the first mosque of Islam, was originally built by the Prophet Mohammad
and his fellow emigrants from Makkah on their arrival in Madinah in 622.
That year marks the beginning of both the Muslim era and the Muslim
thirteen years in his birthplace of Makkah, the Prophet Muhammad
to the worship of the One True God, to do good and renounce all that was false.
But the powers with interests to protect remained implacably hostile and made
life intolerable for those who had submitted to the truth.
constant search for fertile soil to plant the message of truth, the noble
Prophet eventually migrated - not fled - northwards to Yathrib. The green oasis
became known as the Madinah or the City of the Prophet and was to become the
territorial base from which he won the hearts of multitudes and consolidated
Islam's place in the landscape of the peninsula.
leaders of Makkah and a large part of its citizenry remained stubbornly hostile
and sought - through wars, siege and alliances - to destabilise the fledgling
community. The Prophet, who desired security and peace for people, negotiated a
truce with the pagan Makkans on terms that many of his followers were deeply
unhappy about. This was in the fifth year after the hijrah or migration to
truce turned out to be beneficial to the whole peninsula but the Makkans
eventually broke it by mounting a bloody aggression against an ally of the state
of Medinah. The Prophet could not overlook this breach and in the eighth year
after the hijrah, he mobilised an impressive force and moved on Makkah. Ten
thousand converged on the city, reaching there in the month of Ramadan, the
month of fasting. The Quraysh realised that there was no hope of resisting, let
alone of defeating, the Muslim forces. What was to be their fate - they who had
harried and persecuted the believers, tortured and boycotted them, driven them
out of their hearths and homes, stirred up others against them, made war on
them, and killed many?
were now completely at the mercy of the Prophet.
was easy. He could have laid waste the city and wiped out its inhabitants. But
revenge was not his object. He did not lead his confident army into Makkah like
any tyrant, full of arrogance, forgetting the Almighty, the Cause of all causes,
and intoxicated with self-conceit.
from it. In the words of an early biographer, he entered with great humility and
gratitude, prostrating himself repeatedly on the back of the camel he was
riding, before the One God, thankful to Him for all He had provided, declaring
an all-embracing amnesty and peace, in place of any thought of avenging past
material or mental afflictions, and in fact demonstrating what God wills of
Godly men: "... enter the gate prostrating and say 'Amnesty'." (The
ordered Bilal, the Ethiopian, to go on the rooftop of the Ka'bah to call the adhan.
The noble Prophet led the congregational prayer and then addressed the assembled
citizens in the compound around the Ka'bah. He reminded them of what they had
done to him and the Muslims, and said, "The arrogance and racial pride of
the heathen days has been wiped out by God today. All human beings are descended
from Adam, and Adam was made of clay."
recited the following verse of the Quran:
human beings! We have indeed created you of a male and a female and made you
into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Surely the most
honorable of you with God is the one among you who is most deeply conscious of
Him. Surely, God is Knowing, Aware. (The Quran, 49:13)
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