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fatima
 
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 18 March 2007 at 10:48am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 9-12)

Which was revealed in Makkah

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

كَلاَّ بَلْ تُكَذّبُ 08;نَ بِالدّين 16;- وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُ 05;ْ لَحَـفِظ 16;ينَ- كِرَاماً كَـتِبِي 06;َ- يَعْلَمُ 08;نَ مَا تَفْعَلُ 08;نَ

(9. Nay! But you deny (the Day of) Ad-Din.) (10. But verily, over you to watch you) (11. Kiraman Katibin,) (12. They know all that you do.)

 

The Cause of Deception and alerting to the Fact that Angels record the Deeds of the Children of Adam

Concerning Allah's statement,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ ]

(Nay! But you deny (the Day of) Ad-Din.)

meaning, `you are only compelled to oppose the Most Generous and meet Him with disobedience, by your rejection in your hearts of the Hereafter, the recompense and the reckoning.' Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُ 05;ْ لَحَـفِظِينَ - كِرَاماً كَـتِبِينَ - يَعْلَمُ 08;نَ مَا تَفْعَلُ 08;نَ ]

(But verily, over you to watch you (are) Kiraman Katibin, they know all that you do.) (82:10-12)

meaning, `indeed there are noble guardian angels over you, so do not meet them with evil deeds, because they write down all that you do.'

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:9) Indeed not!  *5But (the fact is that) you (O men) deny (the meting out of) rewards and punishments,  *6

*5 That is, "There is no reasonable ground for you to be deluded. Your own physical existence itself tells that you did not come into being by yourself; your parents also did not make you. Man also did not come about as a result of the elements combining together by themselves accidentally; but a Wise and Powerful God has composed you into this perfect human shape and form. There are other kinds of animals in the world compared with which your excellent form and structure and your superior powers and faculties stand out in sharp contrast. Reason demanded that in view of all this you should have submitted gratefully and should never have dared commit disobedience of your beneficent Sustainer. You also know that your Lord and Sustainer is not only Compassionate and Bountiful but Almighty and Omnipotent as well. When an earthquake, cyclone or flood occurs by His Command, all your devices and measures tail to be effective. You also know that your Lord and Sustainer is not ignorant and foolish but Wise and knowing, and the necessary demand of wisdom and knowledge is that whoever is given intellect should also be held responsible for his acts; whoever is given powers should also be held accountable as to how he used those powers; and whoever is given the choice to do good or evil on his own responsibility, should also be rewarded for his good act and punished for his evil act. All these truths are clearly and plainly known to you; therefore, you cannot say that there exists a reasonable ground for you to be deluded concerning your Lord. Your own nature is sufficient evidence that the beneficence of the Master should never cause the servant to be fearless of Him, and be involved in the misunderstanding that he may do whatever he pleases, no one can harm him in any way.
*6 That is,"You have not been deluded and beguiled by any good reason but by your foolish concept that there is going to be no meting out of rewards and punishments after the life of this world. It is this wrong and baseless concept which has made you heedless of God, fearless of His justice and irresponsible in your moral attitude. "

 

(82:10) although watchers have been appointed over you, (82:11) honourable scribes, (82:12) who know whatever you do.  *7

*7 That is, "whether you deny the meting out of rewards and punishments, belie it, or mock it, the reality cannot change. The reality is .that your Lord has not left you to your self in the world, but has appointed over each one of you honest and upright guardians, who are recording objectively and faithfully all your good and evil acts, and none of your acts is hidden from them, whether you commit it in darkness, or in private, or in far off jungles, or in secret when you are fully satisfied that whatever you have done bas remained hidden from human eye. For these guardian angels Allah has used the words kiram-an katibin, i.e. writers who are honorable and noble They are neither attached in personal love with somebody, nor are inimical to anybody, so that they would prepare a fictitious record on the basis of their favouring one man and disfavouring another unduly. They are neither dishonest that without being present on duty they would make wrong entries by themselves; nor are they bribable so that they would take bribes and make false reports in favour of or against somebody. They are far above these moral weaknesses. Therefore, both the good and the bad people should be fully satisfied that each man's good acts will be recorded without any omission, and no one will have an evil act recorded in his account which he has not done. Then the second quality that has been mentioned of these angels is: "They know whatever you do " That is, they are not like the secret, intelligence agencies of the world, from which, despite all their search and scrutiny, many things remain hidden. They are fully aware of everyone's deeds. They accompany every person, at all places, under all conditions, in such a way that he himself does not know that someone is watching him, and they also know with what intention has somebody done a certain thing. Therefore the record prepared by them is a complete record in which nothing has been left un-recorded. About this very thing it has been said in Surah Al-Kahf 49: "Woe to us! What sort of a book it is, it has left mothing unrecorded of our doings, small or great. They will see before them everything, whatever they had done."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Shun it ! but you deny the Last Judgement. Yet there are guardians watching over you, noble recorders, who know all your actions.

 

The English expression "shun it" is used here to render the meaning of the Arabic word "kalla" which is a command to desist and an indication of a change of subject and style. Hence the following verses are in the form of a statement. "Shun it! but you deny the Last Judgement." You think that reckoning and accountability are falsehoods, and this is precisely the cause of your impudence and negligence of your duties. How can any person disbelieve in the Judgement and still lead a life based on goodness and right guidance? Some people may achieve a higher degree of faith: they worship Allah because they love Him, not out of fear of punishment nor in hope of reward. But these people continue to believe in the Last Judgement. They fear it and look forward to it at the same time, because they hope to be with their beloved Lord. When man, however, flatly rejects the Day of Judgement he will be devoid of politeness and light; his heart and conscience are dead. You deny the Day of Judgement when you will certainly face it. Everything you do in this life will be counted for or against you. Nothing is lost, nothing forgotten: " Yet there are guardians watching over you, noble recorders, who know all your actions. " These recorders are the angels charged with accompanying men, watching them and recording all what they do and say. We do not know and are not required to know how this takes place. Allah knows that we are neither given the ability to understand it nor are we going to benefit by understanding it because it does not affect the purpose of our existence. Hence it is useless to attempt to explain by our means what Allah has chosen not to reveal to us of the world of the imperceptible. Sufficient it is to us to feel that we do not live in vain and that there are noble recorders who note what we do, in order to be alert and prudent.

Since the atmosphere of the surah is one of benevolence and nobility, the description of those recorders given here is that they are "noble", so that we may feel shy and try to be polite in the presence of these noble angels. It is natural for people to exercise extra care not to say or do anything impolite or disgraceful when they are in the presence of noble people. How careful would they be if they realised that they were all the time in the presence of angels. The surah indeed arouses the most noble feelings of our upright nature by portraying this fact in such a familiar way.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 25 March 2007 at 5:08am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar

(Chapter 82, Ayah 13-19)

Which was revealed in Makkah

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

[إِنَّ الاٌّبْرَارَ لَفِى نَعِيمٍ - وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِى جَحِيمٍ - يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ - وَمَا هُمَ عَنْهَا بِغَآئِبِينَ - وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ - ثُمَّ مَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ - يَوْمَ لاَ تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئاً وَالاٌّمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ ]

(13. Verily, the Abrar (the righteous believers) will be in Delight;) (14. And verily, the wicked will be in the blazing Fire (Hell),) (15. Therein they will enter, and taste its burning flame on the Day of Recompense,) (16. And they will not be absent therefrom.) (17.And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is) (18. Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is) (19. (It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

The Reward of the Righteous and the Sinners Allah informs of what the righteous will receive of delight.

They are those who obeyed Allah and did not meet Him with disobedience (sins). Then He mentions that the evildoers will be in Hell and eternal torment. Due to this He says,

[يَصْلَوْنَهَا يَوْمَ الدِّينِ ]

(Therein they will enter, and taste its burning flame on the Day of Recompense,)

meaning, the Day of Reckoning, Recompense, and Judgement.

[وَمَا هُمَ عَنْهَا بِغَآئِبِينَ ]

(And they will not be absent therefrom.)

meaning, they will not be absent for even one hour from the torment. The torment will not be lightened from them, nor will they be granted the death that they will be requesting, or any rest -- not even for a single day. Allah then says,

[وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ]

(And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is)

This is a magnification of the affair of the Day of Judgement. Then Allah affirms it by saying,

[ثُمَّ مَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ]

(Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is)

Then He explains this by saying,

[يَوْمَ لاَ تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِنَفْسٍ شَيْئاً]

((It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, )

meaning, no one will be able to benefit anyone else, or help him out of that which he will be in, unless Allah gives permission to whomever He wishes and is pleased with. We will mention here a Hadith (where the Prophet said),

«يَا بَنِي هَاشِم، أَنْقِذُ 08;ا أَنْفُسَ 03;ُمْ مِنَ النَّارِ لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللهِ شَيْئًا»

(O children of Hashim! Save yourselves from the Fire, for I have no power to cause you any benefit from Allah.)[1][14]

This has been mentioned previously at the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ash-Shu`ara' (see 26:214). Thus, Allah says,

[وَالاٌّمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ]

(and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

 

This is similar to Allah’s statement,

لمن الملك اليوم لله الواحد القهار

(Whose is the kingdom this day ? It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible.)

It is also similar to His statement,

(The true sovereignty on that Day will be for the Most Gracious)(25:26)

It is also similar to His saying;

(The only Owner of the Day od Recompense.)(1:4)

 

Qatadah said,

((It will be) the Day when no person shall have power for another, and the Decision, that Day, will be with Allah.)

"By Allah, the Decision is for Allah today (now), but on that Day no one will try to dispute with Him about it.''

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(82:13) Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, (82:14) and the wicked shall indeed go to Hell: (82:15) they shall enter it on the Day of Recompense, 82:16) and shall never be able to be absent from it. (82:17) And what do you know what the Day of Recompense is? (82:18) Yes, what do you know what the Day of Recompense is? (82:19) It is a Day when no one shall have the power to do anything for another  *8. Judgement on that Day shall wholly rest with Allah.

*8 That is, no one there will have the power to save anyone from suffering the consequences of his deeds; no one there will be so influential, strong, or such a favourite with AIIah that he should behave stubbornly in the Divine Court and say: "Such and such a one is a close relative or associate of mine; he will have to be forgiven, no matter what evils He might have committed in the world."

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, while the wicked shall be in Hell, where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement; nor shall they ever be absent from it. Would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is ! Oh, would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul and when Allah reigns supreme.

We are then told of the destinies of the righteous and the wicked, which are determined by the reckoning based on the recordings by the noble angels: Surely the righteous shall be in bliss, while the wicked shall be in Hell, where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement, nor shall they ever be absent from it. The end is certain. That the righteous shall dwell in blissful happiness and the wicked shall end up in Hell is already determined. A "righteous" person is the one who consistently does "right" actions, i.e. good deeds of all kinds, until doing them becomes an intrinsic quality of his. The adjective "righteous" has connotations which fit in well with nobility and humanity. The contrasting quality, "wickedness", carries connotations of insolence and impudence as the wicked indulge in their sinful actions. Hell is a proper recompense for wickedness. The surah emphasises the certainty of this punishment: "where they shall be thrown on the Day of Judgement. " Then it re-emphasises it: "nor they shall ever be absent from it." They cannot escape it in the first place, nor will they be allowed to leave it, not even for a short while Having stated what happens on the Day of Judgement, the surah emphasizes again the certainty of that day, since it is denied by some. The emphasis is provided here in the form of a rhetorical question which enhances the mystery surrounding the object of the question. The surah then states the complete helplessness of everyone, the absolute impossibility of giving or receiving support and that Allah is the absolute sovereign on that awesome day: Would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! Oh, would that you knew what the Day of Judgement is! It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul and Allah reigns supreme. The form "would that you knew ... " is in Arabic a form of rhetorical question often used in the Qur'an. It suggests that the matter under discussion is far beyond our imagining and understanding. This is stressed here by repetition of the question before details about conditions on the day concerned are given: "It is the day when no soul can be of any help to any other soul." It is total helplessness when everyone stands alone, busy with his own problems, unable to think of anyone else, relative or friend. "And Allah reigns supreme." He indeed reigns supreme in this life and the next. This fact, however, becomes so clear on that day that no one can overlook it, as the ignorant and the conceited do in this life. The surah closes with an air of fear and speechless expectation which contrasts with the air of violent horrors of the opening. In between the two man is addressed with that remonstrance which overwhelms him with a feeling of shame.

 

 

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Infitar. All praise and blessings are due to Allah, and He is the Giver of success and freedom from error.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 01 April 2007 at 8:50am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter - 83)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

             - -

(1.   Woe to Al-Mutaffifin.) (2. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, demand full measure,) (3. And when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due.)

 

Increasing and decreasing in the Measure and Weight will be a Cause for Regret and Loss

An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah both recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "When the Prophet came to Al-Madinah, the people of Al-Madinah were the most terrible people in giving measurement (i.e., they used to cheat). Thus, Allah revealed,

[ ]

(Woe to Al-Mutaffifin.) After this, they began to give good measure.''[1][1] The meaning of the word Tatfif here is to be stingy with measurement and weight, either by increasing it if it is due from the others, or decreasing it if it is a debt. Thus, Allah explains that the Mutaffifin those whom He has promised loss and destruction, whom are meant by "Woe'' are

[ ]

(Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men,)

meaning, from among the people.

[]

(demand full measure,)

meaning, they take their right by demanding full measure and extra as well.

[ ]

(And when they have to give by measure or weight to (other) men, give less than due.)

meaning, they decrease. Verily, Allah commanded that the measure and weight should be given in full. He says in another Ayah,

[ ]

(And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a balance that is straight. That is good and better in the end.) (17:35)

Allah also says,

[ ]

(And give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but with that which he can bear.) (6:152)

and He says,

[ ]

(And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) (55:9)

Allah destroyed the people of Shu`ayb and wiped them out because of their cheating in weights and measurements.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(83:1) Woe to those who give short weight, *1

*1 In the original the word mutaffifin has been used, which is derived from tatfif, a word used for an inferior and base thing in Arabic. Terminologically, tatfif is used for giving short weight and short measure fraudulently, for the person who acts thus while measuring or weighing, does not defraud another by any substantial amount, but skimps small amounts from what is due to every customer cleverly, and the poor customer dces not know of what and of how much he is being deprived by the seller.

 

(83:2) who, when they take by measure from others, take it fully, (83:3) and when they measure or weigh for them, they give them less than what is due *2 .

*2 At several places in the Qur'an giving of short measure and weight has been condemned and measuring fully and weighing rightly has been stressed. In Surah AI-An'am, it has been enjoined: "You should use a full measure and a just balance. We charge one only with that much responsibility that one can bear." (v. 152). In Surah Bani Isra'il it has been said: "Give full measure when you measure and weigh with even scales." (v. 35). In Surah Ar-Rehman it has been stressed: Do not upset the balance: weigh with equity and do not give short weight." (vv. 8-9). The people of the Prophet Shu`aib were punished for the reason that the evil of giving short measure and weight had become widespread among them and in spite of his counsel and advice they did not refrain from it.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them

The surah may be divided into four parts The first opens with a declaration of war against the stinters: Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact infull, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them. Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

The surah depicts a social environment, and is also an account of the Islamic way of dealing with the world as it exists and with the human mind. This is what we shall attempt to explain as we consider the surah in detail.

Woe to the stinters who, when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them.

The surah opens with Allah's declaration of war against the stinters "Woe to the stinters". The Arabic term used for "woe" implies destruction and ruin. The implication is the same whether we consider this verse as a statement of a future eventuality or a curse, for a curse made by Allah has the same effect as that of a statement of what is going to happen. The next two verses explain the meaning of the "stinters" or defrauders as intended in the surah. They are those "who when others measure for them, exact in full, but who, when they measure or weigh for others, defraud them." They are those who want their merchandise complete and intact when they buy, but they do not give the right amount when they sell.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 09 April 2007 at 5:03am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter 83, Ayah 4-6)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

             أَلا يَظُنُّ أُوْلَـئ 16;كَ أَنَّهُم 18; مَّبْعُو 79;ُونَ - لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ - يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَ 05;ِينَ

(4. Do they not think that they will be resurrected,) (5. On a Great Day) (6. The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists)

 

Threatening the Mutaffifin with standing before the Lord of all that exists

Then Allah says as a threat to them,

[أَلا يَظُنُّ أُوْلَـئ 16;كَ أَنَّهُم 18; مَّبْعُو 79;ُونَ - لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ]

(Do they not think that they will be resurrected, on a Great Day)

meaning, do these people not fear the resurrection and standing before He Who knows the hidden matters and the innermost secrets, on a Day that contains great horror and tremendous fright Whoever loses on this Day will be made to enter into a blazing fire. Then Allah says,

[يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَ 05;ِينَ ]

(The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists)

meaning, they will stand barefooted, naked and uncircumcised at a station that will be difficult, hard, and distressful for the criminals. They will be covered by the command from Allah, and it will be that, which the strength and the senses will not be able to bare.

Imam Malik reported from Nafi` who reported from Ibn `Umar that the Prophet said,

«يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَ 05;ِينَ، حَتْى يَغِيبَ أَحَدُهُ 05;ْ فِي رَشْحِهِ إِلَى أَنْصَاف 16; أُذُنَيْ 07;»

(This will be the Day that mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists, until one of them will sink up to the middle of his ears in sweat.)

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith from Malik and `Abdullah bin `Awn, both of whom reported it from Nafi`.[1][2] Muslim also recorded it from two routes.[2][3]

Another Hadith: Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Miqdad, who was Ibn Al-Aswad Al-Kindi, that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

«إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَا 05;َةِ أُدْنِيَ 78;ِ الشَّمْس 15; مِنَ الْعِبَا 83;ِ حَتْى تَكُونَ قَدْرَ مِيلٍ أَوْ مِيلَيْن 16; قال فَتَصْهَ 85;ُهُمُ الشَّمْس 15; فَيَكُون 15;ونَ فِي الْعَرَق 16; كَقَدْرِ أَعْمَال 16;هِمْ، مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى عَقِبَيْ 07;ِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى رُكْبَتَ 10;ْهِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يَأْخُذُ 07;ُ إِلَى حَقْوَيْ 07;ِ، وَمِنْهُ 05;ْ مَنْ يُلْجِمُ 07;ُ إِلْجَام 11;ا»

(On the Day of Judgement, the sun will draw near the servants until it is a mile or two away from them. Then the sun will burn them, and they will be submersed in sweat based upon the amount of their deeds. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their two heels. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their two knees. From among them there will be those whose sweat will come up to their groins. From among them there will be those who will be bridled in sweat (up to their necks).)

This Hadith was recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi.[3][4]

In Sunan Abu Dawud it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah used to seek refuge with Allah from the hardship of standing on the Day of Judgement.[4][5] It has been reported from Ibn Mas`ud that they will be standing for forty years with their heads raised toward the sky. No one will speak to them, and the righteous and wicked among them will all be bridled in sweat.[5][6] It has been reported from Ibn `Umar that they will be standing for one hundred years. Both of these statements have been recorded by Ibn Jarir.[6][7] In the Sunans of Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah, it is recorded from `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah used to begin his late night prayer by declaring Allah's greatness ten times, praising Allah ten times, glorifying Allah ten times, and seeking Allah's forgiveness ten times. Then he would say,

«اللْهُمّ&# 1614; اغْفِرْ لِي وَاهْدِن 16;ي وَارْزُق 18;نِي وَعَافِن 16;ي»

(O Allah! Forgive me, guide me, provide for me, and protect me.)

Then he would seek refuge from the hardship of the standing on the Day of Judgement.[7][8]

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(83:4) Do they not think that they will be raised up again (83:5) on a Great Day? *3 --

*3 "A Great Day": the Day of Resurrection when all men and jinn will be called to account together in the Divine Court and decisions of vital importance will be made pertaining to rewards and punishments.

 

(83:6) the Day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of the worlds.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

 

The fact that the behaviour of the defrauders is tackled in this manner in a Makkan revelation is very interesting. Makkan surahs generally concentrate on the fundamentals, such as the assertion of the unity of Allah, the supremacy of His will and His dominion over the universe and over mankind, and the assertion of the truth of revelation and prophethood, the truth of the Day of Judgement, the reckoning and the reward. The Makkan revelations also endeavour to form and develop the moral sense and relate it to the fundamentals of faith. The tackling of a specific issue of morality, such as the stinting of weights and measures, or business dealings in general, is a later concern; it is characteristic of Medinan revelations, which regulate the life of the community in an Islamic state. The fact that this Makkan surah makes the issue of stinting its focal point therefore deserves to be considered carefully.

 

The first point to note is that in Makka the nobility were very rich, were unscrupulous and exercised complete monopoly of trade in their business concerns. They organised the export and import trade using caravans which traveled to Yemen in winter and to Syria in summer. They had their seasonal trade fairs such as the Okaz Fair which was held in the pilgrimage season. The fairs were for business dealings as well as literary activities.

The text suggests that the defrauders against whom war was declared belonged to the nobility and wielded much power and influence which enabled them to force others to succumb to their wishes. The Arabic expression connotes that for some unspecified reason they were able to impose their will and exact in full. The meaning implied is not that they exacted their full due; for this would not justify the declaration of war against them. What is meant is that they obtained by sheer force what they had no right to demand. But when it was their turn to weigh or measure for others, they exercised their power by giving them less than their due.

 

Indeed this warning, coming so early in the Makkan period, gives an idea of the nature of the religion of Islam. It points out that Islam embraces all sides of life and aims to establish a firm moral code which accords with the basic principles of the Divine teachings. At the time when this surah was revealed the Muslim community was still weak. The followers of Islam had not yet won power in order to organise society and the life of the community according to Islamic principles. Yet Islam demonstrated its opposition to those acts of flagrant injustice and unethical dealings. It declared war against the stinters and threatened them with woe and destruction at the time when they were the powerful rulers of Makka. It declared its uncompromising stand against the injustice suffered by the masses whom it has never sought to lull into a state of lethargy and apathy. This gives us an insight into the real motives behind the stubborn opposition to Islam by the masters of Makka. They were undoubtedly keenly aware that what Muhammad (peace be on him) was calling for was not merely a matter of personal conviction which demanded no more than a verbal assertion of the unity of Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad, and a form of prayers addressed to Allah and not to idols. They realised that the new faith would establish a way of life which would cause the very basis of their positions and interests to crumble. They were fully aware that the new religion, by its very nature, did not admit any partnership or compromise with any worldly concepts, alien to its Divine basis, and that it posed a mighty threat to all the base earthly values of Ignorance. This is why they launched their offensive, which continued in full force both before and after the Muslim emigration. It was an offensive launched to defend their way of life in its entirety, not only a set of concepts which have no effect beyond individual acceptance and personal conviction.

 

Those who attempt in any age or land to prevent it from organising and ruling human life also realise these essential facts. They know very well that the pure and straightforward Islamic way of life endangers their unjust order, interests, hollow structure and deviant practices. Indeed the tyrannical stinters (whatever form their stinting takes and wherever it is, in money and finance, or in the area of rights and duties) are those who fear most the ascendancy of Islam and the implementation of its just methods.

 

The representatives of the two Medinan tribes, Aws and Khazraj, who pledged their support and loyalty to the Prophet were also aware of all this. Ibn Ishaaq, the Prophet's biographer, wrote:

Assim ibn Umar ibn Qataadah told me that when the Medinan Muslims came to give their pledge to the Prophet, Al-Abbas ibn Ubaadah Al Ansari, who belonged to the clan of Salim ibn Awf, addressed them and said: "You Khazraj! Do you know what your pledge to this man really means?" They answered 'Yes, we do'. His rejoinder was, 'You are pledging to fight the rest of mankind, white and black alike! So it would be better to leave him alone now if you think you would give him up to his enemies in the event of your sustaining material losses or losing your leaders. If you do such a thing you will bring upon yourselves great humiliation both in this life and in the life hereafter. But if you feel that you will honour your pledges despite any sacrifice in money or men, then go ahead, because this will be best for you here and in the hereafter!' They said, 'We offer our loyalty and support and declare our readiness to sustain any sacrifice, material or personal!' Turning to the Prophet, they asked him, 'What will be our reward if we honour our pledges?' He said, 'Heaven'. They said, 'Give us your hand'. He did and they gave him their pledges of support.

 

These supporters, like the Makkan tyrants, were keenly aware of the nature of Islam. They realised that it stands for absolute justice and fairness in the social order it seeks to create. It accepts no tyranny, oppression, conceit, injustice or exploitation. Hence it faces the combined forces of all forms of despotism, arrogance and exploitation.

Do such men not think that they will be raised to life on a great day, the day when all mankind shall stand before the Lord of all creation?

Their attitude is singularly strange. The mere idea of being raised to life again on that great day, when all mankind shall stand as ordinary individuals in front of the Lord of the Universe, awaiting His just judgement, without support from any quarter, should be enough to make them change course. But they persist, as if the thought of being raised to life after death has never crossed their minds.

They are called "stinters" in the first part of the surah; in the second they are described as "transgressors". The surah proceeds to describe the standing of this group with Allah, their situation in this life, and what awaits them on the great day.

 

 

Wassalam

Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 16 April 2007 at 4:21am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter 83, Ayah 7-17)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 

             [كَلاَّ إِنَّ كِتَـبَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِى سِجِّينٍ - وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ - كِتَـبٌ مَّرْقُومٌ وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ وَمَا يُكَذِّبُ بِهِ إِلاَّ كُلُّ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـتُنَا قَالَ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ كَلاَّ إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُمْ لَصَالُواْ الْجَحِيمِ ثُمَّ يُقَالُ هَـذَا الَّذِى كُنتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ ]

(7. Nay! Truly, the Record of the wicked is in Sijjin.) (8. And what will make you know what Sijjin is) (9. A Register inscribed.) (10. Woe, that Day, to those who deny.) (11. Those who deny the Day of Recompense.) (12. And none can deny it except every transgressor beyond bounds, the sinner!) (13. When Our Ayat are recited to him, he says: "Tales of the ancients!'') (14. Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.) (15. Nay! Surely, they will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day.) (16. Then verily, they will indeed enter the burning flame of Hell.) (17. Then, it will be said to them: "This is what you used to deny!'')

 The Record of the Wicked and some of what happens to Them

Allah says truly,

[إِنَّ كِتَـبَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِى سِجِّينٍ]

(Nay! Truly, the Record of the wicked is in Sijjin.)

meaning, that their final destination and their abode will be in Sijjin, which is derived from the word prison (Sijn), and here it means straitened circumstances. Thus, Allah expresses the greatness of this matter, saying;

[وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ ]

(And what will make you know what Sijjin is)

meaning, it is a great matter, an eternal prison, and a painful torment. Some have said that it is beneath the seventh earth. It has been mentioned previously in the lengthy Hadith of Al-Bara' bin `Azib that the Prophet said,

«يَقُول اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي رُوحِ الْكَافِ 85;ِ اكْتُبُو 75; كِتَابَه 15; فِي سِجِّينٍ. وَسِجِّي 06;ٌ هِيَ تَحْتُ الْأَرْض 16; السَّابِ 93;َة»

(Allah says concerning the soul of the disbeliever, `Record his book in Sijjin.' And Sijjin is beneath the seventh earth.)''[1][9]

it is known that the destination of the wicked people will be Hell, and it is the lowest of the low. For Allah says,

[ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَـهُ أَسْفَلَ سَـفِلِينَ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ]

(Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low. Save those who believe and do righteous deeds.) (95:5-6)

Here Allah says,

[كَلاَّ إِنَّ كِتَـبَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِى سِجِّينٍ - وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ ]

(Nay! Truly, the Record of the wicked is in Sijjin. And what will make you know what Sijjin is)

and it is full of hardship and misery. Allah says,

[وَإَذَآ أُلْقُواْ مِنْهَا مَكَاناً ضَيِّقاً مُّقَرَّنِينَ دَعَوْاْ هُنَالِكَ ثُبُوراً ]

(And when they shall be thrown into a narrow place thereof, chained together, they will exclaim therein for destruction.) (25:13)

Then Allah says,

[كِتَـبٌ مَّرْقُومٌ ]

(A Register inscribed.) This is not an explanation of His statement,

[وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ ]

(And what will make you know what Sijjin is)

It is only an explanation of the destination that will be recorded for them, which is Sijjin. Meaning, it is inscribed, written, and completed. No one can add to it and no one can remove anything from it. This was said by Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi.[2][10] Then Allah said,

[وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ ]

(Woe, that Day, to those who deny.)

meaning, when they come to the imprisonment, Allah threatened them with, on the Day of Judgement, and the disgraceful torment. The statement, "Woe,'' has already been discussed previously and there is no need to repeat it here. Basically, it means destruction and devastation. This is like what is said, "Woe to so-and-so.'' This is similar to what has been recorded in the Musnad and the Sunan collections on the authority of Bahz bin Hakim bin Mu`awiyah bin Haydah, who reported from his father, who reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said,

«وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِي يُحَدِّث 15; فَيَكْذِ 76;ُ لِيُضْحِ 03;َ النَّاسَ 48; وَيْلٌ لَهُ وَيْلٌ لَه»

(Woe unto whoever speaks, and lies in order to make the people laugh. Woe unto him, woe unto him.)[3][11]

Then Allah says, in explaining who are the wicked, disbelieving deniers,

[الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ ]

(Those who deny the Day of Recompense.)

meaning, they do not believe it will happen, and they do not believe in its existence. Thus, they consider it a matter that is farfetched. Allah then says,

[وَمَا يُكَذِّبُ بِهِ إِلاَّ كُلُّ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ ]

(And none can deny it except every transgressor, sinner.)

meaning, transgressive in his actions by doing that which is forbidden and exceeding the limits when acquiring the permissible. He is a sinner in his statements, because he lies whenever he speaks, he breaks his promises whenever he makes them, and he behaves in an abusive and wicked manner whenever he argues. Concerning Allah's statement,

[إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـتُنَا قَالَ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ ]

(When Our Ayat are recited to him, he says: "Tales of the ancients!'')

meaning, whenever he hears the Words of Allah from the Messenger , he denies it and has ill thoughts about it. Thus, he believes that it is a collection gathered from the books of the ancients. This is as Allah says,

[وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ مَّاذَآ أَنزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ قَالُواْ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ ]

(And when it is said to them: "What is it that your Lord has sent down'' They say: "Tales of the men of old!'') (16:24)

Similarly Allah says,

[وَقَالُواْ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِىَ تُمْلَى عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً ]

(And they say: "Tales of the ancients, which he has written down: and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.'') (25:5)

Then Allah continues saying,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]

(Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.)

meaning, the matter is not as they claim, nor as they say: "Verily, this Qur'an is tales of the ancients.'' Rather, it is the Word of Allah, His inspiration and His revelation to His Messenger . The only thing that blocked their hearts from believing in it is the dark covering cast over it from the many sins and wrong they committed that has covered up their hearts. Thus, Allah says,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]

(Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.)

This dark covering known as Rayn overcomes the hearts of the disbelievers, the covering of Ghaym is for the righteous, and the covering of Ghayn is for those who are near to Allah.

Ibn Jarir, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nisa'i, and Ibn Majah all recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ الْعَبْد 14; إِذَا أَذْنَبَ ذَنْبًا كَانَتْ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاء 15; فِي قَلْبِهِ 48; فَإِنْ تَابَ مِنْهَا صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ 48; قوَإِنْ زَادَ زَادَتْ، فَذلِكَ قَوْلُ اللهِ تَعَالَى:

[كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]»

(Verily, when the servant commits a sin, a black spot appears in his heart. If he repents from it, his heart is polished clean. However, if he increases (in the sin), the spot will continue to increase. That is the statement of Allah: ((Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.))[4][12]

At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' The wording of An-Nasa'i says,

«إِنَّ الْعَبْد 14; إِذَا أَخْطَأَ خَطِيئَة 11; نُكِتَ فِي قَلْبِهِ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاء 15; ، فَإِنْ هُوَ نَزَعَ وَاسْتَغ 18;فَرَ وَتَابَ صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ ، فَإِنْ عَادَ زِيدَ فِيهَا حَتَّى تَعْلُو قَلْبَهُ فَهُوَ الرَّانُ الَّذِي قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: [كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]»

(Whenever the servant commits a wrong, a black spot is put in his heart. So, if he refrains from it, seeks forgiveness and repents, his heart is polished clean. But if he returns to the sin, the spot will increase until it overcomes his (entire) heart, and this is the Ran that Allah mentions when He says: (Nay, but on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.))

Concerning Allah's statement,

[كَلاَّ إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ ]

(Nay! Surely, they will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day.)

meaning, they will have a place on the Day of Judgement, and lodging in Sijjin. Along with this they will be veiled from seeing their Lord and Creator on the Day of Judgement. Imam Abu `Abdullah Ash-Shafi`i said, "In this Ayah is a proof that the believers will see Him (Allah), the Mighty and Sublime, on that Day.''

Concerning Allah's statement,

[ثُمَّ إِنَّهُمْ لَصَالُواْ الْجَحِيمِ ]

(Then verily, they will indeed enter the burning flame of Hell.)

meaning, along with this being prevented from seeing the Most Gracious, they will also be among the people of the Fire.

[ثُمَّ يُقَالُ هَـذَا الَّذِى كُنتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ ]

(Then, it will be said to them: "This is what you used to deny!'') (83:17)

meaning, this will be said to them by way of scolding, rebuking, belittling, and humi- liation.

 

 

 

Tafheem-ul-Quran

 

(83:7) Indeed not! *4 Surely the records of the wicked are in the Prison Register *5

*4 That is, "These people are wrong in thinking that they will be let off without being called to account when they have committed such and such crimes in the world. "
*5 The word sijjin in the original is derived from sijn (a prison) and the explanation of it that follows shows that it implies the general Register in which the actions and deeds of the people worthy of punishment are being recorded.

 

(83:8) and what do you know what the Prison Register is? (83:9) It is a written book. (83:10) Woe on that Day to the beliers who belie (83:11) the Day of Recompense, (83:12) and none belies it but every sinful transgressor. (83:13) When Our Revelations are recited to him, *6 he says: "These are tales of the ancient times."

*6 "Our Revelations": those verses in which news of the Day of Recompense has been given.

(83:14) By no means! But the fact is that their evil deeds have stained their hearts. *7

*7 That is, they have no good reason for regarding the meting out of rewards and punishments as unreal. What has made them say this, is that their hearts have become rusty because of their sins; therefore, a thing which is thoroughly reasonable appears unreal and unreasonable to them. The explanation of this rust as given by the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) is as follows: "When a servant commits a sin, it marks a black stain on his heart. If he offers repentance, the stain is washed off, but if he persists in wrongdoing. It spreads over the whole heart." (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Jarir, Hakim, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Hibban and others).

 

(83:15) By no means! Surely on that Day they shall be debarred from their Lord's vision *8

*8 That is, these people will remain deprived of the vision of Allah with which the righteous will be blessed. Which is mentioned in (75:23) looking towards their Lord, *17

*17 Some commentators have understood this allegorically. They say that the words "looking towards someone" are used idiomatically for having expectations from some one, awaiting his decision and hoping for his mercy and kindness: so much so that even a blind person also says that he is looking towards some one in the hope to see how he helps him. But in a large number of the Ahadith the commentary that has been reported of it from the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) is that on the Hereafter the illustrious servants of AIlah will be blessed with the vision of their Lord. According to a tradition in Bukhari: "You will openly see your Lord." Muslim and Tirmidhi have related on the authority of Hadrat Suhaib that the Holy Prophet said: "When the righteous people enter Paradise. Allah will ask them: Do you want that I should bless you with something more? They will answer: Have you not made our faces bright: Have You not admitted us into Paradise and saved us from Hell? Thereupon, Allah will remove the curtain and none of the blessings that they had been blessed with until then will be dearer to them than that they should be blessed with the vision of their Lord" And this very reward is the additional reward about which the Qur'an says: "Those who have done excellent works, will get excellent rewards, and even something in addition to that." (Yunus: 26) Bukhari and Muslim have related, on the authority of Hadrat Abu Sa'id Khudri and Hadrat Abu Hurairah: "The people asked: O Messenger of Allah, shall we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection? The Holy Messenger replied: Do you find any difficulty in seeing the sun and the moon when there is no cloud in between? They said that they did not. The Holy Messenger said: Likewise, you will see you Lord." Another tradition bearing almost on the same subject has been reported in Bukhari and Muslim from Hadrat Jarir bin `Abdullah. Imam Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Daraqutni, lbn Jarir, Ibn AIMundhir. Tabarani, BaihaqI. Ibn Abi Shaibah and some other traditionists have related, with a little variation in wordings a tradition from Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Umar, saying: "The man of the lowest rank among the dwellers of Paradise will see the vastness of his kingdom up to a distance covered in two thousand years, and the people of the highest rank among them will see their Lord twice daily. Then, the Holy Prophet recited this verse: `On that Day some faces shall be fresh, looking towards their Lord'." A tradition in Ibn Majah from Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah is to the effect: "AIIah will look towards them, and they will look towards Allah. Then, until Allah hides Himself from them, they will not pay attention to any other blessing of Paradise, and will continue to look towards Him." On the basis of this and many other traditions, the followers of the Sunnah almost unanimously understand this verse in the meaning that in the Hereafter the Dwellers of Paradise will be blessed with the vision of Allah, and this is supported by this verse of the Qur'an too: "Nay, surely on that Day they (the sinners) shall be kept away from their Lord's vision." (AI-Mutaffifin: 15). From this one can automatically conclude that this deprivation will be the lot of the sinners. not of the righteous.
Here, the question arises how can man ever see God? A thing is seen when it is there in a particular direction, place. form and colour, and the rays of light are reflected from it to the eye of man and its image is conveyed from the eye to the sight area in the brain. Is it ever conceivable with regard to the Being of Allah, Lord of the Universe, that man would be able to see Him in this way? But this question, in fact, springs from a grave misunderstanding. It does not take into account the distinction between two things: the essence of seeing and the specific form of the occurrence of the act of seeing with which we are familiar in the world. The essence of seeing is that the seer should be characterised by the power of sight: he should not be blind, and the thing to be seen should be manifest to him, not hidden from him. But in the world what we experience and observe is only the specific form of seeing in which a man or an animal practically sees something, and for this it is necessary that the seer should have an organ called the eye in his body, the eye should have the power of sight, it should have a physically bounded, coloured object before it, which should reflect rays of light to the eye, and the eye should be able to receive its image. Now, if a person thinks that the practical demonstration of the essence of seeing can take place only in the form with which we are familiar in the world, he would be only showing the narrowness of his own mental outlook; otherwise there can be in the Kingdom of God countless ways of seeing, which we cannot even imagine. The one who disputes this should tell us whether his God is seeing or blind. If He is seeing and sees His whole Universe and everything in it, does He see all this with an organ called the eye with which men and animals see things in the world, and does the act of seeing issue forth from Him as it issues forth from us? Obviously, the answer to this is in the negative, and when it is so, why should a sensible man find it difficult to understand that in the Hereafter the dwellers of Paradise will not see Allah in the specific form in which man sees something in the world, but there nature of seeing will be different, which we cannot comprehend here. The fact is that it is even more difficult for us to understand the nature of the Hereafter precisely and accurately than it is for a two-year-old child to understand what matrimonial life is, whereas he himself will experience it when he grows up.

 

(83:16) Then they shall enter Hell. (83:17) Then it will be said to them, "This is the very thing you used to belie."

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

No indeed; the record of the transgressors is in Sijjeen Would that you knew what Sijjeen is! It is a sealed book. Woe on that day to the disbelievers who deny the Day of Judgement. None denies it but the guilty aggressors, the evil-doers, who, when Our revelations are recited to them, cry "Fables of the ancients!" No indeed; their own deeds have cast a layer of rust over their hearts. No indeed; on that day they shall be shut out from their Lord they shall roast in Hell, and a voice will say to them "This is (the reality) which you denied!"

 

They think they will not be raised to life after death, so the Qur'an rebukes them and affirms that a record of their actions is kept. The location of that record is specified as an additional confirmation of the fact, albeit a location unknown to man. They are threatened with woe and ruin on that day when their sealed book shall be reviewed: No indeed; the record of the transgressors is in Sijjeen. Would that you knew what Sijjeen is! It is a sealed book. Woe on that day to the disbelievers.

The transgressors, as the Arabic term here connotes, are those who indulge excessively in sin. Their book is the record of their deeds. We do not know the nature of this book and we are not required to know. The whole matter belongs, in point of fact, to the realm of which we know nothing except what we are told by Allah, the Lord of that realm. This statement, that there is a record in Sijjeen of the transgressors' deeds, is followed by the familiar Qur'anic form of expression associated with connotation of greatness, "Would that you knew what Sijjeen is!" Thus, the addressee is made to feel that the whole matter is too great for his complete understanding.

The surah then gives further description of the transgressors' record: "It is a sealed book". There is no possibility of addition or omission until it is thrown open on that great day. When this takes place, "woe on that day to the disbelievers. " Then we are given information about the subject of disbelief, and the true character of the disbelievers who deny the Day of Judgement. None denies it but the guilty aggressors, the evil-doers, who, when Our revelations are recited to them, cry: 'Fables of the ancients!'

So, aggression and bad deeds lead the perpetrator to deny the Day of Judgement and to take a rude and ill-mannered attitude towards the Qur'an, describing it as "Fables of the ancients!" This description by the disbelievers is, of course, based on the fact that the Qur'an contains some historical accounts of former nations. These accounts are related as a lesson for later generations as they demonstrate with much clarity the working of the Divine rules to which all nations and generations are subject. They are strongly rebuked and reprobated for their rudeness and disbelief. These connotations, carried by the Arabic term "Kalla" (translated here as "No indeed"), are coupled with an assertion that their allegations are unfounded. We are then given an insight into the motives of their insolence and disbelief and the reasons for their inability to see the obvious truth or respond to it "their own deeds have cast a layer of rust over their hearts". Indeed the hearts of those who indulge in sin become dull, as if they are veiled with a thick curtain which keeps them in total darkness, unable to see the light. Thus they gradually lose their sensitivity and become lifeless. It has been transmitted by Ibn Jareer, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nassai and Ibn Majah that the Prophet said:

When a man commits a sin, it throws a black spot over his heart. If he repents, his heart is polished; but if he persists in his practice, the stains increase.

at-Tirmidhi described this tradition of the Prophet as authentic. an Nassai's version differs in wording but not in import. His version may be translated as follows:

When a man commits a sin, a black spot is formed on his heart. If he desists, prays for forgiveness and repents, his heart will be polished; but if he persists, the spot grows bigger until it has covered his whole heart.

This is what Allah refers to when he says: "No indeed, their own deeds have cast a layer of rust over their hearts." Explaining this verse, Imam Al-Hassan Al-Basri said: "It is a case of one sin on top of another until the heart is blinded and dies."

Thus we have learnt the situation of the transgressing disbelievers, as well as their motives for transgression and disbelief. Then we are told what will happen to them on that great day, a destiny which befits their evil deeds and denial of the truth: No indeed! on that day they shall be shut out from their Lord. They shall roast in Hell, and a voice will say to them: 'This is (the reality) which you denied!

Because their sins have cast a thick veil over their hearts, they are unable in this life to feel the presence of Allah, and it is only appropriate that they will not be allowed to see His glorious face. They will be deprived of this great happiness, which is bestowed only on those whose hearts and souls are so clean and transparent that they deserve to be with their Lord, without any form of separation or isolation.

Such people are described in surah 75 'The Resurrection': On that day there shall be joyous faces, looking towards their Lord. (Al-Qur'an 75:23)

This separation from their Lord is the greatest and most agonising punishment and deprivation. It is a miserable end of a man whose very humanity is derived from only one source, namely his contact with Allah, his benevolent Lord. When man is torn away from this source of nobleness he loses all his qualities as a human being and sinks to a level which makes him deserve to be thrown in Hell. "They shall roast in Hell." On top of that, there is something much worse and much more agonising, namely, rebuke. "And a voice will say to them," This is (the reality) which you denied!"

 

 

 

Wassalam



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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Quote fatima Replybullet Posted: 13 May 2007 at 4:24am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin

(Chapter 83, Ayah 18-28)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

 

[ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

             [ - ]

(18. Nay! Verily, the Record of Al-Abrar (the righteous believers) is (preserved) in `Illiyyin.) (19. And what will make you know what `Illiyyin is) (20. A Register inscribed,) (21. To which bear witness those nearest.) (22. Verily, Al-Abrar (the righteous believers) will be in Delight.) (23. On thrones, looking.) (24. You will recognize in their faces the brightness of delight). (25. They will be given to drink of pure sealed Rahiq.) (26. Sealed with musk, and for this let those strive who want to strive.) (27. It will be mixed with Tasnim:) (28. A spring whereof drink those nearest to Allah.)

The Record Book of the Righteous and Their Reward

Allah says that truly,

[ ]

(Verily, the Record of Al-Abrar (the righteous believers)) These people are in a situation that is the opposite of the wicked people.

[ ]

(is in `Illiyyin.) meaning, their final destination is `Illiyyin, which is the opposite of Sijjin. It has been reported from Hilal bin Yasaf that Ibn `Abbas asked Ka`b about Sijjin while he was present, and Ka`b said, "It is the seventh earth and in it are the souls of the disbelievers.'' Then Ibn `Abbas asked him about `Illiyyin, so he said, "It is the seventh heaven and it contains the souls of the believers.'' This statement -- that it is the seventh heaven -- has been said by others as well. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Nay! Verily, the Record of Al-Abrar (the righteous believers) is in `Illiyyin.) "This means Paradise.'' Others besides him have said, "`Iliyyin is located at Sidrat Al-Muntaha.'' The obvious meaning is that the word `Illiyyin is taken from the word `Uluw, which means highness. The more something ascends and rises, the more it becomes greater and increases. Thus, Allah magnifies its affair and extols its matter by saying,

[ ]

(And what will make you know what `Illiyyin is) Then He says by way of affirming what will be written for them,

[ ]

(A Register inscribed. To which bear witness those nearest.) They are the angels. This was stated by Qatadah. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Those nearest to Allah in each heaven will witness it.'' Then Allah says,

[ ]

(Verily, Al-Abrar (the righteuos believers) will be in Delight.) meaning, on the Day of Judgement they will be in eternal pleasure and gardens that contain comprehensive bounties.

[ ]

(On thrones,) These are thrones beneath canopies from which they will be gazing. It has been said, "This means that they will be gazing at their kingdom and what Allah has given them of good and bounties that will not end or perish. It has also been said,

[ ]

(On thrones, looking.) "This means that they will be looking at Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.'' This is the opposite of what those wicked people have been described with,

[ ]

(Nay! Surely, they (evildoers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day.) (83:15) Thus, it has been mentioned that these (righteous people) will be allowed to look at Allah while they are upon their thrones and elevated couches. Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(You will recognize in their faces the brightness of delight.) meaning, `you will notice a glow of delight in their faces when you look at them.' This is a description of opulence, decorum, happiness, composure, and authority that they will be experiencing from this great delight. Concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(They will be given to drink of pure sealed Rahiq.) meaning, they will be given drink from the wine of Paradise. Ar-Rahiq is one of the names of the wine (in Paradise). Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd all said this. Ibn Mas`ud said concerning Allah's statement,

[ ]

(Sealed with musk,) "This means it will be mixed with musk.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Allah will make the wine have a pleasant aroma for them, so the last thing that He will place in it will be musk. Thus, it will be sealed with musk.'' Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak both said the same. Then Allah says,

[ ]

(and for this let (all) those strive who want to strive.) meaning, for a situation like this, let the boasters boast, compete, and strive to gain more. Let the competitors compete and race toward the likes of this. This is similar to Allah's statement,

[ ]

(For the like of this let the workers work.) (37:61) Allah then says,

[ ]

(It will be mixed with Tasnim.) meaning, this wine that is being described is mixed with Tasnim. This refers to a drink called Tasnim, and it is the most excellent and exalted drink of the people of Paradise. This was said by Abu Salih and Ad-Dahhak. Thus, Allah says,

[ ]

(A spring whereof drink those nearest to Allah.) (83:28) meaning, those who are near to Allah, will drink from it as they wish, and the companions of the right hand will be given a drink that is mixed with it. This has been said by Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Qatadah and others.

Tafheem-ul-Quran

(83:18) Indeed not! *9 Surely the record of the righteous is in the Register of the exalted ones.

*9 That is, they are wrong in thinking that there is going to be no meting out of rewards and punishments.

(83:19) And what do you know what is the Register of the ,exalted ones. (83:20) It is a written book, (83:21) guarded by the angels nearest to Allah. (83:22) Surely the righteous shall be in bliss; (83:23) seated on high couches they shall be looking around. (83:24) In their faces you shall mark the glow of bliss. (83:25) They shall be given to drink the choicest, sealed wine whose seal shall be musk. *10

*10 One meaning of the words khltamu-hu misk is that the vessels containing the wine will carry the seal of musk instead of clay or wax. Accordingly the verse means: This will be the choicest kind of wine, which will be superior to the wine flowing in the canals, and it will be served by the attendants of Paradise in vessels sealed with musk to the dwellers of Paradise. Another meaning also can be: When that wine will pass down the throat, its final effect will be of the flavour of musk. This state is contrary to the wines of the world which give out an offensive smell as soon as the bottle opens and one feels its horrid smell even while drinking and also when it passes down the throat.

(83:26) Those who wish to excel others, let them endeavour to excel in this. (83:27) That wine shall have the mixture of Tasnim; *11

*11 "Tasnim ".: height. Thus, Tasnim will be a fountain flowing down from a height.

(83:28) this is a fountain with the waters of which those nearest to Allah shall drink wine.

 

 

 

Fi Zilal al Quran

 

But the record of the righteous is in Illiyun. Would that you knew what Illiyun is! It is a sealed book, witnessed only by those who are closest to Allah. The righteous shall surely dwell in bliss. Reclining upon soft couches they will look around them In their faces you shall mark the glow of joy. They shall be given to drink of a pure-drink, securely seded, with a seal of musk, for this let the strivers emulously strive. It is a drink mixed with the waters of Tassneem a fountain at which the favoured will drink.

 

This section of the surah starts with the Arabic term 'kalla' which connotes strong reproach and a firm command to the transgressors to desist from their denial of the truth. It then proceeds to speak about the righteous. Since the record of the transgressors is in Sijjeen, that of the righteous is in Illiyun. The term "righteous" refers to the obedient who do good. They are the exact opposite of the transgressors, who indulge in every excess. The name "Illiyun" connotes elevation and sublimity, which suggests that "Sijjeen " is associated with baseness and ignominy. The name is followed by the form of exclamation often used in the Qur'an to cast shades of mystery and grandeur: "Would that you knew what Illiyun is!"

The surah then states that the record of the righteous is "a sealed book, witnessed only by those who are closest to Allah." We have already stated what is meant by "a sealed book". We are told here that the angels closest to Allah do see this book and witness it. This statement gives the feeling that the record of the righteous is associated with nobility, purity and sublimity. The angels closest to Allah look at it and enjoy its description of noble deeds and glorious characteristics. The whole image is provided as an evidence of the honour the righteous receive.

There follows an account of the situation in which the righteous find themselves. We are told of the bliss they enjoy on that great day: "The righteous shall surely dwell in bliss". This contrasts with Hell, in which the transgressors dwell. "Reclining upon soft couches they will look around them". This means that they are given a place of honour. They look wherever they wish. They do not have to look down, out of humility; and they suffer nothing which distracts their attention. In their bliss, the righteous live in mental and physical comfort. Their faces are radiant with unmistakable joy;

In their faces you shall mark the glow of joy. They shall be given to drink of a pure drink, securely sealed, with a seal of musk.

Their drink is absolutely pure without any unwanted additions or particles of dust. Describing it as "securely sealed" with musk indicates, perhaps, that it is ready made in secured containers to be opened when a drink is needed. All this adds to the impression of the meticulous care being taken. The fact that the seal is of musk adds an element of elegance and luxury. The whole picture, however, is understood only within the limits of human experience in this world. In the Hereafter people will have different concepts, tastes and standards which will be free from all the bonds of this limited world. The description is carried further in the following two verses:

It is a drink mixed with the waters of Tassneem, a fountain at which the favoured will drink.

So, this pure, securely sealed drink is opened and mixed with a measure of the water of a fountain called Tassneem and described as the one from which the favoured drink. Before this last part of the description is given we have a highly significant instruction: "For this let the strivers emulously strive".

Those stinters who defraud their fellow men pay no regard to the Day of Judgement, and, worse still, deny that such a Day of Reckoning will come. Hardened by their sins and excesses, they strive endlessly for the petty riches of this world. Each of them tries to outdo the others and gain as much as possible. Hence, he indulges in all types of injustice and vice for the sake of ephemeral luxuries which should never be an object of competition. It is the other type of luxury and honour which deserves emulous striving: "For this let the strivers emulously strive ".

Those who strive for an object of this world, no matter how superb, grand or honourable it is, are in reality striving for something hollow, cheap and temporary. This world, in its totality, is not worth in Allah's view, one mosquito's wing. It is the hereafter which carries real weight with Him. So, it should be the goal for strenuous competition and zealous striving. It is remarkable that striving for the hereafter elevates the souls of all the strivers, while competition for worldly objects sinks their souls to low depths. As man works continuously to achieve the happiness of the hereafter, his work makes this world a happy and pure one for everybody. On the other hand, efforts made for the achievement of worldly ends turn this world into a filthy marsh, where animals devour one another and insects bite the flesh of the righteous. Striving for the hereafter does not turn the earth into a barren desert, as some transgressors imagine. Islam considers this world a farm, and the hereafter its fruits. It defines the role of the true believer as the building of this world while following the path of piety and righteousness. Islam stipulates that man must look on his task as an act of worship which fulfills the purpose of his existence as defined by Allah: "I created mankind and the jinn so that they worship me."

The statement, "For this let the strivers emulously strive", inspires man to look far beyond this finite, little world, as he sets out to fulfill his mission as Allah's vicegerent on earth. Thus as they work on purifying the filthy marsh of this world their souls are elevated to new heights.

Man's life on earth is limited while his future life is of limitless duration. The luxuries of this world are also limited while the happiness of Paradise is much too great for us to conceive. The elements of happiness in this life are well known to everyone, but in the next world they are on a level befitting a life which is everlasting.

What comparison can then hold between the two spheres of competition or the two goals, even when we apply the human method of balancing losses against profits? It is, indeed, one race and a single competition: "For this let the strivers emulously strive".

The beatitude enjoyed by the righteous is discussed at length in order to give a detailed account of the hardships, humiliation and insolence they are made to suffer by the transgressors. The final comment of the surah taunts the disbelievers as they behold the righteous enjoying their heavenly bliss

 

Wassalam



Edited by fatima
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
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