Active TopicsActive Topics  Display List of Forum MembersMemberlist  CalendarCalendar  Search The ForumSearch  HelpHelp
  RegisterRegister  LoginLogin  Old ForumOld Forum  Twitter  Facebook
Advertisement:
         

Quran & Sunnah
 IslamiCity Forum - Islamic Discussion Forum : Religion - Islam : Quran & Sunnah
Message Icon Topic: Archive: Ayaat of the Week Post Reply Post New Topic
<< Prev Page  of 5 Next >>
Author Message
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 28 August 2006 at 2:59am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(1. By those who pull out, drowning.) (2. By those who free briskly.) (3. And by the swimmers, swimming.) (4. And by the racers, racing.) (5. And by those who arrange affairs.)

 

Swearing by Five Characteristics that the Day of Judgement will occur

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Abu Ad-Duha and As-Suddi all said,

(By those who pull out, drowning.) "These are the angels who remove the souls from the Children of Adam.''

Among them are those whose souls are removed by the angels with difficulty, as if he is being drowned during its removal. There are those people whose souls the angels remove with ease, as if they were unraveling him (i.e., his soul from him) due to their briskness. This is the meaning of Allah's statement,

(By those who free briskly.) This has been mentioned by Ibn `Abbas. In reference to Allah's statement,

(And by the swimmers, swimming.) Ibn Mas`ud said, "They are the angels.'' Similar statements have been reported from `Ali, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, and Abu Salih. Concerning Allah's statement,

(And by the racers, racing.) It has been narrated from `Ali, Masruq, Mujahid, Abu Salih, and Al-Hasan Al-Basri that this means the angels. Then Allah says,

(And by those who arrange affairs.)

`Ali, Mujahid, `Ata', Abu Salih, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, and As-Suddi all said, "They are the angels.'' Al-Hasan added, "They control the affairs from the heaven to the earth, meaning by the command of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.''

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:1) By those (angels) who pluck out from the depths, (79:2) and draw out gently, (79:3) and by those (angels) who glide about swiftly (through space), (79:4) then hasten out (to carry out Commands), (79:5) then conduct the affairs (in accordance with Divine Commands) *1 :

*1 Here, the object for which an oath has been sworn by beings having five qualities has not been mentioned; but the theme that follows by itself leads to the conclusion that the oath has been sworn to affirm that the Resurrection is a certainty, which must come to pass, when all dead men shall be resurrected. Nor is there any mention as to what are the beings possessed of the qualities. However, a large number of the Companions and their immediate successors and most of the commentators have expressed the opinion that they are the angels. Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Hadrat `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubair, Abu salih Abud-Duha and Suddi; say that "those who pluck out from the depths and those who draw out gently" imply the angels, who wrench out the soul of man at death from the very depths of his body, from its every fibre. "Those who glide about swiftly", according to Hadrat Ibn Mas`ud, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubair and Abu Salih, also imply the angels, who hurry about swiftly in execution of Divine Commands as though they were gliding through space. The same meaning of "those who hasten out as in a race" has been taken by Hadrat `Ali, Mujahid, Masruq, Abu Salih and Hasan Bari, and hastening out implies that each one of them hurries on his errand as soon as he receives the first indication of Divine Will. "Those who conduct the affairs" also imply the angels as has been reported from Hadrat `Ali, Mujahid, 'Ata' Abu -Salih, Hasan Bari;, Qatadah, Rabi` bin Anas and Suddi. In other words, these are the workers of the Kingdom of the Universe, who are conducting all the affairs of the world in accordance with Allah's Command and Will. Though this meaning of these verses has not been reported in any authentic Hadith from the Holy Prophet, while this meaning has been given by some major Companions and their immediate successors and pupils, one is led to form the view that they must have obtained this knowledge from the Holy Prophet himself.
Now the question arises: On what basis has the oath been sworn by these angels for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death when they themselves are as imperceptible as the thing for the occurrence of which they have been presented as an evidence and as an argument. In our opinion the reason is (and Allah has the best knowledge) that the Arabs were not deniers of the existence of the angels. They themselves admitted that at the death the soul was taken out by the angels; they also believed that the angels moved at tremendous speeds; they could reach any place between the earth and the heavens instantly and promptly execute any errand that was entrusted to them. They also acknowledged that the angels are subordinate to Divine Will and they conduct the affairs of the universe strictly and precisely in accordance with Divine Will; they are not independent and masters of their will. They regarded them as daughters of Allah out of ignorance and worshipped them as deities, but they did not believe that they possessed the real authority as well. Therefore, the basis of the reasoning from the abovementioned attributes for the occurrence of the Resurrection and life after death is that the angels who took the soul by the order of God, could also restore the soul by the order of the same God; and the angels who conducted the affairs of the universe by the order of God could also upset this universe by the order of the same God whenever . He so ordered them and could also bring about a new world order. They would not show any negligence or delay in the execution of His Command.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

By those that pluck out vehemently and those that move forward rapidly; by those that swim vigorously and those that outstrip swiftly and those that conduct a certain affair.

This surah is just one example of many in this thirtieth part of the Qur'an which have one common objective, namely, to drive home to man the reality of the hereafter, its inevitability, and its awesome and serious nature, and to stress its importance to the Divine planning of man's life in this world. Such planning culminates in man's death and subsequent resurrection for the life to come. As it sets out to drive this idea home to man, the surah touches the emotions in different ways which are directly relevant to its central idea.

First we have an ambiguous opening which creates an air of fear and worried expectation. The rhythm here is quick and throbbing; it helps evoke feelings of fear, surprise and wonder: By those that pluck out vehemently, and those that move out rapidly, by those that swim vigorously, and those that outstrip swiftly, and those that conduct a certain affair.

Perhaps we should note that these verses end with the sound 'aaha' which adds length to the meter, intensifying the effect of majesty and awe. By those that pluck vehemently and those that move forward rapidly; by those that swim vigorously and those that outstrip swiftly and those that conduct a certain affair. Some commentators say of these verses that they refer to the angels who pluck out the souls vehemently, move along actively with ease and speed, swim along as they move in the outer world, outstrip other creatures to embrace the faith and carry out Allah's commands and conduct whatever affairs they are charged with. Other commentators maintain that they refer to the stars who pluck out as they run in their orbits, move rapidly in phases, swim in space, outstrip others as they run fast and bring about certain phenomena and results which are entrusted to them by Allah and which affect life on earth. A third group of commentators are of the view that the pluckers, runners, swimmers and outstrippers refer to the stars while the conductors of affairs are the angels.

Another group believe that the pluckers, runners and swimmers are the stars while the outstrippers and conductors of affairs are the angels.

Whatever the referents of these terms are, we feel from the general Qur'anic sense that mentioning them in this particular manner produces a shock and a feeling of expectation of something fearful. Thus, they contribute, right at the outset, to preparing our minds for the fearful account of the first and second quakes and of the Greatest Catastrophe later on in the surah.

Perhaps it is better not to go into great detail in trying to explain and discuss these verses. It is perhaps more fruitful to let these verses produce their effect naturally. The Qur'an seeks to achieve its objective of awakening men's hearts in different ways. If we do this we simply follow the example of Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He once read the surah entitled "The Frowning" . When he reached the verse which reads "wafakihatan wa abba"' he wondered, "We know the fruit trees 'fakihatan', but what is 'abba'?" But then he reproached himself saying: "You Ibn Al-Khattab, are being really fussy today! What harm is there in your not knowing the meaning of a word used in Allah's book?" He then said to the people around: "Follow what you understand of this book; what you do not understand you may leave alone." His statement, aimed at discouraging people from trying to explain what may be equivocal to them without the backing of perfectly sound authority, represents an attitude of veneration towards Allah's words, some of which may have been deliberately left equivocal so that they may fulfil a certain objective.

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 01 September 2006 at 8:55am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (6-14)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(6. On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) (7. Followed by the Radifah.) (8. Hearts that Day will tremble.) (9. Their vision humiliated.) (10. They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'') (11. "Even after we are bones Nakhirah'') (12. They say: "It would in that case, be a return with loss!'') (13. But it will be only a single Zajrah.) (14. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.)

 

The Description of the Day of Judgement, the People, and what They will say

 

Then Allah says,

 (On the Day the Rajifah shakes, followed by the Radifah.)

Ibn `Abbas said, "These are the two blasts (of the Trumpet) -- the first and the second.''[1][7] Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others have made similar statements.[2][8] It has been reported from Mujahid that he said, "In reference to the first, it is the statement of Allah,

 (On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) This is similar to Allah's statement,

 (On the Day the earth and the mountains shake.) (73:14)

The second is Ar-Radifah, and it is like the Allah's statement,

(And the earth and mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) (69:14)''[3][9]

 

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (Hearts that Day will tremble.) Ibn `Abbas said, "This means afraid.''[4][10] Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.[5][11]

 (Their vision humiliated.)

meaning, the eyes of the people. It means that the eyes will be lowly and disgraced from what they will witness of terrors. Allah then says,

 (They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'')

meaning, the idolators of the Quraysh and whoever rejects the Hereafter as they did. They consider the occurrence of the resurrection after being placed in Al-Hafirah -- which are the graves -- as something farfetched. This has been said by Mujahid.[6][12] They feel that this is something impossible after the destruction of their physical bodies and the disintegration of their bones and their decaying. Thus, Allah says,

 (Even after we are bones Nakhirah) It has also been recited:

 (Nakhirah)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, all said, "This means decayed.''[7][13] Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the bone when it has decayed and air enters into it.'' Concerning their saying,

 (It would in that case be a return with loss.) (79:12)

Muhammad bin Ka`b said that the Quraysh said, "If Allah brings us back to life after we die, then surely we will be losers.''[8][14] Allah then says,

 (But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.)

meaning, this is a matter that is from Allah that will not occur twice, nor will there be any opportunity to affirm it or verify it. The people will be standing and looking. This will be when Allah commands the angel Israfil to blow into the Sur, which will be the blowing of the resurrection. At that time the first people and the last people will all be standing before their Lord looking. This is as Allah says,

 (On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52)

Allah has also said,

 (And our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50)

Allah also says,

 (And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer.) (16:77)

 Allah then says,

 (When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) Ibn `Abbas said, "As-Sahirah means the entire earth.''[9][15] Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Abu Salih have all said this as well. `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd have all said, "As-Sahirah means the face of the earth.''[10][16] Mujahid said, "They will be at its (the earth's) lowest part, and they will be brought out to highest part.'' Then he said, "As-Sahirah is a level place.''[11][17]

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said,

 (When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) "

Allah says,

 (On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:48)

and He says,

 (And they ask you concerning the mountains: say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain.You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.) (20:105-107)

and Allah says,

 (And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47)

and the earth will be brought forth which will have mountains upon it, and it will not be considered from this earth (of this life). It will be an earth that no sin will be performed on it, nor will any blood be shed upon it.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:6) the Day when the quake shall cause. a violent jolt, (79:7) which is followed by another jolt, *2

*2 The first jolt implies the jolt which will destroy the earth and everything on it, and the second jolt at which all dead men will rise up from death and from their graves. This same state has been described in Surah Az-Zumar, thus: "And when the Trumpet shall be blown on that Day, all those who are in the heavens and the earth shall fall down dead except those whom Allah may allow (to live). Then the Trumpet shall be blown again and they will all stand up, looking around." (v. 68)

(79:8) some hearts on that Day shall be trembling with fear, *3

*3 "Some hearts", because, according to the Qur'an, only the disbelievers, the wicked people and the hypocrites will be terror-stricken on the Resurrection Day, the righteous believers will remain secure from this tenor. About them in Surah Al-Anbiya' it has been said: "The time of great fright will not trouble them at all; the angels will rush. forth to receive them, saying: `This is the very Day which you were promised'." (v. 103)

(79:9) their looks struck with awe. (79:10) They say, "Shall we really be restored to our former state? (79:11) What, when we shall have become hollow, rotten bones?" (79:12) They said, "It would then be a return with sheer loss! " *4

*4 That is, when they were told that they would surely be raised back to life after death, they started mocking it, saying to one another, "Well, if we have really to be restored to our former state of life, then we would certainly be doomed. "

(79:13) Whereas it will only need a single shout (79:14) and they will forthwith appear in an open plain. *5

*5 That is, "They are mocking it as an impossibility, whereas it is not at all a difficult task for Allah for the performance of which He may have to make lengthy preparations. For it only a single shout or cry is enough at which your dust of ash will gather together from wherever it lay, and you will suddenly find yourself alive on the back of the earth. Thinking this return to be a return to loss, you may try to escape from it however hard you may, but it will inevitably take place; it cannot be averted by your denial, escape or mockery."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

On the day when the earth shall quake, followed soon afterwards by the sky, all hearts shall be filled with terror, and all eyes shall be downcast. They say, "What, are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones? They say, "That will be a losing return." But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth.

 

The opening of the surah takes the form of an oath, to confirm the event related in the following few verses:

On the day when the earth shall quake followed soon afterwards by the sky, all hearts shall be filled with terror, and all eyes shall be downcast. They say, 'What are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones?' They say. 'That will be a losing return. ' But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth. It has been suggested that the "quaker" is the earth. This is based on what the Qur'an says in another surah:

On the day when the earth and the mountains will quake (Al-Qur'an 73:14) It has also been suggested that the "follower" is the sky, as it follows the earth and witnesses its own upheaval which causes it to split and causes the stars to scatter. An alternative suggestion claims that the "quaker" refers to the first blast on the Trumpet which causes the earth, the mountains and all creation to quake and tremble and makes all who are in heaven and on earth fall down fainting except those who shall be spared by Allah. "The follower" it is claimed, refers to the second blow on the Trumpet which brings all creation back to life (as stated in surah 39, verse 68).

Whichever suggestion is the correct one, the very verses make men's hearts feel the quake and shake with fear and worry. They prepare them to realise what sort of terror will fill the hearts on the day of judgement:

All hearts shall be filled with terror and all eyes shall be downcast. Thus, it is a combination of worry, fear, humiliation and breakdown. This is what happens on that day, and it is the fact which the oath at the opening of the surah seeks to establish. In both sense and rhythm, the scene portrayed by these verses fits in perfectly with the opening.

The surah goes on to speak of their surprise and wonder when they are resurrected: They say, 'What, are we being restored as we were before? What, when we have been turned to old, hollow bones? They wonder whether they are being returned to life again. Amazed, they ask how this can be done after they have been dead for so long that their bones have become hollow. Then they realise that their awakening does not take them back to their life on earth, but to their second life. At this point they feel their great loss and cry:

They say, 'That will be a losing return.' They have not banked on such a return, and have not prepared for it, so they have everything to lose by it. The Qur'anic comment is to state what will actually happen. But with just one blast they shall be alive on earth.

The "blast" is a shout, but it is described here as a blast to emphasise its force, and to strike a note of perfect harmony between this scene and the other scenes of the surah. The term used for "the earth" here refers to a bright white earth which is the land of resurrection. We do not know its exact location. All we know of it is that which the Qur'an or the authentic traditions of the Prophet relate. We have no intention of adding anything unauthoritative to their account. Other Qur'anic statements lead us to the conclusion that this one blast is most probably the second blow on the Trumpet, i.e. the blow of resurrection. The expression used here gives a sense of speed. The blast itself is associated with speed, and the general rhythm of the surah is a rapid one. The terrified hearts also beat fast. Hence the perfect harmony between the sense, the rhythm, the scenes and the surah as a whole.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 08 September 2006 at 4:38am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (15 - 26)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(15. Has there come to you the story of Musa) (16. When his Lord called him in the holy valley of Tuwa,) (17. Go to Fir`awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds.) (18. And say to him: "Would you purify yourself'') (19. "And that I guide you to your Lord, so you should fear Him'') (20. Then he showed him the great sign.) (21. But he denied and disobeyed.) (22. Then he turned back, striving.) (23. So he gathered and called out,) (24. Saying: "I am your lord, most high.'') (25. So Allah seized him with punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life).) (26. In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)

 Mentioning the Story of Musa and that it is a Lesson for Those Who fear Allah

Allah informs His Messenger Muhammad about His Messenger Musa. He mentions that he sent Musa to Fir`awn and He aided him with miracles. Yet, even after this, Fir`awn continued in his disbelief and transgression until Allah seized him with a mighty and powerful punishment. Thus is the punishment of whoever opposes you (Muhammad ) and rejects that which you have been sent with. This is why Allah says at the end of the story,

 (In this is a Lesson for whoever fears.)

Allah begins by saying,

 (Has there come to you the story of Musa)

meaning, have you heard of his story

 (When his Lord called him) meaning, He called out speaking to him.

(in the holy valley) meaning purified

(Tuwa) According to what is correct, it is the name of a valley, as preceded in Surah Ta Ha. So, He said to him:

(Go to Fir`awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds.)

meaning, he has become haughty, rebellious and arrogant.

(And say to him: "Would you purify yourself'')

meaning, say to him, "Will you respond to the path and way that will purify you'' This means, `will you submit (accept Islam) and be obedient'

(And that I guide to your Lord,)

meaning, `I will guide you to the worship of your Lord.'

 (so that you fear)

meaning, `so that your heart will become humble, obedient, and submissive to Him after it was hard, evil, and far away from goodness.'

 (Then he showed him the great sign.)

This means that Musa showed him -- along with this truthful call -- a strong evidence and a clear proof of the truthfulness of what he had come up with from Allah.

(But he denied and disobeyed.)

meaning, he (Fir`awn) rejected the truth and opposed what Musa commanded him with of obedience. So what happened with him was that his heart disbelieved, and Musa (i.e., his call) could not internally or externally affect it. Along with this, his knowledge that what Musa had come to him with was the truth, did not necessitate his being a believer in it. This is because recognition is the knowledge of the heart, and faith is its action. And it (faith) is to comply with the truth and submit to it.

Concerning Allah's statement,

(Then he turned back, striving.)

meaning, in responding to the truth with falsehood. This was by his gathering the group of magicians in order to confront that which Musa had come up with of spectacular miracles.

(So he gathered (his people) and called out)

meaning, among his people.

 (Saying; I am your lord, most high.'')

Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid both said, "This is the word which Fir`awn said after he said,

(`I have not known of any other god for you all other than me) for the past forty years.'''[1][18] Allah then says,

 (So Allah seized him with a punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life).

meaning, Allah avenged Himself against him with a severe vengeance, and He made an example and admonition of him for those rebellious people in the world who are like him.

(And on the Day of Resurrection, evil indeed is the gift gifted [i.e., the curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in this world) pursued by another curse (in the Hereafter)].) (11:99)

This is as Allah says,

 (And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire: and on the Day of Resurrection, they will not be helped.) (28:41)

Allah said;

 (In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:15) Has *6 the story of Moses reached you? (79:16) Recall when his Lord called out to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa, *7

*6 As the denial of the Resurrection and Hereafter by the disbelievers of Makkah and their mockery of it was not, in fact, rejection of a philosophy but belying Allah's Messengers, and the tricks that they were employing against the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) were not against an ordinary man but were meant to frustrate the mission of Allah's Messenger, the story of the Prophet Moses and the Pharaoh is being related before giving additional arguments for the occurrence of the Hereafter so that they are warned of the consequences of fighting with the Messenger and resisting the God Who sent him.

(79:17) (saying), "Go to Pharaoh: he has become rebellious, (79:18) and say to him: Will you mind to adopt purity

*7 According to general opinion among the commentators "the sacred . valley of 'Tuwa" means "the sacred valley which was named Tuwa". But, besides this, two other meanings of it also have been given: (1) "The valley that was blessed and made sacred twice" . for it was first made sacred when Allah spoke to Moses in it for the first time, and it was blessed and made sacred for the second time when the Prophet Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt and brought them into it; and (2) "called out to him in the sacred valley in the night," and this is according to the meaning of tuwa in the Arabic idiom.

(79:19) that I may guide you to your Lord, so that you may have fear (of Him)?" *8

*8 Here, one should understand a few things well:
(1) The dialogue that took place between the Prophet Moses and Allah Almighty at the time of appointing him to the office of Prophethood has been related at some places briefly and at others in full detail in the Qur'an as the occasion demanded. Here; brevity was the need; therefore, only a resume has been given. Fuller details are found in Ta Ha: 9-48, Ash-Shua`ra': 10-17, An=Naml: 7-12, AI-Qasas: 29-35.
(2) The rebellion of the Pharaoh referred to here relates to his transgressing the bounds of service and rebelling both against the Creator and against His creatures. As for his rebellion against the Creator, it is being mentioned a little below when he gathered his people together and prolaimed: "I am your lord, the supreme." As against the creatures his rebellion was that he had divided his subjects into classes; he treated the weak classes tyrannically and had reduced his entire nation to slavery as has been mentioned in Al-Qasas: 4 and Az-Zukhruf: 54.
(3) The instruction given to Moses was: "Go, you and your brother Aaron, to Pharaoh for he has transgressed all bounds. Talk to him gently; maybe that he is convinced by admonition or is imbued with fear." (Ta Ha: 44). One model of the gentle speech has been given in these verses, which shows what right method a preacher should adopt when preaching to a perverted man. Other models are given in Ta Ha: 49-52, Ash-Shua`ra': 23-28, and Al-Qasas: 37. These verses are of those in which Allah has taught the correct methods of preaching Islam in the Qur'an.
(4) The Prophet Moses had not been sent to Pharaoh only for the deliverance of the children of Israel as some people seem to think but the primary object of his appointment was to show Pharaoh and his people the right way, and the second object was that if he did not accept the right way, the children of Israel (who in fact were a Muslim people) should be taken out of his slavery and from Egypt. This thing becomes plain from these verses too, for there is no mention whatever in these of the deliverance of the children of Israel, but the Prophet Moses has been commanded to present the message of the Truth before Pharaoh, and this is confirmed by those verses also in which the Prophet Moses has preached Islam as well as demanded freedom of the children of Israel, e.g. see Al-A`raf 104-105, Ta Ha: 47-52, Ash-Shua ara': 16-17, 23-28.
(5) Here, "to adopt purity" means to adopt purity of belief, morals and deeds, or, in other words, to accept Islam. Ibn Zaid says: "Wherever in the Qur'an the word tazakka (purity) has been use, it implies acceptance of Islam." As an example of this he has cited the following three verses: "And this is the reward of him who adopts purity", i.e. accepts Islam; "and what would make you know that he might adopt purity", i.e. becomes a Muslim (`Abasa:3); "And you would not be responsible if he did not adapt purity", i.e. did not become a Muslim (`Abasa: 7). (Ibn Jarir).
(6) "That I may guide you to your Lord so that you may have fear (of Him)" means: "When you recognize your Lord and come to know that you are His slave, and not a free man, you will inevitably have fear of Him in your heart, for fear of God is the thing on which depends the right attitude of man in the world. Without the knowledge and fear of God no purity of the self can be possible."

(79:20) Then Moses (went to Pharaoh and) showed him the great Sign, *9

*9 "The great Sign" : the turning of the staff into a serpent, as has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an. Obviously there could be no greater sign than that a lifeless staff should turn into a living serpent right in front of the eyes of the people, that it should devour the artificial serpents produced by the magicians out of their staffs and cords, and vKhen the Prophet Moses should pick it up, it should become a walking stick again. This was proof that it was Allah, Lord of the worlds, Who had sent Moses as a Prophet.

(79:21) but he belied it and disobeyed. (79:22) Then, he turned back to devise plots, *10

*10 According to the details given at other places in the Qur'an, he summoned skilful magicians from all over Egypt and made them produce serpents out of sticks and cords in front of the assembled people so that they were convinced that Moses (peace be upon him was not a Prophet but a magician, and that the miracle worked by him of turning a staff into a serpent, could also be worked by other magicians. But this device of his recoiled upon himself and the defeated magicians themselves admitted that what Moses (peace be on him) had displayed was no magic but a miracle.

(79:23) and gathering the people together, (79:24) proclaimed, *11 "I am your Lord, the highest."

*11 This proclamation of Pharaoh has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an. On one occasion he said to the Prophet Moses: "lf you took another one as a deity beside me, I would cast you in the prison." (Ash-Shua`ra': 29). On another occasion he had addressed his courtiers, saying: "O chiefs, I do not know of any other god of yours than myself. (Al-Qasas.: 38). By this Pharaoh did not mean, nor could he ever mean, that he himself was the creator of the universe and he had made the world, nor that he denied the existence of Allah and claimed to be lord of the universe, nor that he regarded only himself as a deity of the people in the religious sense. In the Qur'an itself there is a clear testimony that as regards religion he himself worshipped other gods. Once his courtiers said to him: "Will you leave Moses and his people free to spread chaos in the land, and let them discard you and your deities?" (Al A`raf: 127). And in the Qur'an itself this saying of the Pharaoh also has been cited: "Had Moses been sent by Allah, why were not bracelets of gold sent down to him, or a company of angels as attendants?" (AzZukhruf: 53). Thus, in fact, he called himself a god and supreme deity not in the religious but in the political sense. What he meant was that he possessed the sovereign rights: no one beside him had the right to rule in his kingdom and there was no superior power whose orders could be enforced in the land.

(79:25) Consequently, Allah seized him for punishment both in the Hereafter and in the world. (79:26) Indeed, there is a lesson in this for him who fears. *12

*12 "...who fears": who fears the consequences of denying God's Messenger, which the Pharaoh experienced in the past.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Have you heard the history of Moses? His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa, saying: "Go to Pharoah: he has tyrannised and transgressed bounds, and say to him: 'Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him.'" He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but Pharaoh cried lies and rebelled. He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made a proclamation to them: "I am your supreme Lord", he said. Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. Surely in this there is a lesson for the godfearing.

The rhythm then slows down a bit in order to suit the style of narration. For next we have an account of what had taken place between Moses and Pharaoh, and the end which Pharaoh met after he had tyrannised and transgressed all bounds: Have you heard the history of Moses? His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa, saying: 'Go to Pharaoh: he has transgressed all bounds, and say to him: 'Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may havefear of Him.' He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but he cried lies and rebelled. He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made to them a proclamation: 'I am your supreme Lord, 'he said . Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. Surely in this there is a lesson for the godfearing.'

The story of Moses is the most frequent and most detailed of the Qur'anic stories. It is mentioned in many other surahs, in different styles and with varying emphasis. At times, certain episodes are given greater prominence. This variation of style and emphasis aims at striking harmony between the historical account and the surah in which it occurs. Thus, the story helps to make the message of the surah clearer. This method is characteristic of the Qur'an. Here the historical account is given in quick successive scenes which open with the call Moses receives in the holy valley and end with the destruction of Pharaoh in this life and the life to come. Thus, it fits very well with the main theme of the surah, namely the hereafter. The part given here of Moses's history spans a long period, but it is covered by a few short verses, so that it may fit in well with the rhythm and message of the surah. These short verses include several stages and scenes of the story.

They start with an introductory question addressed to the Prophet, Have you heard the history of Moses?

The question serves to prepare us to listen to the history and contemplate its lessons. Moses's story is described here as history to emphasise that it has actually happened. It starts with the scene of Moses being called by Allah: His Lord called out to him in the holy valley of Towa.

Towa is probably the name of the valley which lies to the right of the Mount Toor, as one comes up from Madian in North Hijaz. The moment when this call was made was awesome. The call from Allah Himself to one of His servants, great beyond description, embodies a secret of Divinity, and a secret of how Allah has made man susceptible to receiving His call. No one can comprehend what is involved here without inspiration from Allah Himself.

The communication between Allah and Moses is discussed in more detail elsewhere in the Qur'an. In this surah, however, it is touched upon briefly, before Allah's command to Moses is stated: Go to Pharaoh. He has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds, and say to him ' Would you like to reform yourself? I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him.' Go to Pharaoh, he has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds.

Tyranny and transgression should not have taken place and must not go on. They lead to corruption and to what displeases Allah. So Allah (praised be He) selects one of His noble servants and charges him with the task of trying to put an end to them. They are indeed so hateful that Allah Himself commands one of His servants to go to the tyrant in an attempt to turn him away from his erring ways, so that he may have no excuse should Allah decide to exact His retribution. Go to Pharaoh: he has tyrannised and transgressed all bounds.

Allah then teaches Moses how to address the tyrant in the most persuasive manner, so that he may desist and try not to incur upon himself the dis pleasure of Allah: and say to him. 'Would you like to reform yourself?' The first question to be put to the tyrant is whether he would like to purify himself of the stains of tyranny and the filth of disobedience to Allah. Would he like to know the path of the pious, the blessed: I will guide you to your Lord, so that you may be in awe of Him. The offer made here to Pharaoh is to be shown the way acceptable to Allah. Once he knows it, he will feel the fear of Allah in his heart. Man does not transgress and tyrannise unless he loses his way and finds himself taking a road which does not lead to Allah. His heart hardens as a result, and he rebels and tyrannises.

Moses has been told this in the scene of Allah's call to him. He of course puts these questions to Pharaoh when he encounters him. The surah, however, does not repeat them when it describes the encounter. It skips over what happens after Allah's call to Moses and deletes what Moses says when he conveys his message. It is as if the curtain falls after the scene of the call. When it is lifted again, we are presented with the end of the encounter scene: He showed Pharaoh the mightiest miracle, but Pharaoh cried lies and rebelled.

Thus, Moses conveys the message with which he has been entrusted in the manner Allah has taught him. This warm, friendly attitude, however, cannot win over a heart that has been hardened by tyranny and ignorance of the Lord of the universe. So Moses shows him the great miracles of the stick turning into a snake and Moses's hand becoming brilliant white in colour, (as they are explained in other surahs), "but he cried lies and rebelled." The scene of Moses's encounter with Pharaoh and his conveying the message to him ends with Pharaoh's rejection and rebellion. It is then followed by a scene in which Pharaoh turns away to mobilise his forces and bring forward his magicians for an encounter between magic and the truth.

Pharaoh adopted this course of action because he was determined not to accept the truth or submit to right.

He then turned away hastily. He summoned all his men and made a proclamation to them: 'I am your supreme Lord, ' he said.

The surah does not give any details of Pharaoh's efforts to muster his magicians and sorcerers and summon all his men. It simply says that he went away to do that, and then boasted with his impertinent proclamation which betrays his infinite ignorance and conceit: I am your supreme Lord, he said.

Pharaoh's declaration betrays the fact that he was deceived by his people's ignorance and their submission to his authority. Nothing deceives tyrants more than the ignorance and the abject submission of the masses. A tyrant is in fact an individual who has no real power or authority. The ignorant, submissive masses simply bend their backs for him to ride, stretch out their necks for him to fit them with reins, hang down their heads to give him a chance to show his conceit, and forego their rights to be respected and honoured, thus giving him a chance to tyrannise. The masses do all this because they are deceived and afraid at the same time. Their fear has no real basis except in their imagination. The tyrant, an individual, can never be stronger than thousands or millions, should they attach the proper value to their humanity, dignity, self-respect and freedom. Every individual in the nation is a match for the tyrant in terms of power. No one could tyrannise in a nation which is sane, or which knows its true Lord, believes in Him and refuses to submit to any creature who has no power over its destiny.

Pharaoh, however, found his people so ignorant, submissive and devoid of faith that he was able to make his insolent, blasphemous declaration, 'I am your supreme Lord!' He would have never dared to make it had he found that his nation had the qualities of general awareness, self-respect and faith in Allah.

With such an intolerable insolence on Pharaoh's part coming on top of his grim tyranny, the Supreme Power moved in: Allah smote him with the scourge of the life to come and that of this life as well. The scourge of the life to come is mentioned first because it is much harsher and perpetual. It is indeed the real punishment for the tyrants and the transgressors because of its severity and endlessness. It is also more appropriate to give it prominence since the life to come is the main theme of the surah. Besides, it fits perfectly with the general rhythm of the surah.

The scourge of this life is fearful and severe, but that of the life to come is much more so. Pharaoh had power, authority and glory, yet none of that was of any use to him. One can only imagine what will be the fate of the disbelievers who do not have similar power, authority or glory but still resist the call of Islam and try to suppress it.

Surely in this there is a lesson for the god fearing. Only those who know their true Lord and fear Him will benefit from the lessons of Pharaoh's history. Those who do not fear Allah will continue in their erring ways until they reach their appointed end, when they shall suffer the scourge of both this life and the life to come.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 15 September 2006 at 5:11am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (27-33)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(27. Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed) (28. He raised its hei- ght, and has perfected it.) (29. Its night He covers and He brings out its forenoon.) (30. And after that He spread the earth,) (31. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture.) (32. And the mountains He has fixed firmly,) (33. As provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)

 

Creating the Heavens and the Earth is more difficult than repeating Creation

In refutation of the claim rejecting resurrection due to the renewal of creation after its original state, Allah says;

 (Are you) `O people'

 (more difficult to create or is the heaven...)

meaning, `rather the heaven is more difficult to create than you.' As Allah said;

(the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind;) (40:57)

And His saying;

 (Is not the One Who created the heavens and the earth, capable of creating the similar to them. Yes, indeed! He is the Supreme Creator, the All-Knowing.) (36:81)

Then Allah says,

 (He constructed) He explains this by His statement,

 (He raised its height, and has perfected it.)

meaning, He made it a lofty structure, vast in its space, with equal sides, and adorned with stars at night and in the darkness. Then Allah says,

 (Its night He covers and He brings out its forenoon.)

meaning, He made its night dark and extremely black, and its day bright, luminous, shining and clear. Ibn `Abbas said, "He did Aghtasha of its night means that He made it dark.''[1][19] Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and a large group have said this as well.[2][20] In reference to Allah's statement,

 (And He brings out its forenoon.)

meaning, He illuminated its day. Then Allah says,

 (And after that He spread the earth,) He explains this statement by the statement that follows it,

 (And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture.)

It already has been mentioned previously in Surat Ha Mim As-Sajdah[3][21] that the earth was created before the heaven was created, but it was only spread out after the creation of the heaven. This means that He brought out what was in it with a forceful action. This is the meaning of what was said by Ibn `Abbas and others, and it was the explanation preferred by Ibn Jarir.[4][22]

In reference to the statement of Allah,

 (And the mountains He has fixed firmly,)

meaning, He settled them, made them firm, and established them in their places. And He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing. He is Most Kind to His creation, Most Merciful. Allah then says,

 (As provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)

meaning, He spread out the earth, caused its springs to gush forth, brought forth its hidden benefits, caused its rivers to flow, and caused its vegetation, trees, and fruits to grow. He also made its mountains firm so that it (the earth) would be calmly settled with its dwellers, and He stabilized its dwelling places. All of this is a means of beneficial enjoyment for His creatures (mankind) providing them of what cattle they need, which they eat and ride upon. He has granted them these beneficial things for the period that they need them, in this worldly abode, until the end of time and the expiration of this life.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:27) Are *13 you (O men,) harder to create, or is the heaven? *14

*13 Now arguments are being given for the possibility of Resurrection and life after death and their being the very demand and requirement of wisdom.
*14 Here, creation implies the recreation of men, and the heaven the entire firmament which contains countless stars and planets, and innumerable solar systems and galaxies. means to say: "You think that your resurrection after death is something extremely improbable and you express wonder saying: `How is it possible that when our very bones will have decayed and become rotten the scattered particles of our bodies will be reassembled and made living once again?' But have you ever also considered whether the great universe is harder to create or your own re-creation in the form in which you were created in the first instance? The God Who created you in the first instance cannot be powerless to create you once again." This same argument for life after death has been given at several places in the Qur'an. For example, in Surah Ya Sin it has been said: "Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like of them (again)? Why not, when He is the skilful Creator." (v. 81) And in Surah Al-Mu'min it was said: "Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater task than the creation of man, but most people do not know. (v. S7)

(79:28) Allah built it: He raised its vault high and gave it balance,

(79:29) and covered its night and brought forth its day. *15

*15 The night and the day have been attributed to the heaven, for the night falls when the sun of the heavens sets and the day dawns when it rises. The word "cover" has been used for the night in the sense that after the sun has set the darkness of the night so spreads over the earth as though it has covered it from above by a curtain.

(79:30) After that He spread out the earth: *16 from within it.

*16 "After that He spread out the earth" does not mean that Allah created the earth after the creation of the heavens, but it is a style of expression just like our saying after making mention of something: "Then this is noteworthy." The object is not to express the sequence of occurrence between the two things but to draw attention from the first to the second thing although both may exist together. Several instances of this style are found in the Qur'an, e.g. in Surah Al-Qalam it is said: "(He is) oppressive, and after that, ignoble by birth." This does not mean that first he became oppressive and then he turned ignoble by birth, but it means: "He is oppressive, and above all, ignoble by birth." Likewise, in Surah Al-Balad it is said: "Should free a slave...then be of those who believe." This also does not mean that first he should act righteously and then believe. But that along with doing righteous deeds he should also be characterised by belief. Here, one should also understand that at some places in the Qur'an the creation of the earth has been mentioned first and then the creation of the heavens, as in Al-Baqarah: 29, and at others the creation of the heavens has been mentioned first and then of the earth, as in these verses. There is, in fact, no contradiction in this. At no place the object is to tell what was created first and what afterwards, but wherever the context requires that the excellences of the power of AIlah be made prominent, the heavens have been mentioned first and then the earth, and where the context requires that the people be made to appreciate and acknowledge the blessings that they are benefiting by on the earth, the mention of the earth has been made before that of the heavens.

(79:31) He brought out its water and its pasture, *17

*17 "Pasture" here does not only imply pasture and fodder for the animals but all kinds of herbal produce suitable for consumption both by man and by animal. An example of the use of rat'. which is generally used in Arabic for the grazing animals, is found in Surah Yusuf: 12, signifying that this word is sometimes used for man also. The brothers of Joseph said to their father: "Send Joseph with us tomorrow that he may freely graze and enjoy sport. " Here, the word grace (rat`) for the child has been used in the meaning that he may move about freely in the jungle and pluck and eat fruit.

(79:32) and set the mountains in it,

(79:33) as a means of sustenance for you and your cattle. *18

*18 In these verses arguments have been given for the Resurrection and life after death from two aspects: first, that it is not at all difficult to establish these for the power of that God Who has made this vast and huge universe with such wonderful balance and this earth with such provisions. Second, that the pointers to the perfect wisdom of Allah which are clearly visible in the universe and the earth, point out that nothing is happening here purposelessly. The balance that exists between countless of the stars and planets and galaxies in the heavens testifies that all this has not happened haphazardly but there is a well thought-out plan working behind it. The regular alternation of the night and day is evidence that this system has been established with supreme wisdom and knowledge for making the earth a home and place of settlement. On this very earth are found regions where the alternation of the night and day takes place within 24 hours and also those regions where there are longer days and longer nights. A very large part of the earth's population lives in the first kind of the regions. Then as the days and nights go on becoming longer and longer, life goes on becoming harder and harder and population thinner and thinner. So much so that the regions where there are six-month-long days and six-month-long nights, are not at all fit for human settlement. Arranging both these types of the land on this very earth Allah has provided the evidence that this regular order of the alternation of night and day has not come about accidentally but has been brought about with great wisdom precisely in accordance with a scheme to make the earth a place fit for human settlement. Likewise, spreading out the earth so that it becomes a fit place to live in, providing in it that water which should be palatable for man and animal and a cause of growth for vegetation, setting in it mountains and creating all those things which may become a means of life for both man and animal- all these are a manifest sign that they are not chance happenings of the purposeless works of a care-free person but each one of these has been arranged purposefully by a Supreme, Wise Being. Now every sensible and intelligent man can consider for himself whether the necessity and occurrence of the Hereafter is the requirement of wisdom or its negation. The person who in spite of seeing all this says that there is no Hereafter, in fact, says that everything in the universe is happening wisely and purposefully, but only the creation of man on the earth as a being endowed with sense and power is meaningless and foolish. For there could be nothing more purposeless than delegating to man vast powers of appropriation in the earth and providing him an opportunity to do good as well as evil deeds but then failing to ever subject him to accountability.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it, and brought forth its pastures; and the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

Leaving history aside, the surah takes up the open book of the universe. It paints some of the great scenes of the universe which testify to the limitless power and careful planning of Allah, the Creator of the universe Who controls its destiny both in this life and in the life to come. These scenes are drawn here with powerful style and strong rhythm in harmony with the opening of the surah and its general cadence. Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it and brought forth its pastures; and the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

Having mentioned the end met by the tyrants who thought themselves very powerful, the surah turns to the present disbelievers who also depend on their own power. It directs their attention to some manifestations of the work of the Supreme Power in the universe.

Their power does not stand any comparison with that of Allah: Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape, and gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from its depth, and brought forth its pastures; And the mountains He set firm, for you and your cattle to delight in.

The question these verses start with:

Which is stronger in constitution: you or the heaven He has built? admits of one answer only: Heaven. So the question seems to infer another:

Why should you think so highly of your own power when heaven is much stronger in constitution than you and the Lord Who created it is much stronger than it? The question may also be carried forward in a different direction: Why do you think resurrection impossible? He has created heaven, the creation of which requires more power than your own creation? Resurrection is merely a repetition of creation. It follows that He who has built heaven will find your resurrection an easier proposition.

"He has built" heaven. The term "build" suggests strength and firm constitution. Heaven is so indeed. Its planets are held together in a perfect system. They neither scatter, nor fall away from their orbits.

"He raised it high and gave it its perfect shape." A glance is enough to recognise the perfect coherence and harmony in the building of heaven. Knowledge of the laws which govern the existence of the creatures in the sky above us and provide a perfect balance between their movements and between their mutual effects enhances awareness of the significance of this verse. It intensifies the feeling of the limitlessness of their very real world, of which human knowledge has uncovered only a small part. This part, however, is enough to make man overwhelmed with wonder and astonishment. He stands speechless at the infinite beauty of the universe. He can give no explanation for it except that a superhuman power has planned it and governs it. This explanation is now accepted even by those who profess not to believe in any religion. And gave darkness to its night, and brought out its daylight.

The Arabic words used in this verse add to the strength of the general tone. They also have stronger connotations than the translation suggests. They are used here because they are more fitting with the general context. The succession of darkness at night and light in the morning is a phenomenon recognised by all, but it may be overlooked because of its being so familiar. Here, the Qur'an reminds us of its permanent novelty. For it is repeated anew every day, producing the same effects and reactions. The natural laws governing this phenomenon are so precise and miraculous that they continue to impress and astonish man as his knowledge increases. After that He spread out the earth. He brought out water from it, and brought forth its pastures, and the mountains He set firm.

Spreading out the earth is a reference to the levelling of its surface so that it becomes easy to walk on, and to the formation of a layer of soil suitable for cultivation. Setting the mountains firm is a result of the final shaping of the surface of the earth and its cooling down to a level suitable for the emergence of living organisms. Allah also brought out water from the earth. This applies to the springs that allow the deep waters to flow out on the surface of the earth. It applies also to the rain water, since it comes originally from the earth. He also brought forth the pastures, which is, in this context, a reference to all plants upon which man and animals feed, and which directly and indirectly sustain life.

All this happened after the heaven was built, the night darkened and the earth spread. The recent theories of astrology support this Qur'anic statement, for they assume that the earth was moving in its orbit, with day and night succeeding each other for hundreds of millions of years before it was levelled and spread out, became suitable for the growth of vegetation, and before its surface took its final, present shape of plains, valleys and mountains.

The Qur'an declares that all this is "for you and your cattle to delight in." This is a reminder for man of what Allah has made for him, and of His perfect and elaborate planning. It is not by chance that the heaven was built in this fashion and that the earth was spread out to take its present shape. Man's existence, as Allah's vicegerent, was taken into account. Man's existence and development depend on so many factors which operate in the universe generally, and in the solar system in particular, and more particularly in the earth itself. All these factors must be made to function in absolute harmony.

Following the Qur'anic approach of giving a short statement which embodies the basic fact, yet is rich with hints and inferences, the surah names just a few of these harmonised factors - the building of heaven, darkening of the night, bringing out the daylight, spreading out the earth, bringing out its waters and pastures and setting the mountains firm - for man and his cattle to delight in. This statement makes the idea of elaborate planning of the universe understood by everybody. It makes use of some of its manifestations which require no particular standard of education to appreciate. This enables the Qur'an to be a universal address, to all men, in all ages and societies, whether primitive or advanced. The reality of meticulous and elaborate planning of the whole universe, however, goes far beyond the level mentioned here. The very nature of this universe rules out any possibility of its formation by chance, for no chance could result in such perfect and absolute harmony on such an immeasurable scale.

The harmony starts with the fact that our solar system is unique among millions and millions of planetary systems, and our earth is also a unique planet with regard to its location in the solar system. It is this uniqueness which makes life on earth possible. We have not yet discovered among the many thousands of similar planets anyone which enjoys similar harmonisation of the essential factors which help the emergence and sustenance of life.

Life may appear on a certain planet if certain conditions are met: the planet must be of suitable size, at a medium distance from the sun, and it has to be of a composition which mixes the elements in the right proportion to permit the emergence of life. The suitable size is necessary because the atmosphere of the planet is conditioned by the force of its gravity. The medium distance is also a necessary condition because the planets which are near to the sun are so hot that nothing can solidify on them, and those that are far from the sun are so cold that nothing on them can have any measure of elasticity. The right composition of elements is necessary because such a composition in the right proportion is a must for the growth of vegetation which is, in turn, essential for the sustenance of life. The Earth has the ideal location to satisfy all these conditions which help the emergence of life in the only form which we now know.[A. M. Al Akkad, Beliefs of Twentieth Century Thinkers, p. 36]

The establishment of the fact of elaborate planning of the grand universe, and giving man a special place in it prepares man's heart and mind to receive and accept the statement of the realitv of the hereafter and its final judgement and rewards with a feeling of reassurance. If the origins of the universe and of man are so, then the cycle must be completed, and everyone must have his reward. It is inconceivable that the final end comes with the end of man's short life in this world, or that evil and tyranny can get away without retribution, or that good, justice and right can be left to suffer whatever hardship is visited on them in this life, without there being a chance to put matters right. Such an assumption is, its very essence, contrary to the fact of elaborate planning, so apparent everywhere in the universe. Hence the reality touched upon in this part of the surah serves as an introduction to the reality of the hereafter which is the main theme of the surah.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 22 September 2006 at 10:38pm

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (34-41)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

(34. But when there comes the Greatest Catastrophe) (35. The Day when man shall remember what he strove for.) (36. And Hell shall be made apparent for whoever sees.) (37. Then for him who transgressed) (38. And preferred the life of this world,) (39. Verily, his abode will be the Hell;) (40. But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and forbade himself from desire.) (41. Verily, Paradise will be his abode.)

 

The Day of Judgement, its Pleasures and Hell, and that its Time is not known

Allah says,

 (But when there comes the Great Catastrophe)

This refers to the Day of Judgement. This has been said by Ibn `Abbas.[1][23] It has been called this because it will overcome every matter. It will be frightful and horrifying. As Allah says,

 (And the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.) (54:46)

Then Allah says,

 (The Day when man shall remember what he strove for.)

meaning, at that time the Son of Adam will reflect upon all of his deeds, both the good and the evil. This is as Allah says,

 (On the Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance avail him) (89:23)

Then Allah says,

(And Hell shall be made apparent for whoever sees.)

meaning, it will become apparent for the onlookers, so the people will see it with their own eyes.

 (Then for him who transgressed)

meaning, who rebels and behaves arrogantly.

 (And preferred the life of this world,)

meaning, he gives it precedence over the matters of his religion and his Hereafter.

 (Verily his abode will be the Hell;)

meaning, his final destination will be Hell, his food will be from the tree of Zaqqum, and his drink will be from Hamim.

(But as for him who feared standing before his Lord and forbade himself from desire.)

meaning, he fears the standing before Allah, he fears Allah's judgement of him, he prevents his soul from following its desires, and he compels it to obey its Master.

 (Verily Paradise will be his abode.)

meaning, his final abode, his destination, and his place of return will be the spacious Paradise.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:34) Then, when the great Disaster befalls *19

*19 This implies the Resurrection for which the words at-Taammat alkubra have been used. Taammah by itself is a grievous calamity which afflicts everybody. Then it has been further qualified by the word kubra (great), which shows that the mere word taammah is not enough to describe fully its intensity and severity.

(79:35) the Day when man shall remember whatever he had striven for *20

*20 That is, "When man will see that the same Day of accountability of which he was being foretold in the world, has come, he will start remembering each one of his misdeeds done in the world even before his records are handed over to him. Some people experience this even in the world. if at some time they come across a dangerous situation suddenly when death seems to be staring them in the face, their whole life-film flashes across their mind's eye all at once.

(79:36) and Hell shall be laid open for everyone to see, (79:37) then the one who had rebelled (79:38) and preferred the life of the world, (79:39) Hell shall be his home. (79:40) As for him who had feared to stand before his Lord and restrained himself from evil desires, (79:41) Paradise shall be his home. 

Here, in a few words, it has been told briefly what shall be the criterion of the final judgement in the Hereafter. One kind of the conduct of life in the world is that transgressing all bounds of service man should rebel against his God and should make up his mind that he would seek only the benefits and pleasures of this world in whatever way they could be sought and achieved. The other kind of conduct is that while man passes life in the world he should constantly keep in view the truth that ultimately one day he has to stand before his Lord, and should refrain from fulfilling the evil desires of the self only for the fear that if he earned an unlawful benefit in obedience to his self, or enjoyed an evil pleasure, what answer he would give to his Lord. The criterion of the judgement in the Hereafter will be which of the two kinds of conduct he adopted in the world. If he had adopted the first kind of conduct, his permanent abode would be Hell, and if he had adopted the second kind of conduct, his permanent home would be Paradise.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Then, when the Greatest Catastrophe comes on the day when man shall call to mind what he has done, When Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who tyrannised and transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before his Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

After all these introductory scenes and inspiring touches comes the statement concerning the "Greatest Catastrophe" accompanied by the distribution of rewards for actions alone in this life. The rewards are portrayed in scenes which fit in harmoniously with the Greatest Catastrophe: Then, when the Greatest Catastrophe comes, on the day when man will call to mind what he has done, when Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who has transgressed and chosen this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before His Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

Hence the reality touched upon in this part of the surah serves as an introduction to the reality of the hereafter which is the main theme of the surah.

Then, when the Createst Catastrophe comes, on the day when man will call to mind what he has done, when Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on; then, he who transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. But he who feared to stand before his Lord and for bade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

This present life is a period of comfort and enjoyment which are given in precise and accurate measure. Its duration is determined according to the overall planning relating to the universe and human life. Its comfort and enjoyment will end at the time appointed for their expiry. When the Greatest Catastrophe comes it ravages all and overwhelms all. The fleeting comfort of this life is extinguished, the whole universe, its built heaven, spread out earth, firm mountains are overturned and all living creatures are overwhelmed. At that moment "man will call to mind what he has done." He might have been distracted by the events and comforts of this life and he might have overlooked what he had done. But he will recall it all then, when remembrance brings to him nothing but sadness and grief as he realises what miserable end he is facing.

When Hell is brought in sight of all who are looking on. The term used here for "bringing in sight" is particularly powerful. It is rich in its connotations and makes the rhythm even stronger. The result is that the image is so vivid that we almost see the whole scene in front of us now.

Then, people will have different destinies and the aim of the earlier planning of the first life will be revealed:

Then, he who tyrannised and transgressed and chose this present life will have Hell for his dwelling place. The two verbs "tyrannise" and "transgress" are used here to render the meaning of one Arabic term, namely, "tyrannise" which is used here, as elsewhere in the Qur'an, in a much wider sense than strict despotism of rulers and dictators. "Tyranny" is used here as synonymous with exceeding the limits of right and truth. Hence these three verses refer to all those who transgress the boundaries of right, prefer this life to the future life, taking no heed of the latter.

Since consciousness of the hereafter defines the values and standards to be applied, he who prefers this present life will suffer a breakdown of values and standards which results in his adoption of faulty standards of behaviour. This puts him in the category of despots and transgressors. Thus, Hell which is brought in sight of everybody on the day of the Catastrophe will be "his dwelling place ". But he who feared to stand before his Lord and forbade his soul its caprice will dwell in Paradise.

The one who fears to stand in front of Allah does not indulge in sin. If he slips and commits a sin, in a moment of human weakness, his fear of facing Allah will lead him to repent and pray for forgiveness. Thus he remains within the area of obedience, the central point of which is the control of one's caprice and desires. Indulgence of desire and caprice is essentially the cause of all forms of tyranny and transgression. It is the spring of evil. Man hardly ever falls for any reason other than succumbing to caprice and desire. Ignorance is easy to cure. Desire, after ignorance has been cured, is the plague which requires a long and hard struggle to overcome. The fear of Allah is the solid defence against the violent attacks of desire. Indeed, there is hardly any other defence which can withstand such attacks. Hence, the surah mentions the fear of Allah and the control of caprice together in one verse. This fact is here asserted by Allah, the Creator of man and the only one Who knows the human soul, its weaknesses and their effective cure.

Allah does not ask man to suppress his desires, because He knows that it is not possible for him to do so. He simply asks man to control his desires and not to let them control him. He tells him that fear of standing before his Lord, the Almighty, should be of great help to him. He has fixed his reward for this hard struggle: Paradise as a dwelling place. For Allah knows perfectly well the hardships involved in this struggle and the high standards to which man is elevated by it. This struggle, self-control and elevation help man fulfil his humanity. Such fulfillment cannot be achieved by giving way to all distress, and following caprice wherever it leads, on the pretext that desire and caprice are part of human nature. Allah, who made man sensitive to certain urges, also gave him the ability to control such urges by self discipline. He also gives him Paradise as a reward when he wins and elevates himself to the high standard of humanity.

There are two types of freedom. The first is the one achieved through scoring a victory over one's desires and releasing oneself from the chains of caprice. When man achieves such a victory he finds himself able to fulfil these desires and caprices in a controlled and balanced way which emphasises man's freedom of choice. This type of freedom is the human type, the one which suits the honour Allah has bestowed on man. The other type is the animal freedom, represented in man's defeat, his enslavement by his desires, and his loss of control over himself. This type of freedom is advocated only by those who have lost their humanity, so they try to cover their slavery with a dress of deceptive freedom.

The first type is enjoyed by those who elevate and prepare themselves for the sublime and free life in their future dwelling place of Paradise. The second is indulged in by those who sink into the cesspool of desire, thus preparing themselves for Hell where they are deprived of their humanity. The end is the natural one, in both cases, according to Islam which gives everything its true and proper value.  

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 30 September 2006 at 5:10am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at

(Chapter - 79) Continued (42-46)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

 

Tafsir ibn kathir

 

42. They ask you about the Hour when will be its appointed time) (43. What do you have to mention of it.) (44. To your Lord it is limited.) (45. You are only a warner for those who fear it,) (46. The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning

 

(They ask you about the Hour -- when will be its appointed time What do you have to mention of it. To your Lord it is limited.)

Meaning, its knowledge is not with you, nor with any creature. Rather the knowledge of it is with Allah. He is the One Who knows the exact time of its occurrence.

 (Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden. They ask you as if you have a good knowledge of it. Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah.'') (7:187)

Allah says here,

 (To your Lord it is limited.) Thus, when Jibril asked the Messenger of Allah about the time of the last Hour he said,

 (The one questioned about it knows no more than the questioner

Allah said,

 (You are only a warner for those who fear it,)

Meaning, `I sent you to warn mankind and caution them to beware of the torment and punishment of Allah. So whoever fears Allah, fears standing before Him, and His threat, then he will follow you, and thus be successful and victorious. However, whoever denies you and opposes you, then he will only suffer loss and failure.' Allah then says,

 (The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning.)

meaning, when they stand up from their graves to go to the place of Gathering, they will feel that the period of the worldly life was short, it will seem to them that it was only the afternoon of one day. Juwaybir reported from Ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas:

 (The Day they see it (it will be) as if they had not tarried (in this world) except an (`Ashiyyah) afternoon or its (Duha) morning.)

"As for `Ashiyyah, it is the time between noon until the setting of the sun.

 (Or its (Duha) morning) what is between sunrise and midday (noon).'' Qatadah said, "This refers to the time period of the worldly life in the eyes of the people when they see the Hereafter.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(79:42) They ask you, "When will the Hour come to stay?" *22

*22 The disbelievers of Makkah asked this question of the Holy Prophet over and over again. By this they did not mean to know the time and date of the coming of Resurrection but to mock it. They did not ask this question in order to know the time and date of Resurrection so that if they were told the Year, the month, the day and time of its occurrence, they would accept it. But, in fact, they thought that Resurrection was impossible, and its occurrence remote from reason, and they asked this question in order to have an excuse for denying it. They meant to say, "When will this strange story of Resurrection and gathering together, that you are telling us, materialize? What for has it been put off? Why don't you make it appear forthwith so that we are assured of it?" In this connection, one should understand that one can be certain of Resurrection only by rational arguments, and these have been elaborated at many places in the Qur'an. As for the date of its occurrence only an ignorant person could raise such a question about it, for even if it is told, it does not make any difference. The unbeliever would say: "Well, when it dces occur on the date you tell, I shall then believe in it; how can I believe today that it will actually occur on that very day?"

(79:43) (But) it is not for you to tell its time. (79:44) Its knowledge rests only with your Lord. (79:45) You are only a warner to him who fears it. *23

*23 That is, "This I know that it will certainly come, and knowing this much only is enough for warning the people before its actual occurrence. As for the question when it will actually come, the knowledge of it is with Allah, not with me, and there is no need of this knowledge for administering the warning. This can be better understood by an example. As to the exact time when a person will die, it is only known to Allah; however, all know that everyone has to die one day. Our this knowledge is enough that we may warn a heedless friend of ours that he should look after himself and his interests before death. For this warning it is not necessary to know the exact day on which he will die. As for the words "you are only a Warner to him who fears it", they do not mean that it is not your duty to warn those who do not fear, but it means: "Your warning will benefit only him who fears the coming of that Day."

(79:46) The day these people see it, they will feel as though they had stayed (in the world or in the state of death) only for the afternoon of a day or its forenoon. 

A time will come when such people will, on the one hand, come face to face with the infinite life of the Hereafter, and on the other, they will took back at their past worldly life and realize how puny it was as compared to the life ahead. It is then that they will comprehend what folly they have committed by ruining their eternal future for the sake of ephemeral pleasures and benefits in this worldly life.

That is, from the time of death till Resurrection. Even if thousands of years might have elapsed since their death they will feel that they had gone to sleep a few hours earlier and then a sudden calamity had roused them froth sleep.
That is, "They used to make similar wrong estimates in the world, There also they lacked the realization of Reality, and therefore, used to assert there was going to be no Resurrection, no life-after-death, and no too. that accountability before God."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning.

At this point, when we are overwhelmed with the effects of the scenes of the Greatest Catastrophe, Hell brought near, the end of the transgressors who prefer this life to the next, and that of the godfearing who restrain themselves and do not give in to their own caprice, at this point, the surah turns to those who deny resurrection and ask the Prophet to fix its time. The rhythm here is superb: it adds to the feeling of awe produced by the account of the Hour of Doom. They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing. The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your duty is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning.

The last part of the surah is expressed in a rhythm which evokes awe.

They question you about the Hour of Doom, when will it come? But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? The final word concerning it belongs to your Lord. Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it. On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning. Every time the die hards of the polytheists heard a description of the fearful events of the Day of Judgement, and the reckoning which takes place then, they used to ask the Prophet (peace be on him) to specify its time: " When will it come?" The answer given here to such questions is a rhetorical question, "But why should you be concerned with its exact timing? " It is an answer which suggests that the Hour of Doom, or the Day of Judgement, is so great and majestic that the questions put by the disbelievers concerning it sound stupid and pitiful. Moreover, such questions can be put forward only by the impudent. The great Prophet himself is asked, "Why should you be concerned with its exact timing?" It is so great that neither you nor anyone else should ask to be informed of its exact time. This knowledge belongs to Allah alone, not to anybody else. "The final word connecting it belongs to your Lord." He himself is the master of everything which relates to it. The Prophet's own duties, and the limits he should not, and need not exceed are well defined: "Your mission is merely to warn those who fear it." He is to warn those who will benefit by such warnings. Such people will feel that it is true and fear the out-come, so they conduct their lives according to their firm belief that it will arrive at the time appointed by Allah.

The majesty and awe of the Hour of Doom is explained through the description of its effects on men's feelings and the comparison they draw between its duration and the length of this present life.

On the day when they see that hour, it will seem to them that their life on earth had spanned only one evening, or one morning. It so grips the soul that our present life with all its epics, events and luxuries will seem to those who lived them shorter than a single day- just one evening or one morning. So, the whole world, its centuries and ages will shrink to nothing longer than one morning or one evening in the sight of the very people who quarrel and fight for it, preferring it to their share in the life to come, and who commit all sorts of sin, tyranny and transgression to achieve their ends in it, yielding to their desire and caprice. Yet for such a passing enjoyment they abandon the hereafter and forego the certain prospect of dwelling in Paradise. That is definitely the greatest stupidity of all, which no man who has ears and eyes to hear and see can ever perpetrate.

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at. And to Allah belongs all praise and thanks

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 06 October 2006 at 5:37am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter - 80)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Tafsir ibn kathir

(1. He frowned and turned away.) (2. Because there came to him the blind man.) (3. And how can you know that he might become pure) (4. Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him) (5. As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient,) (6. To him you attend;) (7. What does it matter to you if he will not become pure) (8. But as for him who came to you running,) (9. And is afraid.) (10. Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another.)

The Prophet being reprimanded because He frowned at a Weak Man

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir mentioned that one day the Messenger of Allah was addressing one of the great leaders of the Quraysh while hoping that he would accept Islam. While he was speaking in direct conversation with him, Ibn Umm Maktum came to him, and he was of those who had accepted Islam in its earliest days. He (Ibn Umm Maktum) then began asking the Messenger of Allah about something, urgently beseeching him. The Prophet hoped that the man would be guided, so he asked Ibn Umm Maktum to wait for a moment so he could complete his conversation. He frowned in the face of Ibn Umm Maktum and turned away from him in order to face the other man. Thus, Allah revealed,

 (He frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man. And how can you know that he might become pure)

meaning, he may attain purification and cleanliness in his soul.

 (Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him)

meaning, he may receive admonition and abstain from the forbidden.

 (As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient. To him you attend;)

meaning, `you face the rich person so that perhaps he may be guided.'

 (What does it matter to you if he will not become pure)

meaning, `you are not responsible for him if he does not attain purification.'

 (But as for him who came to you running. And is afraid.)

meaning, `he is seeking you and he comes to you so that he may be guided by what you say to him.'

 (Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another.)

meaning, `you are too busy.' Here Allah commands His Messenger to not single anyone out with the warning. Rather, he should equal warn the noble and the weak, the poor and the rich, the master and the slave, the men and the women, the young and the old. Then Allah will guide whomever He chooses to a path that is straight. He has the profound wisdom and the decisive proof.

Abu Ya`la and Ibn Jarir both recorded from `A'ishah that she said about,

 (He frowned and turned away.) ''This was revealed about Ibn Umm Maktum, the blind man. He came to the messenger of Allah and began saying ‘Guide me.’ At the time the messeneger of Allah had a man with him who was one of the great leaders of the idolators. So the Prophet turned away from him (Ibn Umm Maktum) and faced the other man and said,

''Do you think that there is a problem with what I am saying? ''

The man said ''No!'' So it was about this that

 (He frowned and turned away.) was revealed.''[1][1]

At-Tirmirdhi recorded this Hadith but he did not mention that it was narrated by `A'ishah.[2][2] I say it is reported like this in Al-Muwatta'[3][3] as well.

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(80:1) He frowned and turned away his face (80:2) because there came up to him the blind man. *1

*1 The style of this first sentence is elegant and subtle. Although in the following sentences the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has been directly addressed, which by itself shows that the act of frowning and turning aside had issued forth from him, the discourse has been opened in a manner as though it was not he but some one else who had so acted. By this style the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), by a subtle method, has been made to realize that it was an act unseemly for him. Had somebody familiar with his high morals witnessed it, he would have thought that it was not he but some other person who had behaved in that manner. The blind man referred to here implies, as we have explained in the Introduction, the well-known Companion, Hadrat Ibn Umm Maktum. Hafiz Ibn 'Abdul Barr in Al-Isti'ab and Hafiz Ibn Hajar in AI-Isbah have stated that he was a first cousin of the Holy Prophet's wife, Hadrat Khadijah. His mother, Umm Maktum, and Hadrat Khadijah's father, Khuwailid, were sister and brother to each other. After one knows his relationship with the Holy Prophet, there remains no room for the doubt that he had turned away from him regarding him as a poor man having a low station in life, and attended to the high-placed people, for he was the Holy Prophet's brother-in-law and a man of noble birth. The reason why the Holy Prophet had shown disregard for him is indicated by the word a ma (blind man), which Allah Himself has used as the cause of the Holy Prophet's inattention. That is, the Holy Prophet thought that even if a single man from among the people whom he was trying to bring to the right path, listened to him and was rightly guided, be could become a powerful means of strengthening Islam. On the contrary, Ibn Umm Maktum was a blind man, who could not prove to be so useful for Islam because of his disability as could one of the Quraish elders on becoming a Muslim. Therefore, he should not interrupt the conversation at that time; whatever he wanted to ask or learn, he could ask or learn at some later time.

(80:3) And what would make you know that he might reform, (80:4) or heed the admonition, and admonishing might profit him? (80:5) As for him who is indifferent,  (80:6) to him you attend, (80:7) though you would not be responsible if he did not reform. (80:8) And the one 'who comes to you running, of his own will,  (80:9) and fears, (80:10) from him you turn away. *2

*2 This is the real point which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had overlooked in the preaching of Islam on that occasion, and for teaching him the same Allah first reproved him on his treatment of Ibn Umm Maktum, and then ' told him what really deserved to occupy his attention as preacher of the Truth and what did not. There is a man whose apparent state clearly shows that he is a seeker after truth: he fears lest he should follow falsehood and invite Allah's wrath; therefore, he comes all the way in search of the knowledge of the true faith. There is another man, whose attitude clearly reflects that he has no desire for the truth; rather on the contrary, he regards himself as self-sufficient, having no desire to be guided to the right way. Between these two kinds of men one should not see whose becoming a Muslim would be of greater use for Islam and whose becoming a believer could not be of any use in its propagation. But one should see as to who was inclined to accept the guidance and reform himself, and who was least interested in this precious bargain. The first kind of man, whether he is blind, lame, crippled. or an indigent mendicant, who might apparently seem incapable of rendering any useful service in the propagation of Islam, is in any case a .valuable man for the preacher to the Truth. To him therefore he should attend, for the real object of this invitation is to reform the people, and the apparent state of the person shows that if he was instructed he would accept guidance. As for the other kind of man, the preacher has no need to pursue him, no matter how influential he is in society. For his attitude and conduct openly proclaim that he has no desire for reform; therefore, any effort made to reform him would be mere waste of time. If he has no desire to reform himself, he may nor the loss would be his, the preacher would not at all be accountable for it.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him. How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself. He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him. But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in his heart him you ignore and busy yourself with tribes.

This surah discusses certain principles of grave importance. It is unique in its images and the impressions it leaves, combining its marked spiritual effect with superb musical rhythm.

Its first part treats a certain incident which took place in the early days of Islam. The Prophet (peace be on him) was busy with a few dignatories of the tribe of Quraish, explaining to them the message of Islam, when Ibn Umm Maktoom, a poor blind man, interrupted him. Unaware that the Prophet was busy with those people, the blind man asked him repeatedly to teach him some verses of the Qur'an.

The Prophet (peace be on him) was not very pleased at this interruption. He frowned and turned away from Ibn Umm Maktoom.

This surah opens by criticizing the Prophet's behaviour in this incident. It lays down clearly the values and principles upon which Islamic society is founded and states the true nature of the message of Islam.

 

In the following pages we will attempt to illustrate some of the very far reaching effects of certain parts of the surah which may not be immediately apparent. He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him. How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself: He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him. But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in his heart, him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles.

The Divine instructions which followed this incident are much more far reaching than appears at first sight. They are indeed a miracle. These instructions, the principles they seek to establish and the change they aim to accomplish in human society are, perhaps, the first and greatest miracle of Islam . But the instructions are made here as a direct comment on a single incident. It is part of the Qur'anic method to make use of isolated incidents in order to lay down fundamental and permanent principles. The principles established here and their practical effects, as seen in the early Islamic society, are indeed Islam itself. They constitute the truth which Islam and the earlier Divine religions seek to plant in human life.

The point at issue here is not merely how an individual or a class of people should be treated. This is indeed the significance of the Qur'anic comment on the incident itself, taken in isolation. The heart of the matter is, however, something far more important. It is: how should people evaluate everything in their lives? From where should they derive their values and their standards for such an evaluation.

What the Divine instructions contained in the opening part of the surah seek to establish is that men must base their values and standards on Divine considerations, laid down by Allah.

No social circumstances, traditions or practices, nor any concept of life derived from them should be allowed either to encumber or determine these values and standards. There is no denying the difficulties involved in conducting human life on the basis of values and standards laid down by the Divine Being, free from the pressure of all worldly considerations.

If we consider the heavy pressure of society on the individual's feelings and attitudes - traditional values, family and social ties, and environmental values, for example - we can appreciate the difficulty of carrying out these Divine instructions. We can appreciate such difficulty even better when we remember that in order to convey it to people, Muhammad himself (peace be on him) needed this special directive, or rather this censure. Reference to this is sufficient to convey the gravity of the matter. For Muhammad (peace be on him) has reached greater heights of sublimity and greatness than any man can aspire to. Yet the fact that special instructions were required for him to convey a certain principle makes that principle greater than greatness, unique in sublimity.

This is indeed, a true description of the principle established here, namely that mankind should derive their values and standards from the Divine Being, after they have freed themselves from the pressure of their social set-up with all its values and standards.

The basic standard Allah has, through His prophets, commanded mankind to adopt is: "The noblest of you in Allah's sight is he who fears Him most.(Al-Qur'an 49:13)" This is the standard by which all values, traditions and practices should be evaluated. It establishes a purely Divine criterion which has nothing to do with any worldly considerations. But people live on earth and establish a multitude of ties, each having its own weight and gravity. They have considerations of family relations, power and wealth. The distribution or concentration of these creates certain practical and economic results which determine the position of every man or every class of people in relation to others.

Thus some acquire a position superior to that of others, in worldly standards.

When Islam declares: "The noblest of you in Allah 's sight is he who fears Him most", it simply indicates that all these values and considerations are void, however important they seem to men. It substitutes for them a single value derived directly from Allah, the only value accepted by Him. The incident itself serves to establish this value in an actual situation. Thus the essential principle is established: the scales recognised are those of Allah; the supreme value which should govern man's life is the Divine one. Hence, all human values, standards, traditions and concepts must be abandoned by the Islamic nation.

Let us now consider the incident itself. Ibn Umm Maktoom, a poor blind man, comes to the Prophet (peace be on him) at a time when he is busy with a group of the most powerful and influential personalities in Makka, including Utbah and Shaibah, the two sons of Rabi'ah, Abu Jahl Amr ibn Hisham, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, Al-Waleed Ibn Al-Mogheerah. Also present is Al-Abbas ibn Abdel-Muttalib, the Prophet's uncle. It is a crucial meeting. The Prophet explains the message of Islam to them and hopes for a favourable response. He feels that the cause of Islam will gain a lot by such a response. The time is very hard for Islam in Makka. Those very people have been using all their wealth, power and influence to check its advancement, and to stop people from accepting it. They have managed to freeze Islam in Makka and hinder its progress elsewhere.

Outside Makka, the other tribes have adopted an attitude of wait and see. For they feel that that is their best stand in a tribal society such as theirs which gives to the tribe's attitude paramount importance.

They are aware that against Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, stand his own kinsmen, who, theoretically speaking, should be his most ardent supporters.

It must be emphasised that when we say that the Prophet is busy with those people, he has no personal interest with them. He is simply working for the interest of Islam. Acceptance of Islam by these influential and powerful people means the removal of all impediments from the path of Islam in Makka. It also ensures for Islam the freedom to progress outside Makka.

While this crucial meeting is in progress, a poor man comes and interrupts the Prophet (peace be on him) saying: Messenger of Allah! teach me some verses of what Allah has taught you.

Despite his awareness that the Prophet (peace be on him) is busy, he repeats his request several times. The Prophet dislikes this interruption. His face, which remains unseen by the blind man, expresses his aversion. He frowns and looks away from the poor man, who has interrupted the crucial meeting of which the Prophet has great hopes for his message. Indeed, the Prophet's motive has been his great enthusiasm to win badly-needed support for Islam.

Here, heaven intervenes to say the final word in this matter and to put the landmarks along the whole length of the road. Thus we are given the scales by which to weigh our values regardless of all considerations, including the consideration of what serves the interests of Islam, as seen by men, and even by the greatest man, Muhammad (peace be on him). This is why the Prophet who has been described elsewhere in the Qur'an as having "great and sublime nature", (Al-Qur'an 68:4) is strongly censured by Allah, the Most High. It is the only point in the Qur'an that the Prophet, who is very dear to Allah, is told "kalla" (inadequately translated as "no indeed"). Kalla is a term of censure and an order to desist. That is because the contravened principle is central to this religion.

The reproof is made in unique style, which defies translation into ordinary language. Written language has to apply certain rules and observe some well defined norms. These would dampen the effects of the very vivid style of the Qur'an, which is characterised in this instance by its rapid touches and short phrases which are more like feeling reactions and instant pictures. He frowned and turned his back when the blind man came to him.

The use of the third person form here is significant. It suggests that the subject-matter is so distasteful to Allah that He does not like to confront His beloved messenger with it. This in itself is a gesture of mercy and kindness to the Prophet. Thus, the action which necessitated the reproof has been disguised with great subtlety. The reproof then takes the form of direct address, starting somewhat mildly:

How could you tell? He might have sought to purify himself He might have been forewarned and the reminder might have profited him.

How could you tell but that a great gain might have been made? That is to say that the poor, blind man who came to you seeking light might have profited by Allah's reminder and set about purifying himself. His heart might have brightened by Allah's light and he might become like a light house, guiding people to safety. This is exactly what happens every time a human being genuinely accepts the faith. It is, indeed, what carries real weight in Allah's scales.

The reproof then takes a stronger tone. It wonders at the action in question:

But to the one who considered himself self-sufficient you were all attention. Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. As to him who comes to you with zeal and with a feeling of fear in hisheart - him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles!

The one who pretends that he can do without you and your religion, light goodness and purity is the one who receives your attention! You go to him yourself when he turns away, and you are at pains to try to persuade him to accept the faith.

Yet the fault would not be yours if he remained uncleansed. What is it to you if he chooses to remain in filth? You are not answerable for his sinful actions. He will not secure your victory. As to him who comes to you with zeal", out of his own free will, "and with a feeling of fear in his heart, " groping his way with outstretched hands, fearful of pitfalls, "him you ignore and busy yourself with trifles!" What a strong description of the act of not paying due attention to the man who came to seek the right guidance.

 

 

Wassalam



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
fatima
 
Moderator Group
Moderator Group
Avatar

Joined: 04 August 2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 979
Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 20 October 2006 at 5:01am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surah `Abasa

(Chapter - 80, continued 11-16)

Which was revealed in Makkah

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Tafsir ibn kathir

(11. Nay; indeed it is an admonition.) (12. So, whoever wills, let him pay attention to Him (it).) (13. In Records held in honor,) (14. Exalted, purified.) (15. In the hands of ambassadors (Safarah),) (16. Honorable and obedient.)

The Characteristics of the Qur'an

Allah says,

 (Nay; indeed it is an admonition.)

meaning, this Surah, or this advice in conveying knowledge equally among people, whether they are of noble or low class. Qatadah and As-Suddi both said,

 (Nay; indeed it is an admonition.) "This means the Qur'an.''

 (So, whoever wills, let him pay attention to Him (it).)

meaning, so whoever wills, he remembers Allah in all of his affairs. The pronoun could also be understood to be referring to the revelation since the conversation is alluding to it. Allah said:

 (In Records held in honor, exalted, purified.)

meaning, this Surah or this admonition. Both meanings are connected to each other. Actually, all of the Qur'an is in honored pages, meaning respected and revered.

 (exalted) meaning, elevated in status.

 (purified) meaning, from impurity, additions and deficiency.

Concerning Allah's statement,

 (In the hands of ambassadors (Safarah),)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd, all said, "These are the angels.''[1][4]

 Al-Bukhari said, "Safarah (ambassadors) refers to the angels. They travel around rectifying matters between themselves. The angels when they descend with the revelation of Allah, bringing it like the ambassador who rectifies matters between people.''[2][5]

Allah said,

 (Honorable and obedient.)

meaning, they are noble, handsome, and honorable in their creation. Their character and their deeds are righteous, pure and perfect. Here it should be noted that it is necessary for one who carries the Qur'an (i.e., the angel) to be following righteousness and guidance. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

 (He who recites the Qur'an proficiently, will be with the noble, righteous, ambassador angels, and the one who recites it with difficulty will receive two rewards.)[3][6]

This Hadith was reported by the group

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(80:11) By no means! *3 This is but an admonition. *4

*3 That is, "You should never do so: do not give undue importance to those who have forgotten God and become proud of their high worldly position. The teaching of Islam is not such that it should be presented solicitously before him who spurns it, nor should a man like you try to invite these arrogant people to Islam in a way as may cause them the misunderstanding that you have a selfish motive connected with them, and that your mission would succeed only if they believed, otherwise not, whereas the fact is that the Truth is as self-sufficient of them as they are of the Truth."
*4 The allusion is to the Qur'an.

(80:12) Let him who wills accept it. (80:13) It is written in scrolls, which are honoured, (80:14) exalted, purified, *5

*5 "Purified”: free from all kinds of mixtures of false ideas and thoughts, and presenting nothing but the pure Truth. There is nothing whatever in these scrolls of the impurities with which the other religious books have boon polluted. They have been kept pure and secure from all kinds of human speculation and evil suggestions. 

(80:15) (and which) remain in the hands  (80:16) of noble *6 and virtuous scribes. *7

*6 This refers to the angels who were writing the scrolls of the Qur'an under the direct guidance of Allah, were guarding them and conveying them intact to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace). Two words have been used to qualify them: karim, i.e. noble, and barr, i.e. virtuous. The first word is meant to say that they are so honoured and noble that it is not possible that such exalted beings would commit even the slightest dishonesty in the trust reposed in them. The second word has been used to tell that they carry out the responsibility entrusted to them of writing down the scrolls, guarding them and conveying them to the Messenger with perfect honesty and integrity.
*7 If the context in which these verses occur, is considered deeply, it becomes obvious that here the Qur'an has not been praised for the sake of its greatness and glory but to tell the arrogant people, who were repudiating its message with contempt, plainly: "The glorious Qur'an is too holy and exalted a Book to be presented before you humbly with the request that you may kindly accept it if you so please. For it does not stand in need of you as you stand in need of it. If you really seek your well-being, you should clear your head of the evil thoughts and submit to its message humbly; otherwise you are not so self-sufficient of this Book as this Book is self-sufficient of you. Your treating it with scorn and contempt will not affect its glory and greatness at all, rather your own pride and arrogance will be ruined on account of it. 

Fi Zilal al Quran

No indeed ! This is an admonition; let him who will, bear it in mind. It is written on honoured pages, exalted, purified, by the hands of noble and devout scribes.

The tone gets even stronger and the reproof becomes outright censure: "kalla" or "No indeed", this must never be the case.

There follows a statement affirming that Islam is an honourable and noble call. It has no need for anybody's support. It cares only for the one who accepts it on its merits, regardless of his position in human society!

This is an admonition; let him who will, bear it in mind. It is written on honoured pages, exalted, purified, by the hands of noble and devout scribes.

It is a noble and honoured message in every respect. Its pages are purified and exalted, entrusted to "noble and devout" angel ambassadors who convey it to those human beings selected for the task of conveying it to their people. It is also dignified. No one who pretends that he is self sufficient need be approached about accepting this message of Islam. It is only for those who know its value and seek to be purified by it.

So this is the Divine standard by which all values and considerations should be evaluated, and all men should be judged. This is also Allah's word, which is the final judgement in all situations.

 

Sayyid Qutb then looks into islamic history to show how the implication of this approach helped create a successful islamic state. Just thought some one might want to read this but did not want to bore people who want simple explanation.

But where and when was this laid down? The answer is in Makka when the Muslims were few in number, and Islam was the weaker side in an unequal battle. The attempt to win a group of powerful and influential men was not motivated by any personal interest. Ignoring the poor blind man was not occasioned by any personal consideration. All was for the sake of the new message. But the message itself calls for the adoption and application of this very standard and these very values. For Islam can never acquire any real power or achieve any true victory except through the establishment of these values and standards.

As stated earlier, the essential principle involved is far greater and wider in scope than this single incident. It is that man should derive his values and standards from Allah, not from any worldly source The noblest of you in Allah's sight is he who fears Him most.

Indeed; the one whom Allah considers noble is the one who deserves to he attended to and looked after, even if he is completely lacking in family relations, power and wealth, the assets highly valued according to worldly standards. These and all other worldly values become worthless when they part ways with faith and the fear of Allah. This is the great issue which the Divine instructions in this surah seek to settle.

The Prophet was deeply and powerfully touched by these Divine instructions and by Allah's reproof. Throughout his life, he worked tirelessly for the establishment of this great principle in Islamic society.

The first action taken by him was to announce these instructions and the reproof in public. This in itself is something very great Taken from any point of view, no person other than a Messenger of Allah could have announced in public that he had been censured so strongly, in such a singular manner, for a slip he had made. It would have been enough for any other great man to recognise his mistake and to avoid a repetition in future. With the Messenger of Allah however, things acquire different proportions. No person other than Allah's messenger could have had the courage, in such circumstances as Islam was facing, to make this declaration, challenging with it the masters of Qur'aish, who were very proud of their lineage, power and wealth.

These were at the time the only considerations of any importance in Makkan society, where people wondered: Why was this Quran not revealed to some great man from the two towns? (Al-Qur'an 43:31)

They were, of course, aware of Muhammad's lineage, and that he was the descendant of the noblest family in Arabia. His ancestors were masters of Makka. Nevertheless they asked such a question simply because Muhammad himself did not occupy a position of power in Makka before prophethood.

In such a society, at that particular time, such a great principle could have never been the product of any earthly factor, or host of factors. It could have had only one source: Allah. No power could have pushed it through other than the Divine will. The Islamic society received it directly from the Prophet. It was soon well established and it acquired depth and momentum, which helped it to continue its operation in the Islamic nation over the centuries.

The establishment of this principle was, indeed, a rebirth of humanity. It was greater in importance than the first birth of man.

Man was able to free himself from all worldly bonds and standards, and substitute for them a set of heavenly values which are independent of all earthly considerations. The new values were soon understood and accepted by everybody. Soon the grave matter which necessitated that Muhammad him self be issued with a special directive in order to convey it became the operative principle of the Islamic conscience and the basic code of the Islamic society. It remained so for a very long period.

Perhaps we cannot appreciate fully the true nature of the rebirth of humanity. The reason for our inability is that we cannot conceive the practical significance of our release from the pressures of society, its values, standards, traditions and practices. In order to appreciate the magnitude of these pressures we have only to remember that the advocates of the materialistic view of history consider that the economic condition of a certain society determines the beliefs, arts, literature, laws, customs of that society, as well as its view of life and its destiny. What a narrow and mistaken view of the true nature of man! With this basic principle, Islam accomplished the miracle of the rebirth of man.

Since then the values attached to this great principle have become supreme. Their ascendancy, however, was by no means easy, neither in the Arabian society, nor in the minds of the Muslims themselves.

Through his actions and directives, coloured by the profound effect the Divine instructions in this surah left on him, the Prophet was able to implant this basic principle of Islam in the consciences of his companions and in the life of the Islamic society he had established. He looked after his new plant with unfailing care until it had established deep roots and spread its branches wide. This was why this principle remained for centuries the guiding principle of the Muslim community, in spite of a multitude of opposing factors.

After this incident the Prophet always gave Ibn Umm Maktoom a warm welcome. Whenever he met him, he said: "Welcome to the man for whose sake my Lord reproved me." He appointed him twice as his deputy governor of Medina when he had to be away.

The Prophet married his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh of the Assad clan to his former slave Zaid ibn Harithah. Marriage has always been a very delicate issue, and it was particularly so in the Arabian Peninsula at that time. The Prophet's motive was to deal a deadly blow to all the social values and standards based on worldly considerations .

Soon after the Makkan Muslims settled in Medina the Prophet established a bond of brotherhood between every two Muslims. He made his own uncle, Hamza, a brother to his former slave, Zaid; and Khalid ibn Rowaiha of the Khath'am tribe and Bilal, the former slave, were made brothers.

He appointed Zaid as Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim army which fought the battle of Mu'tah. Zaid's first deputy was the Prophet's own cousin Ja'afar ibn Abu Talib. The second deputy was Abdullah ibn Rawaha of Al Ansar. A number of well-known personalities from Makka and Medina were in that army of three thousand men, including the most famous Muslim commander of all time, Khalid ibn Al-Waleed. The Prophet himself went out to bid them farewell. It is also worth mentioning that Zaid and his two deputies were killed in that battle.

The last action of the Prophet was to appoint Usamah ibn Zaid, a young man in his teens, as commander of an army he raised to fight the Romans. In the army was a large number of the early Muslims, of both Al-Muhajireen (the Makkans) and Al-Ansar (the Medinans), including his two most distinguished companions and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and Umar, as well as his own relative Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas, one of the very earliest people to embrace Islam. Some people grumbled about the fact that Usamah was made commander, because he was so young. Abdullah ibn Umar takes up the story: "When some people complained about giving the army command to Usamah, the Prophet said: 'You are deprecating his appointment as commander in the same way as you previously deprecated his father's appointment. By Allah, his father was a worthy commander, and one of the dearest people to me. Usamah is also one of the dearest people to me."

Some people spoke in derogatory terms about the Prophet's companion, Salman, the Persian. They took a narrow nationalistic view and spoke of the inferiority of Persians in relation to Arabs. The Prophet took a decisive step to put down all such narrow tendencies. He declared: "Salman belongs to the Prophet's family." The Prophet's statement transcends all lineage, tribal and national considerations, which were of immense weight in Arabia. Some disagreement occurred between two of the highly esteemed companions of the Prophet, Abu Tharr and Bilal. Out of temper, Abu Tharr called Bilal "you, son of a black woman". The Prophet was extremely upset by what Abu Tharr said. He rebuked him saying: "That is too much, Abu Tharr. He who has a white mother has no advantage which makes him better than the son of a black mother." Thus the Prophet put the dispute in its proper perspective.

What distinguishes people is their faith, not their colour. This is the Islamic criterion, which is so unlike the worldly criteria of Ignorant' societies. The Prophet's rebuke had a profound effect on Abu Tharr, who was a very sensitive person. He wanted to atone for his mistake, so he put his head on the ground swearing that he would not raise it until Bilal had put his foot over it.

Bilal achieved a position of great distinction in the Islamic society. What made his achievement possible was the application of Heaven's values. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet once said to Bilal: "Tell me what action of yours you hope to be most rewarding to you, for last night I heard your footsteps as you drew near to me in heaven." Bilal answered: "I don't think that since becoming a Muslim I have ever done anything which I hope to be more rewarding than that every time I have ablution at any time of day or night I pray whatever I can."

Once Ammar ibn Yassir asked permission to see the Prophet. The Prophet said: "Let him come in, welcome to the cleansed good man." He also said of Ammar: "Ammar is full of faith to the top of his head." Huthaifa related that the Prophet said: "I do not know how long I shall be with you, so accept the leadership of the two who will follow me (and he pointed to Abu Bakr and Umar), and follow the guidance of Ammar. Believe whatever Ibn Massoud tells you."

Ibn Massoud was so close to the Prophet that any stranger in Medina would have thought him a member of the Prophet's household. Abu Mussa said: "I came to Medina from the Yemen with my brother. We were for quite sometime under the impression that Ibn Massoud and his mother belonged to the Prophet's household, an impression we had formed because of the frequency of their coming in and out of the Prophet's homes, and their long companionship with him."

The Prophet himself sought the hand of an Ansari woman in marriage for Julaibeeb, a former slave. Her parents were reluctant to sanction such a marriage. She, however, said to them: "Do you mean to reject the Prophet's suit? If the Prophet thinks that this man is suitable for us, then Id this marriage go through." So they gave their consent. Soon after his marriage, Julaibeen took part in an armed expedition. After the battle, which resulted in a victory for the Muslims, the Prophet asked his companions: "Is anybody missing?" They named a few people. He repeated the question and they named a few others. He asked the same question for the third time and they answered in the negative. He said: "I think Julaibeeb is missing." They looked for him and found his body next to seven enemy soldiers whom he had killed. The Prophet came over, stood near him, and said: "He killed seven people before he was killed. This man belongs to me and I belong to him." He lifted him on his arms until a grave was dug for him. He then put him in his grave. The tradition does not say whether Julaibeeb was given a death wash.

With this Divine instruction and the guidance of the Prophet, the rebirth of humanity was accomplished in a unique manner. Thus a new society came into existence, which imported its values and standards from heaven, and lives on earth, unhampered by earthly restrictions. This is the greatest miracle of Islam, a miracle which could not have happened except by the will of Allah, and through the actions of the Prophet. This miracle is in itself a proof that Islam is a religion revealed by Allah, and that the man who conveyed it to us is His messenger.

It was the Divine will that the leadership of the Islamic society, after the death of the Prophet, should be assigned successively to Abu Bakr and Umar, the two persons who were most keenly aware of the true nature of Islam and most vividly impressed by the guidance of the Prophet. Indeed, Abu Bakr and Umar surpassed everybody else with their love of the Prophet and determination to follow very closely in his footsteps.

Abu Bakr was well aware of the Prophet's object in assigning the army command to Usamah. His first action after he became Caliph was to send the army raised by the Prophet and commanded by Usamah on its original mission. Abu Bakr, the Caliph, went along with the army to the outskirts of Medina to bid it farewell. It was a strange scene: Abu Bakr the old Caliph walking, and Usamah the young commander on his horse. Usamah felt ashamed and begged Abu Bakr to ride or else he would walk alongside him. Abu Bakr refused saying: "You shall not walk and I shall not ride. It will do me no harm to walk for an hour if my walking is for the cause of Allah."

Abu Bakr felt that he needed Umar to help him shoulder the responsibilities of government. Umar, however, was a soldier in Usamah's army, so he had to ask Usamah's permission to discharge him. Hence, the Caliph, the Head of the State, said to his army commander: "If you think you could spare me Umar to help me, then please do so"! What a request! It is the height of magnanimity, attainable only with Allah's will, by individuals well taught by Allah's Messenger.

A few years go by and we see Umar assuming the leadership of the Islamic society, as its second Caliph. One of his actions was to appoint Ammar ibn Yassir, who formerly belonged to the lower classes of Makka, as governor of the Kufa region in Iraq.

One day a number of dignatories from Qur'aish, including Suhail ibn Amr and Abu Sufian, sought to see Umar. He let them wait and admitted first Suhaib and Bilal, two former slaves, on grounds of their early acceptance of Islam and their taking part in the battle of Badr. Abu Sufian felt very angry and said: "I have never seen a day like this. These slaves are admitted and we are kept waiting!" Suhail, who was more keenly aware of the true nature of Islam, said: "Gentlemen! I see in your faces an expression of what you feel, but I say to you that if you are angry you should be angry with yourselves. Both they and you were called upon to accept Islam at the same time. They were quick to respond but you were slow. What will you do if on the Day of Judgement you find that they are included among the chosen people and you are left behind?"

Umar allotted Usamah ibn Zaid a larger share of the spoils of war than he allotted his own son Abdullah. When Abdullah queried his father's decision Umar said: "Son, the Prophet used to love Zaid more than he loved your father, and he loved Usamah more than he loved you. What I did was simply to attach to the Prophet's love higher value than I attached to my own love." As he said this Umar was, of course, fully aware that the Prophet measured his love by the Divine standards.

Umar sent Ammar to question Khalid ibn Al-Waleed, the victorious commander of the Muslim army and the descendant of a noble family, about certain charges. Ammar tied Khalid's robes round his neck Some reports add that he tied Khalid's hands throughout the interrogation with the cloth of his own turban. When the investigation proved Khalid's innocence Ammar untied him and put Khalids turban back on his head with his own hand. Khalid did not object to this treatment. He knew that Ammar was one of the early companions of the Prophet. Khalid also knew what the Prophet used to say about Ammar.

It was Umar himself who used to say about Abu Bakr and Bilal: "Abu Bakr is our master and he freed our master." This refers to the days when Bilal was a slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, who used to torture him mercilessly, in order to turn him away from Islam. Abu Bakr bought Bilal from Umayyah and set him free. This former slave, Bilal, is described by Umar, the Caliph, as "our master".

Umar was the one who said, "Had Saalim, the former slave of Abu Huthaifa, been alive I would have nominated him to succeed me."

This statement must be taken against the background that Umar did not nominate anyone to succeed him, not even Othman, Ali, Talha or Zubair. He only appointed a consultative committee of six, so that the next Caliph should be chosen from among them.

Ali ibn Abu Talib sent Ammar and Al-Hassan, his own son, to Kufa to seek their support against Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her). His message said, "I know that she is your Prophet's wife in this life and in the here after. You are, however, faced with a test which will prove whether you follow your Prophet or his wife."' The people of Kufa accepted his case against Aisha, mother of the believers and Abu Bakr's daughter, (may Allah be pleased with them all).

Bilal was asked by his brother in Islam, Abu Ruwaiha of Khath'am, to speak for him to the family of a Yemeni woman he wished to marry. Bilal went to them and said: "I am Bilal ibn Rabah and this is my brother. Abu Ruwaiha. He lacks good manners and firm belief. You may please yourselves whether you give him your daughter in marriage or not." He did not deceive them by hiding the truth, nor did he behave as a mediator, unmindful of his answer ability to Allah.

The family concerned were pleased with such honesty. They married their daughter to Abu Kuwaiha, the noble Arab whose advocate was Bilal, the former slave from Abyssinia.

This fundamental principle remained for centuries firmly established in the Islamic society, despite the various factors working for the bringing about of a setback to that society. "Abdullah ibn Abbas was always remembered with his slave Ikrimah, while Abdullah ibn Umar was remembered with his slave Nafi'. Anas ibn Malik was always associated with his slave Ibn Sirin, as was Abu Huraira with his slave Abdurrahman ibn Hormuz. The most distinguished men of learning were Al-Hassan in Basra, Mujahid ibn Jabr, Attaa ibn Rabah and Tawoos ibn Kaissan'. In Egypt, Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb a black slave from Dengla, was the grand Mufti (holder of the highest position of religious authority) during the reign of Umar ibn Abdulaziz."

This Divine standard continued to win high respect for the pious and god fearing, even when they were deprived of all things to which worldly considerations attached great value. It was only recently that this Divine standard ceased to operate after the whole world had been over whelmed by the tide of Ignorance. In the United States, the leading country of the West, a man is valued according to the size of his bank balance. In the Soviet Union, the leading country of the East, where materialism reigns supreme, a man is worth less than a machine. The land of Islam, on the other hand, has sunk back into Ignorance, from which Islam had saved it a long time ago. Ignorant creeds which Islam had rooted out have been revived. The Divine standard has been abandoned in favour of Ignorant values which are completely alien to Islam.

The only hope that remains is that the new Islamic movement will be able to rescue mankind once again from the clutches of Ignorance and bring about a second rebirth of humanity, similar to the one announced by the decisive verses at the opening of this surah.

Wassalam



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
IP IP Logged
<< Prev Page  of 5 Next >>
Post Reply Post New Topic
Printable version Printable version

Forum Jump
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot create polls in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum

Disclaimer:
The opinions expressed herein contain positions and viewpoints that are not necessarily those of IslamiCity. This forum is offered to stimulate dialogue and discussion in our continuing mission of being an educational organization.
If there is any issue with any of the postings please email to icforum at islamicity.com or if you are a forum's member you can use the report button.

Note: The 99 names of Allah avatars are courtesy of www.arthafez.com

Advertisement:



Sponsored by:
Islamicity Membership Program:
IslamiCity Donation Program  http://www.islamicity.com/Donate
IslamiCity Arabic eLearning http://www.islamiCity.com/ArabAcademy
Complete Domain & Hosting Solutions www.icDomain.com
Home for Muslim Tunes www.icTunes.com
Islamic Video Collections www.islamiTV.com
IslamiCity Marriage Site www.icMarriage.com