Another rational argument the Qur'an uses to convince disbelievers of the truth of the resurrection is the comparison between the greater act of creation and the lesser act of resurrection:
Perhaps when the unbelievers say it is not possible to turn dust into a new creation, what they really think is that it is not possible for human power like their own; but, after all, they have not created themselves or the heavens and the earth (52:35-6). A greater power than their own has created them once and can do so again, and has also created what is greater than them. As the Qur' an argues with the unbelievers, sometimes it even omits the name of the Creator, in order to focus their minds more clearly on the argument itself, saying simply, 'He who did it first', 'who created the Heavens', etc. When the Prophet recites Qur'anic verses that confirm the resurrection in the afterlife, the unbelievers of his time challenge him personally:
Bring back to us our fathers-if what you say be true!
The Qur'an directs the Prophet:
Say: 'It is God who gives you life, then makes you die, then He shall gather you to the Resurrection.
In discussing the resurrection, moreover, the Qur'an cites phenomena very familiar to human beings to show the power that takes creation through different stages, particularly in the life of people and plants.
People, if you doubt the resurrection, remember that We first created you from dust, then from a living germ, then from a tiny clinging thing, and then from a half-formed lump of flesh, so that We might manifest to you Our power. We cause whatever We please to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, and then We bring you forth as infants- that you may grow up and reach your
prime. Some are caused to die young and some are caused to live on to abject old age when all that they once knew they know no more.
You sometimes see the earth dry and barren: but no sooner do We send down rain upon it than it begins to stir and swell, -putting forth every kind of radiant bloom. That is because God is Truth: He resurrects the dead and has power our all things.
Indeed the Qur'an uses the very same Arabic verb for bringing forth' people from their mothers' wombs (16:78) 'bringing forth' plants from the earth (6:99) and 'bringing forth' people from the earth at the resurrection (30:19).
Not only does the Qur'an present proof of the resurrection, but it turns the argument against those who deny it, pointing out that they themselves have no proof for their own position:
They say: 'There is nothing but out present life; we live and die, nothing but time destroys us.' Of this they have no
knowledge; they merely conjecture.
At the resurrection they will know that what they said was wrong and will regret it. 16:39, 6:31
There is much description in the Qur'an of rewards and punishment. As human beings have bodies, minds and spirits, all of which are gifts from God and as, out of His grace He provided mankind with the means of gratifying all these components in this life, so in the afterlife He will provide means of gratifying them all to 'those who believed and did good works' (7:32). Bodies, as we have noted, will be 'a new creation' and in paradise will not suffer the shortcomings of worldly bodies. 'No mortal knows what comfort is in store for them as a reward for their labors' (32:17). 'No evil shall visit them' - the Arabic word su' includes whatever is undesirable (39: 16; 40:7). There is no tedium there, such as skeptics now invoke as an argument against eternal existence. 'They will live in the land of perfect peace' (6:127). The honor God will confer on them will be their highest reward.- An opposite picture is given of
punishment-the essence of which is humiliation.
As already pointed out, the Qur'an does not treat the afterlife as something theoretical or in a separate chapter at the end of the book. It is embedded in the text throughout and its effect on the reader is enhanced by the vivid and powerful language of the Arabic text. After a short conjunction like 'when' to indicate the afterlife, it commonly employs the past and present tense as if it had happened and was already here.Ó
There is an obvious interdependence between this life and the afterlife. We have seen how the terms occur with equal frequency in the Qur'an and how linguistically one cannot utter the name of one without semantic reference to the other. Everything in the
judgment has to do with action in the world. Dwellers in paradise or hell sometimes talk about what they did in this world (52:28; 40:47).
The Afterlife and the Present Life
In the Qur'an, life in this world, through its relation to the afterlife, has much more significance than it would otherwise have. A whole new dimension is given to the lives of those who believe that they will live beyond the grave, and will not be terminated in dust. They are continually reminded of this (at least seventeen times a day, as we have said, for practicing Muslims). The life of the individual continues in the two worlds, but through different stages: from the womb to the world, to the grave, to the
resurrection, judgment and lasting life in the final abode - the intervening period in the grave will seem 'a mere part of a day' (23:113).
The Qur'an does not disparage the present life; both lives are created by God and
To God belong the last life and the first life. 53:25
He created for you all that the earth contains. 2:29
Eat of what your Lord has given you and render thanks to Him.
7:10; 50:7; 34:15; 7:32
In gathering wealth the faithful are 'seeking the bounty of God'. They are directed to do this after finishing the prayer in which they praise 'the Master of the Day of
judgment' (62: 10; 65:17; 73:20). In seeking to attain paradise- they should always bear in mind the Qur'anic exhortation: 'Do not neglect your share in this world' (28:77).
Prophet Muhammad said:
He whose day is no better than the day before it has done himself wrong.
He also said:
When a son of Adam dies his deeds cease, except through three things: a running charity that he founded, useful knowledge he left behind, or a righteous son who prays for him.
Of the judgment he said:
No person will leave the judgment place before being asked about four things:
his life span and how he spent it, his knowledge and what he did with it, his body and in which things he wore it out, and his wealth - from where he collected it and how he spent it.
God has ordained a law and a path for each of you. Had God wished it, He could have made you into one nation, but in order to by you in what has come to you, He has made you as you are. So vie with one another in good works, for to God you shall all return and He will declare to you what you have disagreed about.
Believers are taught in the Qur'an to pray:
Lord, give us good in this life and good in the afterlife.
The above article was excerpted from Understanding The Qur'an- Themes And
Style by Muhammad Abdel Haleem who is a professor of Islamic Studies and editor
of the Journal of Qur'anic Studies.
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