be utterly devoid of the feeling that such tyrannical acts are evil. That is why the Holy Qur'an has not dwelt upon the vileness of this act, but has only referred to it in awe-inspiring words to the effect: "A time will come when the girl who was buried alive, will be asked for what crime she was slain?" The history of Arabia
also shows that many people in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance had a feeling that the practice was vile and wicked. According to Tabarani, Sa`sa'ah bin Najiyah al-Mujashi`i, grandfather of the poet, Farazdaq, said to the Holy Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah, during the days of ignorance I have done some good works also among which one is that I saved 360 girls from being buried alive: I gave two camels each as ransom to save their lives. Shall I get any reward for this?" The Holy Prophet replied; "Yes, there is a reward for you, and it is this that Allah has blessed you with Islam."
As a matter of fact, a great blessing of the blessings of Islam is that it not only did put an end to this inhuman practice in
Arabia
but even wiped out the concept that the birth of a daughter was in any way a calamity, which should be endured unwillingly. On the contrary, Islam taught that bringing up daughters, giving them good education and enabling them to become good housewives, is an act of great merit and virtue. The way the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) changed the common concept of the people in respect of girls can be judged from his many sayings which have been reported in the Hadith. As for example, we reproduce some of these below:
"The person who is put to a test because of the birth of the daughters and then he treats them generously, they will become a means of rescue for him from Hell." (Bukhari, Muslim).
"The one who brought up two girls till they attained their maturity, will appear along with me on the Resurrection Day ... Saying this the Holy Prophet jointed and raised his fingers. (Muslim).
"The one who brought up three daughters, or sisters, taught then good manners and treated them with kindness until they became self-sufficient. AIlah will make
Paradise
obligatory for him. A man asked: what about two, O Messenger of Allah? The Holy Prophet replied: the same for two." Ibn `Abbas, the reporter of the Hadith, says: "Had the people at that time asked in respect of one daughter, the Holy Prophet would have also given the same reply about her. " (Sharh as-Sunnh).
"The one who has a daughter born to him and he does not bury her alive, nor keeps her in disgrace, nor prefers his son to her, Allah will admit him to
Paradise
." (Abu Da'ud).
"The one who has three daughters born to him, and he is patient over them, and clothes them well according to his means, they will become a means of rescue for him from Hell. " (Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Majah).
"The Muslim who has two daughters and he looks after them well, they will lead him to
Paradise
." (Bukhari: Al-Adab al-Mufrad).
The Holy Prophet said to Suraqah bin Ju'sham: "Should I tell you what is the greatest charity (or said: one of the greatest charities)? He said: Kindly do tell, O Messenger of Allah. The Holy Prophet said: Your daughter who (after being divorced or widowed) returns to you and should have no other bread-winner." (Ibn Majah, Bukhari Al-Adab al-Mufrad).
This is the teaching which completely changed the viewpoint of the people about girls not only in
Arabia but among all the nations of the world, which later become blessed with Islam. br>

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

When the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain,

When the infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain.

The value of human life must have sunk very low in pre Islamic Arabian society. There existed a convention of burying young girls alive, for fear of shame or poverty. The Quran describes this practice in order to portray its horror and record its Ignorance i.e. Jahiliyyah. Its condemnation fits in perfectly with the declared aim of Islam, to destroy Ignorance and save mankind from sinking to its depth. In surah 16 "The Bee" we read in translation: When the birth of a girl is announced to one of them, his face grows dark and he is filled with rage and inward gloom. Because of the bad news he hides himself from every body; should he keep her with disgrace or bury her under the dust? How will they judge. (Al-Qur'an 16:58-9)

And in surah 17 "The Night Journey" we read You shall not kill your children for fear of want. We will provide for them and for you. (Al-Qur'an 17:31)

Girls were killed in an extremely cruel way. They were buried alive! Those Arabs who did not kill their young daughters or send them to mind cattle, had different methods of ill treating women. If a man died, the head of the clan would throw his gown over the widow. This was a gesture of acquisition which meant that the widow could not re-marry anyone except the owner of the gown. If he fancied her, he would marry her, paying no regard whatso ever to her feelings in the matter. If he did not marry her, he would keep her until she died so as to inherit her wealth.

Such was the attitude of the Ignorant society in Arabia to women Islam condemns this attitude and spurns all these practices. It forbids the murder of young girls and expresses its horrifying nature. It makes it one of the subjects of reckoning on the Day of Judgment. Here, the surah mentions it as one of the great events which overwhelm the universe in a total upheaval. We are told that the murdered girl will be questioned about her murder. The surah leaves us to imagine how the murderer will be brought to account.

The Ignorant social order of the pre-Islamic period would never have helped women to gain a respectable, dignified position. That had to be decreed by Allah. The way of life Allah has chosen for mankind secures a dignified position for both men and women who share the honour of having a measure of the Divine spirit breathed into them. Women owe their respectable position to Islam, not to any factor of environment or social set-up.

When the new man with heavenly values came into 'being, women became respected and honoured. The woman's weakness of being a financial burden to her family was no longer of any consequence in determining her position and the respect she enjoyed. These considerations have no weight in the scales of heaven. Real weight belongs to the noble human soul when it maintains its relationship with Allah. In this man and woman are equal.

When one puts forward the arguments in support of the fact that Islam is a Divine religion, and that it has been conveyed to us by Allah's Messenger who has received His revelations, one should state the change made by Islam in the social status of women as one of the irrefutable arguments. Nothing in the social set-up of Arabia at the time pointed to such an elevation of the woman's position. No social or economic consideration made it necessary or desirable. It was a deliberate move made by Islam for reasons which are totally different from those of this world and from those of the Ignorant society in particular.

 

Wassalam



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 29 December 2006 at 2:24am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 10-14)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -

 

(10. And when the pages are laid open.) (11. And when the heaven is Kushitat;) (12. And when Hell is Su`irat.) (13. And when Paradise is brought near.) (14. Every person will know what he has brought.)

 

The Distribution of the Pages

Allah says,

[ ]

(And when the pages are laid open.) Ad-Dahhak said, "Every person will be given his paper in his right hand or in his left hand.'' Qatadah said, "O Son of Adam ! It (your paper) is written in, then it is rolled up, then it will be distributed to you on the Day of Judgement. So let each man look at what he himself dictated to be written in his paper.''[1][21]

 Removing the Heavens, kindling Hellfire, and Paradise being brought near

Allah says,

[ ]

(And when the heaven is Kushitat;) Mujahid said, "It drawns away.''[2][22] As-Suddi said, "Stripped off.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And when Hell is Su`irat.) As-Suddi said, "It is heated.'' In reference to Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And when Paradise is brought near.) Ad-Dahhak, Abu Malik, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Khuthaym, all said, "This means it will be brought near to its inhabitants.''

 Everyone will know what He has brought on the Day of Judgement Concerning

Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Every person will know what he has brought.)

This is the conclusive response of the previous statements, meaning at the time these matters occur, every soul will know what it has done, and that will be brought forth for it, as Allah says,

[ ]

(On the Day when every person will be confronted with all the good he has done, and all the evil he has done, he will wish that there were a great distance between him and his evil.) (3:30)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (75:13)

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:10) and when the records are unfolded, (81:11) and when the veil of heaven is removed, *10

*10 That is, everything which is hidden from view now will become visible. Now one can only see empty space, or the clouds, hanging dust, the moon, the sun or stars, but at that time the Kingdom of God will appear in full view before the people, without any veil in between, in its true reality.

 

(81:12) and when Hell is set blazing, (81:13) and when Paradise is brought near, *11 (81:14) then each person shall know what he has brought with him.

*11 That is, in the Plain of Resurrection, when the hearing of the cases of the people will be in progress, the blazing fire of Hell also will be in full view, and Paradise also with all its blessings will be visible to all, so that the wicked should know what they are being deprived of and where they are going to be cast, and the righteous as well should know what they are being saved from and with what being blessed and honoured.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

when the records are laid open, when the sky is stripped bare, when Hell is made to burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near, Every soul shall know what it has put forward.

 

When the records are laid open. This is a reference to the records of people's deeds. They are laid open in order that they may be known to everybody. This, in itself, is hard to bear. Many a breast has closely hidden a secret, the remembrance of which brings a feeling of shame and a shudder to its owner. Yet all secrets are made public on that eventful day. This publicity, representative of the great upheaval which envelops the whole universe, is part of the fearful events which fill men's hearts with horror on the day. When the sky is stripped bare.

This image corresponds closely to throwing open people's secrets. When the word "sky" is used, our first thoughts reach to the blue cover hoisted over our heads. Its stripping means the removal of that cover. How this would happen remains to us a matter of conjecture. It is enough to say that when we look up we will no longer see our familiar blue dome. This may be brought about by any change affecting the status quo in the universe which causes this phenomenon to exist. The last scene of that fearful day is portrayed by the next two verses: When Hell is made to burn fiercely, when Paradise is brought near.

Where is Hell? How does it burn? What fuel is used in lighting and feeding its fire? The only thing we know of that is that it "has fuel of men and stones." (Al-Qur'an 66:6) This is, of course, after they have been thrown in it. Its true nature and its fuel prior to that is part of Allah's knowledge.

Every soul shall know what it has put forward. In the midst of all these overwhelming events, every soul shall know for certain what sort of deeds it has brought with itself. Every soul shall also know that it cannot change, omit from or add to what it has done.

People will find themselves completely separated from all that has been familiar to them, and from their world as a whole. Everything will have undergone a total change except Allah. If man turns to Allah he will find that His support is forthcoming when the whole universe is overwhelmed by change.

Thus ends the first part of this surah which fills both mind and heart with a vivid impression of the universal upheaval on the Day of Resurrection.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 05 January 2007 at 3:58am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 15-18)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -

(15. But nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas.) (16. Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas.) (17. And by the night when it `As`as.) (18. And by the day when it Tanaffas.)

 

The Explanation of the Words Al-Khunnas and Al-Kunnas

Muslim recorded in his Sahih, and An-Nasa'i in his Book of Tafsir, in explaining this Ayah, from `Amr bin Hurayth that he said, "I prayed the Morning prayer behind the Prophet , and I heard him reciting,

[ - - - ]

(But nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas, Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas, and by the night when it `As`as, and by the day when it Tanaffas.)''[1][23]

Ibn Jarir recorded from Khalid bin `Ar`arah that he heard `Ali being asked about the Ayah;

( . )

(Nay! I swear by Al-Khunnas, Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas.)

and he said, "These are the stars that withdraw (disappear) during the day and sweep across the sky (appear) at night.''[2][24]

Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And by the night when it `As`as.) There are two opinions about this statement. One of them is that this refers to its advancing with its darkness. Mujahid said, "It means its darkening.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "When it begins.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When it covers the people.''[3][25] This was also said by `Atiyah Al-`Awfi.[4][26] `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi both reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[ ]

(when it `As`as) "This means when it goes away.''[5][27] Mujahid, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, all said the same.[6][28] Zayd bin Aslam and his son `Abdur-Rahman also made a similar statement, when they said,

[ ]

(when it `As`as) "This means when it leaves, and thus it turns away.''[7][29] I believe that the intent in Allah's saying,

[ ]

(when it `As`as) is when it approaches, even though it is correct to use this word for departing also. However, approachment is a more suitable usage here. It is as if Allah is swearing by the night and its darkness when it approaches, and by the morning and its light when it shines from the east. This is as Allah says,

[ - ]

(By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness) (92:1-2)

and He also says,

[ - ]

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens.) (93:1-2)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed night for resting.) (6:96)

And there are other similar Ayat that mention this. Many of the scholars of the fundamentals of language have said that the word `As`as is used to mean advancing and retreating, with both meanings sharing the same word. Therefore, it is correct that the intent could be both of them, and Allah knows best. Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(And by the day when it Tanaffas.)

Ad-Dahhak said, "When it rises.'' Qatadah said, "When it brightens and advances.''[8][30]

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:15) But not so! *12 I swear by the retreating

*12 That is, "You are not correct that what is being presented in the Qur'an is the bragging of an insane person, or the evil suggestion of a devil."

 

(81:16) and hiding stars, (81:17) and the night when it departed, (81:18) and the dawn when it breathed up, *13

*13 That for which the oath has been sworn, has been stated in the following verses. The oath means: "Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) has not seen a vision in darkness, but when the stars had disappeared, the night had departed and the bright morning had appeared, he had seen the Angel of God in the open sky. Therefore, what he tells you is based on his own personal observation and on the experience that he had in full senses in the full light of day."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and by the dawn as it starts to breathe,

 

The second part of the surah opens with a certain form of oath by some very beautiful scenes in the universe. The oath, in fine expressions, is made to assert the nature of revelation, the angel carrying it, and the messenger receiving and conveying it as well as people's attitudes to it all in accordance with Allah's will: I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hide themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on and by dawn as it starts to breathe,

The stars referred to here are those which turn in their orbit, and are characterized by their swift movement and temporary disappearance. In translating the text we have to forego the sustained metaphor used in Arabic which draws an analogy between these stars and the deer as they run at great speed towards their homes, disappear for a while and then reappear at a different point. The Arabic metaphor adds considerable liveliness and beauty to the description of the movement of the stars, which corresponds to the rhythmic beauty of the expression.

Again, the rhythm of the Arabic verse translated as "and by the night as it comes darkening on" gives a feeling of life, depicting the night as a living being. The beauty of the Arabic expression is of surpassing excellence.

The same applies to the next verse: "and by dawn as it starts to breathe". This verse is indeed more effective in portraying dawn as alive, breathing. Its breath is the spreading light and the life that begins to stir in everything. I doubt whether the Arabic language, with its inexhaustible wealth of fine imagery and vivid expressions, can produce an image portraying dawn which can be considered equal to this Qur'anic image in aesthetic effect. After a fine night, one can almost feel that dawn is breathing.

Any aesthete will readily perceive that the Divine words of the first four verses of this second part of the surah constitute a gem of fine expression and vivid description: I swear by the turning stars, which move swiftly and hid themselves away, and by the night as it comes darkening on, and by dawn as it starts to breathe.

This descriptive wealth adds power to man's feelings as he responds to the natural phenomena to which the verses refer.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 23 January 2007 at 9:51am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 19-21)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

 

(19. Verily, this is the Word a most honorable messenger.) (20. Dhi Quwwah, with the Lord of the Throne -- Makin,) (21. Obeyed there, trustworthy.)

Jibril descended with the Qur'an and it is not the Result of Insanity Concerning

Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Verily, this is the Word of a most honorable messenger.)

meaning, indeed this Qur'an is being conveyed by a noble messenger, which is referring to an honorable angel, who has good character and a radiant appearance, and he is Jibril.

Ibn `Abbas, Ash-Sha`bi, Maymun bin Mihran, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak and others have said this.[1][31]

[ ]

(Dhi Quwwah) This is similar to Allah's statement,

[ ]

(He has been taught by one mighty in power, Dhu Mirrah.) (53:5-6)

meaning, mighty in creation, mighty in strength and mighty in actions.

[ ]

(with the Lord of the Throne Makin,)

meaning, he has high status and lofty rank with Allah.

[ ]

(Obeyed there,)

meaning, he has prestige, his word is listened to, and he is obeyed among the most high gathering (of angels). Qatadah said,

[ ]

(Obeyed there) "This means in the heavens. He is not one of the lower ranking (ordinary) angels. Rather he is from the high ranking, prestigious angels. He is respected and has been chosen for (the delivery of) this magnificent Message.''

Allah then says,

[]

(trustworthy.) This is a description of Jibril as being trustworthy. This is something very great, that the Almighty Lord has commended His servant and angelic Messenger, Jibril, just as He has commended His servant and human Messenger, Muhammad by His statement,

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:19) that this indeed is the Word of a noble Messenger, *14

*14 "A noble messenger": the Angel who brought down Revelation, as becomes explicit from the following verses. "The word of a noble messenger" dces not mean that the Qur'an is the word of the Angel himself, but, as the context shows, of Him Who appointed him a messenger. In Al-Haaqqah: 40, likewise, the Qur'an has been called the word of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), and there too it dces not mean that it is the Holy Prophet's own composition, but describing it as "the word of an honorable messenger", it has been made clear that the Holy Prophet is presenting it in his capacity as the Messenger of God and not as Muhammad bin `Abdullah. At both places, the Word has been attributed to the Angel and to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) on the ground that the message of AIIah was being delivered to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) by the Angel and to the people by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace).

 

(81:20) who has great power, *15 and has high ranks with the Owner of the Throne:

*15 Surah An-Najm: 45, deals with the same theme, thus "It is but a Revelation which is sent down to him. One, mighty in power, has taught him. " As to what is implied by the mighty powers of the Angel Gabriel (peace be upon him) is ambiguous. In any case it at least shows that he is distinguished even among the angels because of his extraordinary powers. In Muslim (kitab- al-iman) Hadrat `A'ishah has reported the Holy Prophet's saying to the effect: "I have twice seen Gabriel in his real shape and form: his glorious being was encompassing the whole space between the earth and the heavens." According to the tradition reported from Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud in Bukhari. Muslim, Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had seen Gabriel with his six hundred wings. From this one can have an idea of his mighty powers.

 

(81:21) there he is obeyed *16 and held as trustworthy. *17

*16 That is, he is the chief of the angels and alI angels work under his command.
*17 That is, he is not one who would tamper with Divine Revelation, but is so trustworthy that he conveys intact whatever he receives from God.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

this is truly the word of a noble and mighty messenger, who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne. He is obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust.

 

As the Qur'an makes this brief, full-of-life description of these phenomena it establishes a spiritual link between them and man, with the result that, as we read, we feel the power which created these phenomena, and the truth which we are called upon to believe. This truth is then stated in a manner which fits in superbly with the general theme of the surah: This is truly the word of a noble and mighty messenger, who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne. He is obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust.

This Qur'an with its description of the Day of Judgment is the word of a noble messenger, i.e. Jibril, the angel who carried and conveyed it to Muhammad (peace be on him).

The surah then gives a description of this chosen messenger. He is "noble", honoured by Allah who says that he is "mighty", which suggests that considerable strength is required to carry and convey the Qur'an. "Who enjoys a secure position with the Lord of the Throne." What a great honour for Jibril to enjoy such a position with the Lord of the universe. "He is obeyed in heaven", i.e. by the other angels. He is also "faithful to his trust", carrying and discharging the message.

These qualities add up to a definite conclusion: that the Qur'an is a noble, mighty and exalted message and that Allah takes special care of man. It is a manifestation of this care that He has chosen an angel of the calibre of Jibril to convey His revelation to the man He has chosen as His Messenger. As man reflects on this Divine care he should feel humble. For he himself is worth very little in the kingdom of Allah, were it not for the care Allah takes of him and the honour He bestows on him.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 28 January 2007 at 8:42am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 22-24)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

وَمَا صَـحِبُك 15;مْ بِمَجْنُ 08;نٍ وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْب 16; بِضَنِين 13;

 

(22. And your companion is not a madman.) (23. And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.) (24. And he withholds not a knowledge of the Unseen.)

 

[وَمَا صَـحِبُك 15;مْ بِمَجْنُ 08;نٍ ]

(And your companion is not a madman.) Ash-Sha`bi, Maymun bin Mihran, Abu Salih and others who have been previously mentioned, all said, "This refers to Muhammad .''[1][32] Allah said,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ ]

(And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.)

meaning, indeed Muhammad saw Jibril, who brought him the Message from Allah, in the form that Allah created him in (i.e., his true form), and he had six hundred wings.

[ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الْمُبِي 06;ِ]

(in the clear horizon. )

meaning, clear. This refers to the first sighting which occurred at Al-Batha' (Makkah). This incident is mentioned in Allah's statement,

[عَلَّمَه 615; شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى - ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَو 14;ى - وَهُوَ بِالاٍّف 15;قِ الاٌّعْل 14;ى - ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلّ 14;ى - فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْ 06;ِ أَوْ أَدْنَى - فَأَوْحَ 09; إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى ]

(He has been taught by one mighty in power (Jibril). Dhu Mirrah, then he rose. While he was in the highest part of the horizon. Then he approached and came closer. And was at a distance of two bows' length or less. So (Allah) revealed to His servant what He revealed.) (53:5-10)

It seems apparent -- and Allah knows best -- that this Surah (At-Takwir) was revealed before the Night Journey (Al-Isra'), because nothing has been mentioned in it except this sighting (of Jibril), and it is the first sighting. The second sighting has been mentioned in Allah's statement,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى - عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَى - عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى - إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى ]

(And indeed he saw him (Jibril) at a second descent. Near Sidrah Al-Muntaha. Near it is the Paradise of Abode. When that covered the lote tree which did cover it !) (53:13-16)

And these Ayat have only been mentioned in Surat An-Najm, which was revealed after Surat Al-Isra' (The Night Journey).

 

The Prophet is not Stingy in conveying the Revelation

(وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْب 16; بِظَنِين 13;)

(He is not Zanin over the Unseen)[2][33]

meaning Muhammad is not following false conjecture about what Allah revealed. Others have recited this Ayah with the `Dad' in the word Danin, which means that he is not stingy, but rather he conveys it to everyone.

Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, "Zanin and Danin both have the same meaning. They mean that he is not a liar, nor is he a wicked, sinful person. The Zanin is one who follows false supposition, and the Danin is one who is stingy.''[3][34]

Qatadah said, "The Qur'an was unseen and Allah revealed it to Muhammad , and he did not withhold it from the people. Rather he announced it, conveyed it, and offered it to everyone who wanted it.''[4][35] `Ikrimah, Ibn Zayd and others have made similar statements. Ibn Jarir preferred the recitation Danin.[5][36]

I say that both of recitations have been confirmed by numerous routes of transmission, and its meaning is correct either way, as we have mentioned earlier.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:22) And (O people of Makkah), your Companion *18 is not mad.

*18 "Your Companion": the Holy Messenger of Allah (upon whom be peace). Here, making mention of the Holy Prophet as the companion of the people of Makkah, they have been made to realize that the Holy Prophet was no.stranger for them. He was not an outsider but a man of their own clan and tribe; he had lived his whole life among them; even their children knew that he was a very wise man. They should not be so shameless as to call such a man a mad man.

 

(81:23) He has seen that Messenger on the clear horizon; 

This is as mentioned in (53:7) He stood poised in front when he was on the uppermost horizon. *7

*7 The horizon means the eastern edge of the sky where the sun rises and the day dawns. The same has been referred to as ufuq mubin (bright horizon) in Surah Takvir: 23. Both the verses make it explicit that when the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) saw Gabriel (peace be upon him) for the first time, he had appeared on the eastern horizon of the sky; and there are several authentic Traditions which show that at that time he was in his real shape in which Allah has created him.

 

(81:24) and he is not stingy in the matter of conveying the (knowledge of the) unseen (to the people). *20

*20 That is, "The Holy Messenger of Allah dces not conceal anything from you. Whatever of the unseen realities are trade known to him by Allah, whether they relate to the essence and attributes of Allah, the angels, life-afterdeath and Resurrection, or to the Hereafter, Heaven and Hell, he conveys everything to you without change.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Your old friend is not mad. He saw him on the clear horizon. He does not grudge the secrets of the unseen.

 

There follows a description of the Prophet who conveys this revelation to the people. The surah seems to say to them: You have known Muhammad very well over a considerable length of time. He is your old honest, trusted friend. Why, then, are you fabricating tales about him, when he has been telling you the simple truth which he has been entrusted to convey to you: Your old friend is not mad. He saw him on the clear horizon. He does not grudge the secrets of the unseen. They knew the Prophet perfectly well. They knew that he was a man of steady character, great sagacity and complete honesty. But in spite of all this they claimed that he was mad.  

 

The surah counters this attitude by a reference to the surpassing beauty of Allah's creation, noticeable everywhere in the universe, and by portraying some universal scenes, as they appear, full of life. This method of reply suggests that the Qur'an comes from the same creative power which endowed the universe with matchless beauty. It also tells them about the two messengers entrusted with the Qur'an, the one who brought it down and the one who conveyed it to them, i.e. their own friend whom they know to be sane, not mad. The surah tells them that he has indeed seen the other noble messenger, Jibril, with his own eyes, on the clear horizon where no confusion is possible. He is faithful to his trust and cannot be suspected of telling anything but the truth. After all, they have never associated him with anything dishonest.

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 02 February 2007 at 3:56am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir

(Chapter 81, contd 25-29)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

 

(25. And it is not the word of the outcast Shaytan.) (26. Then where are you going) (27. Verily, this is no less than a Reminder for the creatures.) (28. To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.) (29. And you cannot will unless that Allah wills -- the Lord of all that exists.)

 

The Qur'an is a Reminder for all the Worlds and It is not the Inspiration of Shaytan

Allah says,

[ ]

(And it is not the word of the outcast Shaytan.)

meaning, this Qur'an is not the statement of an outcast Shaytan. This means that he is not able to produce it, nor is it befitting of him to do so. This is as Allah says,

[ - - ]

(And it is not the Shayatin who have brought it down. Neither would it suit them nor they can. Verily, they have been removed far from hearing it.) (26:210-212)

Then Allah says,

[ ]

(Then where are you going)

meaning, where has your reason gone, in rejecting this Qur'an, while it is manifest, clear, and evident that it is the truth from Allah. This is as Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said to the delegation of Bani Hanifah when they came to him as Muslims and he commanded them to recite (something from the Qur'an). So they recited something to him from the so called Qur'an of Musaylimah the Liar, that was total gibberish and terribly poor in style. Thus, Abu Bakr said, "Woe unto you! Where have your senses gone By Allah, this speech did not come from a god.'' Qatadah said,

[ ]

(Then where are you going)

meaning, from the Book of Allah and His obedience. Then Allah says,

[ ]

(Verily, this is no less than a Reminder to the creatures.)

meaning, this Qur'an is a reminder for all of mankind. They are reminded by it and receive admonition from it.

[ ]

(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.)

meaning, whoever seeks guidance, then he must adhere to this Qur'an, for verily it is his salvation and guidance. There is no guidance in other than it.

[ ]

(And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills -- the Lord of all that exists.)

This means that the will is not left to you all, so that whoever wishes to be guided, then he is guided, and whoever wishes to be astray, then he goes astray, rather, all of this is according to the will of Allah the Exalted, and He is the Lord of all that exists. It is reported from Sulayman bin Musa that when this Ayah was revealed,

[ ]

(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.)

Abu Jahl said, "The matter is up to us. If we wish, we will stand straight, and we do not wish, we will not stand straight.'' So Allah revealed,

[ ]

(And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the all that exists.)[1][37]

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(81:25) And this is not the word of an accursed satan. *21

*21 That is, "You are wrong in thinking that some satan comes and whispers these words into the ear of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). It does not suit Satan that he should divert man from polytheism, idolworship, atheism and sin and turn him to God-worship and Tauhid, make tnan realize that he should live a life of responsibility and accountability to God instead of living an irresponsible, care-free life, should forbid man to adopt practices of ignorance, injustice, immorality and wickedness and lead him to a clean life of justice, piety and high morals."

 

(81:26) Whither then are you going? (81:27) This is 'an Admonition to all the people of the world, (81:28) to each one of you, who wishes to follow the Straight Path; *22

*22 In other words, although this is an Admonition for all mankind, only such a person can benefit by it, who is himself desirous of adopting piety and righteousness. Man's being a seeker after truth and a lover of right is the foremost condition of his gaining any benefit from it.

 

(81:29) but your willing is of no avail unless Allah, Lord of the worlds, wills so

It is similar to what Allah said in (74:56) But they will never take heed unless Allah so wills. *41 That is, a person's taking heed dces not wholly depend upon his own will, but he takes heed only when Allah also wills to grant him the grace to take heed. In other words, the truth that has been expressed here is that no act of man takes a concrete shape solely by his own will, but each act is implemented only when the will of God combines with the will of the man. This is a very delicate question, failure to understand which has often made human thought falter. Briefly it can be understood thus: If in this world every man had the power to accomplish whatever he wanted to accomplish, the system of the world would be disturbed. This system continua to hold only because the will of Allah is .dominant over all other wills. Man can accomplish whatever he wants to accomplish only when Allah also wills that he be allowed to accomplish it. The same is also the case with guidance and error. Only man's own desiring to have guidance is not enough for him to have guidance; he receives guidance only when Allah also takes a decision to fulfil his desire. Likewise, only man's desiring to go astray by itself is also not enough, but when Allah in view of his desire decides that he be allowed to wander into evil ways, then he wanders into the evil ways in which Allah allows him to wander. As for example, if a person wants to become a thief, only his desire is not enough that he may enter into any house he likes and matte away with whatever he likes, but he can fulfil his desire only at the time and to the extent and in the form that AIlah allows him to fulfil it, according to His supreme wisdom and expedience.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

It is not the word of an accursed devil. Whither then are you going? This is only a reminder to all men, to those of you whose will is to be upright. Yet, you cannot will except by the will of Allah, Lord of all the Worlds.

 

"It is not the word of an accursed devil". Devils, by nature, cannot provide such a straight forward and consistent code of conduct. Hence the surah asks disapprovingly: "Whither then are you going?" How far can you err in your judgment. And where can you go away from the truth which stares you in the face wherever you go?

"This is only a reminder to all men." It reminds them of the nature of their existence, their origin and the nature of the universe around them. The reminder is "to all men ". Islam here declares the universal nature of its call right from the start, in Makka, where it was subjected to an unabating campaign of persecution.

The surah then reminds us that it is up to every individual to choose whether to follow the right path or not. Since Allah has granted everyone his or her free will, then every human being is responsible for himself: "To those of you whose will is to be upright", that is to say, to follow Allah's guidance. All doubts have been dispelled, all excuses answered by this clear statement of all the relevant facts. The right path has been indicated for everyone who wishes to be upright. Anyone who follows a different path shall, therefore, bear the responsibility for his action.

There are, in the human soul and in the universe at large, numerous signs which beckon every man and woman to follow the path of faith. These are so clearly visible and so powerful in their effect that one needs to make a determined effort to turn one's back on them, especially when one's attention is drawn to them in the stirring, persuasive manner of the Qur'an. It is, therefore, man's own will which leads him away from Allah's guidance. He has no other excuse or justification.

The surah concludes by stating that the operative will behind everything is the will of Allah: "You cannot will except by the will of Allah, Lord of all the Worlds." We notice that the Qur'an makes a statement of this type whenever the will of human beings or creatures generally is mentioned. The reason for this is that the Qur'an wants to keep the fundamental concepts of faith absolutely clear. These include the fact that everything in the universe is subject to the will of Allah. No one has a will which is independent from that of Allah. That He grants man a free will is part of His own Divine Will, like everything else. The same applies to His granting the angels the ability to show complete and absolute obedience to Him and to carry out all His commandments.

This fundamental fact must be clearly understood by the believers, so that they may have a clear concept of the absolute truth. When they acquire such a concept they will turn to the Divine Will for guidance and support, and regulate their affairs according to this Will.

 

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Takwir, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 09 February 2007 at 4:26am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter - 82)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

The Virtues of Surat Al-Infitar

An-Nasa'i recorded from Jabir that Mu`adh stood and lead the people in the Night prayer, and he made the recitation of his prayer long. So the Prophet said,

«أَفَتَّا&# 1606;ٌ أَنْتَ يَا مُعَاذُ؟ أَيْنَ كُنْتَ عَنْ [سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الاّعْلَى ] [وَالضُّحَى ] وَ [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]»

(Are you putting the people to trial O Mu`adh Why don't you recite (Glorify the Name of your Lord the Most High) (87), (By the forenoon) (93), and (When the heaven is cleft asunder) (82))''[1][1]

The basis of this Hadith is found in the Two Sahihs,[2][2] however the mentioning of

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]

(When the heaven is cleft asunder.) has only been mentioned by An-Nasa'i. It has been previously mentioned in a narration from `Abdullah bin `Umar that the Prophet said,

«مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى الْقِيَا 05;َةِ رَأْيَ عَيْنٍ فَلْيَقْ 85;َأْ: [إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ ] و [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ] و [إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انشَقَّتْ ]»

(Whoever would be pleased to look at the Day of Resurrection with his own eyes, then let him recite, (When the sun is Kuwwirat.) (81) and; (When the heaven is cleft asunder) (82) and; (When the heaven is split asunder) (84).)[3][3]

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْم 14;ـنِ الرَّحِي 05;ِ

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69; انفَطَرَ 78;ْ- وَإِذَا الْكَوَا 03;ِبُ انتَثَرَ 78;ْ- وَإِذَا الْبِحَا 85;ُ فُجّرَتْ- وَإِذَا الْقُبُو 85;ُ بُعْثِرَ 78;ْ- عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَت 18; وَأَخَّر 14;تْ[

(1.    When the heaven is cleft asunder (Infatarat).) (2. And when the stars Intatharat.) (3. And when the seas Fujjirat.) (4. And when the graves Bu`thirat.) (5. A person will know what he has sent forward and left behind.)

What will happen on the Day of Judgement

Allah says,

[إِذَا السَّمَآ 69;ُ انفَطَرَتْ ]

(When the heaven is cleft asunder (Infatarat).)

meaning, it splits. This is as Allah says,

[ السَّمَآ 69;ُ مُنفَطِرٌ بِهِ]

(Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder (Munfatir)) (73:18)

Then Allah says,

[وَإِذَا الْكَوَا 03;ِبُ انتَثَرَتْ ]

(And when the stars Intatharat.)meaning, fallen.

[وَإِذَا الْبِحَا 85;ُ فُجِّرَتْ ]

(And when the seas Fujjirat.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Allah will cause some of it to burst forth over other parts of it.''[4][4] Al-Hasan said, "Allah will cause some parts of it to burst forth over other parts of it, and its water will go away.''[5][5] Qatadah said, "Its fresh water will mix with its salt water.''[6][6]

[وَإِذَا الْقُبُو 85;ُ بُعْثِرَتْ ]

(And when the graves Bu`thirat.) Ibn `Abbas said, "searched.''[7][7] As-Suddi said, "Tub`athiru means that they will be moved and those who are in them will come out.''

[عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَت 18; وَأَخَّر 14;تْ ]

(A person will know what he has sent forward and left behind.)

meaning, when this happens then this will occur.

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:1) When the heaven splits asunder, (82:2) and when the stars scatter, (82:3) and when the seas are torn apart,  *1

*1 In Surah At-Takwir it has been said: "When the oceans are set ablaze," and here: "When the oceans are torn apart." When the two verses are read together, and this fact also is kept in view that even according to the Qur'an a terrible earthquake will occur on the Resurrection Day, which will shake up the entire earth all at once, the state of the splitting of the oceans and their being set ablaze ' seems to be as follows: first, because of the terrible convulsion, the bottom of the oceans will split asunder and their water will start sinking into the interior of the earth where an intensely hot lava is constantly boiling up. Coming into contact with the lava, water will dissolve into its two constituent parts, oxygen which helps combustion, and hydrogen, which is itself combustible. Thus, in the process of dissolution and combustion, a chain reaction will start, which will set all the oceans 'of the world ablaze. This is our conjecture, the correct knowledge is only with Allah.

 

(82:4) and when the graves are laid open,  *2

*2 In the first three verses, the first stage of the Resurrection has been mentioned, and in this verse the second stage is being described. "Opening of the graves" implies resurrection of the dead then.

 

(82:5) then every person shall know all his works, the former and the latter.  *3

*3 The words ma qaddamat wa akhkharat can have several meanings and all are implied here: (1) Ma qaddamat is the good or evil act which man has sent forward, and ma akhkharat is what he refrained from doing. Thus, these Arabic words correspond to the acts of commission and omission in one's life. (2) Ma qaddamat is what one did earlier and ma akhkharat what one did later; i.e. the whole life-work of man will appear before him date-wise and in proper sequence (3) Whatever good and evil deeds a man did in his life is ma qaddamat and whatever effects and influences of his acts he left behind for human society is ma akhkharat.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

When the heaven is left asunder, when the stars are scattered, when the oceans are made to explode, when the graves are hurled about, each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones.

 

This short surah refers to the great upheaval discussed in the previous surah "The Darkening", but gives it a special colour. It has a different rhythm, deep and calm. It adds a touch of expostulation coupled with an implicit threat. Hence, it does not detail the scenes of the great upheaval as in the previous surah, where these scenes are dominant. The scenes here are shorter, in order to suit its quieter atmosphere and slower rhythm.

At the opening the surah mentions the cleaving of the sky, the scattering of the stars, the bursting of the oceans and the hurling of the graves as simultaneous with every soul's knowledge of its earlier and later actions, on that solemn day.

So the surah represents yet another way of portraying the same basic principles stressed in this thirtieth part of the Qur'an in various methods and styles. When the heaven is cleft asunder, when the stars are scattered when the oceans are made to explode, when the graves are hurled about, each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones. In the commentary on the previous surah we described the feelings generated in people when they visualise the universe undergoing a change so violent that it leaves nothing in its familiar shape and condition. We also said that such feelings tend to pull man away from anything which gives him a sense of security, with the exception of Allah, the Creator of the universe, the One Who lives on after everything has died and withered away. Man's heart is thus made to turn to the only true being Who neither changes nor dies, to seek His support and security in the face of the general upheaval which destroys everything that seemed once to be permanent. For nothing lives for ever except the Creator Who is the only one worthy of being worshipped.

The first aspect mentioned here of the universal upheaval is the cleaving or rending of the sky, which is mentioned in other surahs: When the sky is split asunder and becomes rose red, like stained leather. (Al-Qur'an 55:37) When sky will be rent asunder, for on that day it is frail and tottering. (Al-Qur'an 69:16) When the sky is rent asunder. (Al-Qur'an 84:1) That the sky will be split or rent asunder on that hectic day is certain. What is meant exactly by such rending, and how the sky will look after it has been rent are difficult to say. All that we are left with is a feeling of violent change which overwhelms the universe, as we see it, and a realisation that its perfect system will no longer be in operation.

The violent upheaval in the universe causes the stars to scatter after they have been held together by a system which makes every star keep to its orbit, along which it may move fearfully fast, without swerving out of it. If the system is broken at any time, as will happen when the life of the stars comes to its end, they will just disappear in the wide space, as does a particle of dust running loose. The explosion of the oceans may refer to their being overfull to the extent that they drown the dry land and swallow the rivers. It may, alternatively, mean an explosion which separates oxygen from hydrogen, the two gases which form water. Thus water returns to its original gas condition. The verse may also be taken to refer to a nuclear explosion of the atoms of the two gases. If this is the case, then the explosion would be so fearful that our nuclear devices of today would seem, in comparison, like children's toys. The explosion may also take a different form, totally unknown to us. One thing, however, we know for certain is that there will be horror far greater than any man could have ever experienced. The hurling about of the graves may be a result of one of the events mentioned above. It may also be a separate event which occurs on that eventful day. As the graves are hurled about people are resurrected and stand up again, back in life, to face the reckoning and receive their reward or punishment. This is complemented by the verse which follows the description of these events: Each soul shall know its earlier actions and its later ones. That is, each soul shall come face to face with what it has done and what it left behind of the consequences of its actions; or, what it has enjoyed in this present life and what it has saved for the hereafter. The knowledge, however, will accompany these horrific events. It will indeed be one of them, for it terrifies the soul no less than any of the other events mentioned earlier.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 11 March 2007 at 10:15am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 6-8)

Which was revealed in Makkah

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

- - -]

(6. O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous) (7. Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) (8. In whatever form He willed, He put you together.)

 

[ ]

(O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous) This is a threat. It is not an attempt to get a reply as some people mistakenly think. They consider it as if the Most Generous is asking them so that they will say, "His honor deceived him (or made him careless of his Lord).'' rather the meaning of this Ayah is, "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you from your Lord, the Most Generous -- meaning the Most Great -- so that you went forth disobeying Him, and you met Him with that which was unbefitting.'' This is similar to what has been reported in the Hadith,

:

(Allah will say on the Day of Judgement: "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you concerning Me O Son of Adam What was your response to the Messengers'') Al-Baghawi mentioned that Al-Kalbi and Muqatil said, "This Ayah was revealed about Al-Aswad bin Shariq who struck the Prophet and he was not punished in retaliation. So Allah revealed,

[ ]

(What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous)'' Then Allah said,

[ ]

(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `what has deceived you concerning the Most Generous Lord'

[ ]

(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `He made you complete, straight, and perfectly balanced and proportioned in stature. He fashioned you in the best of forms and shapes.' Imam Ahmad recorded from Busr bin Jahhash Al-Qurashi that one day the Messenger of Allah spat in his palm and placed his finger on it. Then he said,

: :

(Allah the Mighty and Sublime says: "O Son of Adam! How can you escape Me when I created you from something similar to this (spit) Then I fashioned you and made your creation balanced so that you walked between the two outer garments. And the earth has a burial place for you. So you gathered (wealth) and withheld it until your soul reached your collarbone (i.e., death comes). Then, at that time you say, `I will give charity now.' But how will there be time for charity'') This Hadith has also been recorded by Ibn Majah . Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(In whatever form He willed, He put you together.) Mujahid said, "In which resemblance: the father, the mother, the paternal uncle, or the maternal uncle.'' In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Abu Hurayrah that a man said, "O Messenger of Allah! Verily, my wife has given birth to a black boy.'' The Prophet said,

(Do you have any camels) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet then said,

ǻ

(What color are they) The man said, "Red.'' The Prophet said,

޻

(Do any of them have patches of gray) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet asked him,

߻

(How did this happen to them) The man replied, "It is probably an inherited genetical strain.'' The Prophet then said,

޻

(Likewise, this (with your son) is probably an inherited genetical strain.)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:6) O man, what has beguiled you concerning your Lord, the gracious, (82:7) Who created you, fashioned you, proportioned you, (82:8) and put you together in whatever form He pleased?  *4

*4 That is, "In the first place, the bounty and favour of your Beneficent Sustainer required that you should have acknowledged his bounties and become an obedient servant and should have felt shy of disobeying Him, but you were deluded into thinking that you have become whatever you are by your own effort, and you never thought that you should acknowledge that favour of Him Who gave you life. Secondly, it is your Lord's bounty and kindness that you can freely do whatever you like in the world and it never so happens that whenever you happen to commit an error, He should punish you with paralysis, or blind your eyes, or cause lightning to strike you. But you took His bountifulness for weakness and were beguiled into thinking that the Kingdom of your God was devoid of justice "

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape? He can give you whatever form He wills.

 

After this opening which alerts men's senses and consciences, the surah, by means of gentle remonstrance coupled with an implicit threat, touches the hearts of men who busy themselves with trivialities. It reminds man of Allah's very first act of grace towards him, namely, his moulding in such an upright perfectly proportioned shape. Allah could have easily given him any form He wished. Yet man is ungrateful: O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape? He can give you what ever form He wills. The address appeals to man's most noble quality, his humanity, which distinguishes him from all creatures and assigns to him the highest position among them. This quality represents Allah's gracious blessing to man and His abundant generosity to him.

This appeal is immediately followed by a gentle remonstrance: "What has lured you away from your gracious Lord?" What makes you neglect your duties to your Lord and behave impudently towards Him when He has given you your humanity which raises you above all His creation and provides you with the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. A few details of Allah's generosity are then added: "O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape." It is an address which appeals straight to man's heart. He listens to the remonstrance of Allah when He reminds him of His grace while he continues with his erring ways and impudent behaviour towards Him.

Indeed, man should reflect deeply over his creation, his physically and physiologically perfect constitution. Reflection should prompt him to show his genuine gratitude, deep respect and real love to Allah, his gracious Lord, Who has blessed him with such constitution, perfect, upright and handsome. The miraculous aspects in man's constitution are far greater than what he sees all around him and what he can imagine. Perfection and the right balance are easily evident in man's physical, mental and spiritual constitution. Full volumes have been written on the perfection of creation as evidenced by man. It is perhaps useful to include here one or two quotations from such works.

The human body is composed of a number of specialised systems: the skeleton, the muscular system, the skin, the digestive system, the blood circulation system, the respiratory system, the procreative system, the lymphatic system, the nervous system, the urinal system and the senses of tasting, smelling, hearing and seeing. Everyone of these systems is miraculous and far more wonderful than any scientific achievement which makes man possessed with wonder. Yet man tends to overlook the wonders of his own constitution ! A contributor to the British Scientific Journal writes:

Man's hand is one of the most remarkable wonders of nature. It is extremely difficult, indeed impossible, to invent a device which can match the human hand for simplicity, efficiency, ability and instant adaptability. When you read a book you take it in your hand, then you hold it in the position most suitable for your reading. The same hand will automatically correct the position of your book whenever a correction of position is necessary. When you turn a page you place your finger underneath the paper and apply the amount of pressure needed for turning the page. When the page is turned no more pressure is applied. You also use your hand to hold a pen and to write. With your hand you use all the tools you need such as a spoon, a knife or a pen. You use it to open or close the window and to carry anything you wish to carry ... Man's hand has 27 pieces of bone in addition to 19 groups of muscles. [A. Nawfal, Allah and Modern Science, Cairo, 1957 Arabic]

 

A part of the human ear is a series of some four thousand minute but complex arches graduated with exquisite regularity in size and shape. These may be said to resemble a musical instrument, and they seem adjusted to catch, and transmit in some manner to the brain, every cadence of sound or noise, from the thunderclap to the whisper of the pines and the exquisite blending of the tones and harmonies of every instrument in the orchestra. If in forming the ear the cells were impelled to evolve strict efficiency only that man might survive, why did they not extend the range and develop a superacutness? Perhaps the power behind these cells' activities anticipated man's coming need of intellectual enjoyment, or did they by accident build better than they knew?' [A.C Morrison, Man Does Not Stand Alone, London, 1962, pp. 63-4]

The visual functions are carried out mainly by the eye with its 130 million retinal light receptors. The eyelids with the eyelashes at their tips protect the eyes day and night. Their movement, which is involuntary, keeps out dust particles and other alien bodies. The eye lashes throw their shades over the eye to lessen the intensity of light. Furthermore, by their movement the eyelids prevent the eyes from becoming dry. The fluid around the eye, which we call tears, is a highly effective, most powerful disinfectant ...

In human beings, the taste function is carried out by the tongue, through groups of the taste cells which are located in the taste buds of the mucosal surface of the tongue. These buds are of different shapes: some are filamentary, some mushroom-shaped and others are lenticular. They are supplied by fine branches of the glosso-pharangeal nerve as well as the nerve which carries the taste sense. When we eat, these fine branches of the taste nerve are stimulated and convey the impulses of the taste sensation to the brain. This system is located at the front of the tongue, so that we may reject what we sense to be harmful. It is this system which helps us sense whether what we eat is bitter or sweet, hot or cold, sour or salty, etc. The tongue contains nine thousand of these fine taste buds, each of which is linked with the brain by more than one nerve. Hence we may wonder: 'How many nerves have we? What are their sizes? How do they function individually and how do they combine to give the brain their various types of sensation? The nervous system, which effectively controls the body, is composed of fine neurons which cover every part of the body. The neurons are linked to larger nerves which are, in turn, linked to the central nervous system. Whenever any part of the body feels any sensation, even the slightest change of temperature, the neurons convey this sensation to the peripheral nerves which, in turn, convey it to the brain so that it may order the necessary action. The signals are carried through the nerves at the speed of 100 metres per second. [Allah and Modern Science, Cairo]

If we think of digestion as a process in a chemical laboratory and of the food that we eat as raw materials, we immediately discover that it is a wonderful process which will digest anything edible except the stomach itself. First into this laboratory we put a variety of food as a raw material without the slightest regard for the laboratory or how the chemistry of digestion will handle it. We eat steak, cabbage, corn and fried fish, wash it down with any quantity of water, and top it off with alcohol, bread, and beans. We may add sulfur and molasses as spring medicine. Out of this mixture the stomach selects those things which are useful by breaking down into its chemical molecules every item of food, discarding the waste, and reconstructs the residue into new proteins, which become the food of the various cells. The digestive tract selects calcium, sulfur, iodine, iron and any other substances which are necessary, takes care that the essential molecules are not lost, that the hormones can be produced and that all of the valid necessities of life are on hand in regulated quantities, ready to meet every necessity. It stores fat and other reserves to meet such an emergency as starvation, and does all this in spite of human thought or reason. We pour this infinite variety of substances into this chemical laboratory with almost total disregard of what we take in, depending on what we consider the automatic process to keep us alive. When these foods have been broken down and are again prepared, they are delivered constantly to each of our billions of cells, a greater number than all the human beings on earth. The delivery to each individual cell must be constant, and only those substances which the particular cell needs to transform them into bones, nails, flesh, hair, eyes, and teeth are taken up by the proper cell. Here is a chemical laboratory producing more substances than any laboratory which human ingenuity has devised. Here is a delivery system greater than any method of transportation or distribution the world has ever known, all being conducted in perfect order.' [Man Does Not Stand Alone, pp. 88-89]

A lot may be said about every other system of the human body. But wonderful as these systems are, man may have them in common with animals. He, however, is privileged to possess his unique mental and spiritual qualities which are regarded in this surah as a special favour from Allah. After the surah has dealt with the humanity of man, it mentions the perfection of his creation and the right proportioning of his mould: O man, what has lured you away from your gracious Lord Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape.

Let us reflect on our powers of comprehension, the nature of which is unknown to us. The mind is the medium of comprehension but the working of our minds and how they function remain to us incomprehensible. If we suppose that what we grasp is transmitted to the brain through the nerves, where and how does the brain store its information? If we compare the brain to a magnetic recording tape, every man needs in his average lifetime of sixty years a great many' billion metres on which to record such a huge multitude of pictures, words, meanings, feelings and responses so that he may, as he actually does, remember them several decades later. Furthermore, how does man sort out individual words, meanings, events and pictures to mould them together in a sort of coherent education? How does he transform information and experiences into knowledge? Yet this is by no means the most significant of man's distinctive qualities. There is that wonderful ray of Allah's spirit which provides a link between man and the beauty of the universe and its Creator. As this link is established, man can experience at clear, bright moments a sense of communion with the infinite, the absolute, which prepares him for a blissful eternal life in Allah's paradise. Yet man has no power to comprehend the nature of his spirit, which is Allah's greatest favour to him and which makes him a man. Hence Allah addresses him by this quality of his "O man! " then remonstrates with him directly: "What lures you away from your gracious Lord?" Thus man is reminded of Allah's greatest favour, but he stands impudent, negligent of his duties to Allah, unashamed and ungrateful. But man does not need more than to realise the source of this remonstrance and what attitude he adopts when he stands before his Lord to be absolutely overwhelmed by shame: "O man! what lures you away from your gracious Lord, Who created and moulded you and gave you an upright shape. He can give you what ever form He wills."

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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